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1.
BMJ ; 377: e068723, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) compared with conventional mechanical ventilation on outcomes of patients with covid-19 associated respiratory failure. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: 30 countries across five continents, 3 January 2020 to 29 August 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 7345 adults admitted to the intensive care unit with clinically suspected or laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERVENTIONS: ECMO in patients with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) ratio <80 mm Hg compared with conventional mechanical ventilation without ECMO. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The primary outcome was hospital mortality within 60 days of admission to the intensive care unit. Adherence adjusted estimates were calculated using marginal structural models with inverse probability weighting, accounting for competing events and for baseline and time varying confounding. RESULTS: 844 of 7345 eligible patients (11.5%) received ECMO at any time point during follow-up. Adherence adjusted mortality was 26.0% (95% confidence interval 24.5% to 27.5%) for a treatment strategy that included ECMO if the PaO2/FiO2 ratio decreased <80 mm Hg compared with 33.2% (31.8% to 34.6%) had patients received conventional treatment without ECMO (risk difference -7.1%, 95% confidence interval -8.2% to -6.1%; risk ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.82). In secondary analyses, ECMO was most effective in patients aged <65 years and with a PaO2/FiO2 <80 mm Hg or with driving pressures >15 cmH2O during the first 10 days of mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO was associated with a reduction in mortality in selected adults with covid-19 associated respiratory failure. Age, severity of hypoxaemia, and duration and intensity of mechanical ventilation were found to be modifiers of treatment effectiveness and should be considered when deciding to initiate ECMO in patients with covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Oxygen , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Neurosurg Anesthesiol ; 2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Noninvasive neuromonitoring could be a valuable option for bedside assessment of cerebral dysfunction in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). This systematic review aims to investigate the use of noninvasive multimodal neuromonitoring in critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were searched for studies investigating noninvasive neuromonitoring in patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICUs. The monitoring included transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD), the Brain4care Corp. cerebral compliance monitor (B4C), optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), near infrared spectroscopy, automated pupillometry, and electroencephalography (EEG). RESULTS: Thirty-two studies that investigated noninvasive neuromonitoring techniques in patients with COVID-19 in the ICU were identified from a systematic search of 7001 articles: 1 study investigating TCD, ONSD and pupillometry; 2 studies investigating the B4C device and TCD; 3 studies investigating near infrared spectroscopy and TCD; 4 studies investigating TCD; 1 case series investigating pupillometry, and 21 studies investigating EEG. One hundred and nineteen patients underwent TCD monitoring, 47 pupillometry, 49 ONSD assessment, 50 compliance monitoring with the B4C device, and 900 EEG monitoring. Alterations in cerebral hemodynamics, brain compliance, brain oxygenation, pupillary response, and brain electrophysiological activity were common in patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU; these abnormalities were not clearly associated with worse outcome or the development of new neurological complications. CONCLUSIONS: The use of noninvasive multimodal neuromonitoring in critically ill COVID-19 patients could be considered to facilitate the detection of neurological derangements. Determining whether such findings allow earlier detection of neurological complications or guide appropriate therapy requires additional studies.

3.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 141, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not fully elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate in COVID-19 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS the impact of early use of NMBAs on 90-day mortality, through propensity score (PS) matching analysis. METHODS: We analyzed a convenience sample of patients with COVID-19 and moderate-to-severe ARDS, admitted to 244 intensive care units within the COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium, from February 1, 2020, through October 31, 2021. Patients undergoing at least 2 days and up to 3 consecutive days of NMBAs (NMBA treatment), within 48 h from commencement of IMV were compared with subjects who did not receive NMBAs or only upon commencement of IMV (control). The primary objective in the PS-matched cohort was comparison between groups in 90-day in-hospital mortality, assessed through Cox proportional hazard modeling. Secondary objectives were comparisons in the numbers of ventilator-free days (VFD) between day 1 and day 28 and between day 1 and 90 through competing risk regression. RESULTS: Data from 1953 patients were included. After propensity score matching, 210 cases from each group were well matched. In the PS-matched cohort, mean (± SD) age was 60.3 ± 13.2 years and 296 (70.5%) were male and the most common comorbidities were hypertension (56.9%), obesity (41.1%), and diabetes (30.0%). The unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) for death at 90 days in the NMBA treatment vs control group was 1.12 (95% CI 0.79, 1.59, p = 0.534). After adjustment for smoking habit and critical therapeutic covariates, the HR was 1.07 (95% CI 0.72, 1.61, p = 0.729). At 28 days, VFD were 16 (IQR 0-25) and 25 (IQR 7-26) in the NMBA treatment and control groups, respectively (sub-hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.67, 1.00, p = 0.055). At 90 days, VFD were 77 (IQR 0-87) and 87 (IQR 0-88) (sub-hazard ratio 0.86 (95% CI 0.69, 1.07; p = 0.177). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 and moderate-to-severe ARDS, short course of NMBA treatment, applied early, did not significantly improve 90-day mortality and VFD. In the absence of definitive data from clinical trials, NMBAs should be indicated cautiously in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/therapeutic use , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
4.
Front Neurol ; 13: 814405, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834475

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Neurological complications are frequent in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). The use of non-invasive neuromonitoring in subjects without primary brain injury but with potential neurological derangement is gaining attention outside the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the use of non-invasive multimodal neuromonitoring of the brain in non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 outside the ICU and quantifies the prevalence of abnormal neuromonitoring findings in this population. Methods: A structured literature search was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and EMBASE to investigate the use of non-invasive neuromonitoring tools, including transcranial doppler (TCD); optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD); near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); pupillometry; and electroencephalography (EEG) inpatients with COVID-19 outside the ICU. The proportion of non-ICU patients with CVOID-19 and a particular neurological feature at neuromonitoring at the study time was defined as prevalence. Results: A total of 6,593 records were identified through literature searching. Twenty-one studies were finally selected, comprising 368 non-ICU patients, of whom 97 were considered for the prevalence of meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of electroencephalographic seizures, periodic and rhythmic patterns, slow background abnormalities, and abnormal background on EEG was.17 (95% CI 0.04-0.29), 0.42 (95% CI 0.01-0.82), 0.92 (95% CI 0.83-1.01), and.95 (95% CI 0.088-1.09), respectively. No studies investigating NIRS and ONSD outside the ICU were found. The pooled prevalence for abnormal neuromonitoring findings detected using the TCD and pupillometry were incomputable due to insufficient data. Conclusions: Neuromonitoring tools are non-invasive, less expensive, safe, and bedside available tools with a great potential for both diagnosis and monitoring of patients with COVID-19 at risk of brain derangements. However, extensive literature searching reveals that they are rarely used outside critical care settings.Systematic Review Registration: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?RecordID=265617, identifier: CRD42021265617.

5.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-332147

ABSTRACT

Background The neurological manifestations of COVID-19 have not been well characterized. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of neurological diagnoses among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU settings and ascertain differences between adults and children. Methods We analysed the International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infection Consortium (ISARIC) database, which collects data from 61 countries and 1507 sites. Analyses of neurological manifestations and neurological complications considered unadjusted prevalence estimates for predefined patient subgroups, and adjusted estimates as a function of patient age and time of hospitalisation using generalised linear models. Findings Overall, 161 239 patients (158 267 adults;2972 children) hospitalized with COVID-19 were included. In adults and children, the most frequent neurological manifestations at admission were fatigue (adults: 37·4%;children: 20·4%), altered consciousness (20·9%;6·8%), myalgia (16·9%;7·6%), dysgeusia (7·4%;1·9%), anosmia (6·0%;2·2%), and seizure (1·1%;5·2%). Among adults, rates were significantly higher in the ICU cohort than in the non-ICU cohort for myalgia (19·9% vs. 16·1%, p<0·001) and anosmia (6·3% vs. 5·9%, p=0·01) but lower in the ICU cohort for altered consciousness (10·8% vs. 24%, p<0·001) and seizure (0·8% vs. 1·2%, p<0·001). In children, rates were significantly higher in the ICU cohort than in the non-ICU cohort for fatigue (30·4% vs. 18·7%, p<0·001), myalgia (12·8% vs. 6·7%, p<0·001), and altered consciousness (12% vs. 5·7%, p<0·001). In adults, the most frequent in-hospital neurological complications were stroke (1·5%), seizure (1%), and central nervous system (CNS) infection (0·2%). Each occurred more frequently in ICU than in non-ICU patients. In children, seizure was the only neurological complication to occur more frequently in ICU than in non-ICU patients (7·1 vs. 2·3, p<0·001). Hypertension, chronic neurological disease, and the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were associated with increased risk of stroke. Altered consciousness was associated with CNS infection, seizure, and stroke. All neurological complications reported during hospitalisation were associated with increased odds of death. Interpretation Adults and children have different neurological manifestations and in-hospital complications associated with COVID-19. Hypertension and previous neurological disease are risk factors for in-hospital neurological complications, which are associated with an increased probability of death in both adults and children.

6.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 123, 2022 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 737 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. RESULTS: A total of 737 patients were included-538 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 199 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.94). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.2 days (95% CI 19.7-22.8 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9-7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1-18.6 days) and 6.4 days (5.1-7.9 days), respectively. When analysed separately, results for ACEi or ARB patient groups were similar for both death and discharge. CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay. Clinical trial registration The registration number: ACTRN12620000421932; The date of registration: 30, March 2020; The URL of the registration: https://www.australianclinicaltrials.gov.au/anzctr/trial/ACTRN12620000421932 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
7.
Crit Care Med ; 50(2): 275-285, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the impact of prone positioning during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for coronavirus disease 2019 acute respiratory failure on the patient outcome. DESIGN: An observational study of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. We used a multistate survival model to compare the outcomes of patients treated with or without prone positioning during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, which incorporates the dynamic nature of prone positioning and adjusts for potential confounders. SETTING: Seventy-two international institutions participating in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Critical Care Consortium international registry. PATIENTS: Coronavirus disease 2019 patients who were supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the study period. INTERVENTION: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: There were 232 coronavirus disease 2019 patients at 72 participating institutions who were supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the study period from February 16, 2020, to October 31, 2020. Proning was used in 176 patients (76%) before initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and in 67 patients (29%) during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Survival to hospital discharge was 33% in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prone group versus 22% in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenation supine group. Prone positioning during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was associated with reduced mortality (hazard ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.14-0.68). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that prone positioning during venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for refractory coronavirus disease 2019-related acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with reduced mortality. Given the observational nature of the study, a randomized controlled trial of prone positioning on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is needed to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Patient Positioning/methods , Prone Position , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Probability , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306446

ABSTRACT

Background: Risk factors associated with mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on mechanical ventilation are still not fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to identify patient-level factors, readily available at the bedside, associated with the risk of in-hospital mortality within 28 days from commencement of invasive mechanical ventilation (28-day IMV mortality) in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Prospective observational cohort study in 148 intensive care units in the global COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium . Patients with clinically suspected or laboratory confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from February 2 nd through December 29th, 2020, requiring IMV. No study-specific interventions were performed. Patient characteristics and clinical data were assessed upon ICU admission, the commencement of IMV and for 28 days thereafter. We primarily aimed to identify time-independent and time-dependent risk factors for 28-day IMV mortality. Results: : A total of 1713 patients were included in the survival analysis, 588 patients died in hospital within 28 days of commencing IMV (34.3%). Cox-regression analysis identified associations between the hazard of 28-day IMV mortality with age (HR 1.27 per 10-year increase in age, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.37, P<0.001), PEEP upon commencement of IMV (HR 0.78 per 5-cmH 2 O increase, 95% CI 0.66-0.93, P=0.005). Time-dependent parameters associated with 28-day IMV mortality were serum creatinine (HR 1.30 per doubling, 95% CI 1.19-1.42, P<0.001), lactate (HR 1.16 per doubling, 95% CI 1.06-1.27 P=0.001), PaCO 2 (HR 1.31 per doubling, 95% CI 1.05-1.64, P=0.015), pH (HR 0.82 per 0.1 increase, 95% CI 0.74-0.91, P<0.001), PaO 2 /FiO 2 (HR 0.56 per doubling, 95% CI 0.50-0.62, P<0.001) and mean arterial pressure (HR 0.92 per 10 mmHg increase, 95% CI 0.88-0.97, P=0.002). Conclusions: : This international study establishes that in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19, older age and clinically relevant variables monitored at the bedside are risk factors for 28-day IMV mortality. Further investigation is warranted to validate any causative roles these parameters might play in influencing clinical outcomes.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306445

ABSTRACT

Background: Heterogeneous respiratory system static compliance (C RS ) values and levels of hypoxemia in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation have been reported in previous small-case series or studies conducted at a national level. Methods We designed a retrospective observational cohort study with rapid data gathering from the international COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium study to comprehensively describe the impact of C RS on the ventilatory management and outcomes of COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation (MV), admitted to intensive care units (ICU) worldwide. Results We enrolled 318 COVID-19 patients enrolled into the study from January 14th through September 31th, 2020 in 19 countries and stratified into two C RS groups. C RS was calculated as: tidal volume/[airway plateau pressure-positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)] and available within 48 h from commencement of MV in 318 patients. Patients were mean ± SD of 58.0 ± 12.2, predominantly from Europe (54%) and males (68%). Median C RS (IQR) was 34.1 mL/cmH 2 O (26.5–45.5) and PaO 2 /FiO 2 was 119 mmHg (87.1–164) and was not correlated with C RS . Female sex presented lower C RS than in males (95% CI: -13.8 to -8.5 P < 0.001) and higher body mass index (34.7 ± 10.9 vs 29.1 ± 6.0, p < 0.001). Median (IQR) PEEP was 12 cmH 2 O (10–15), throughout the range of C RS , while median (IQR) driving pressure was 12.3 (10–15) cmH 2 O and significantly decreased as C RS improved (p < 0.001). No differences were found in comorbidities and clinical management between C RS strata. In addition, 28-day ICU mortality and hospital mortality did not differ between C RS groups. Conclusions This multicentre report provides a comprehensive account of C RS in COVID-19 patients on MV – predominantly males or overweight females, in their late 50 s – admitted to ICU during the first international outbreaks. Phenotypes associated with different C RS upon commencement of MV could not be identified. Trial documentation: Available at https://www.covid-critical.com/study. Trial registration ACTRN12620000421932.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295915

ABSTRACT

Background: The influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the critically ill COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension remains uncertain. This study examined the impact of previous use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) on the critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: Data from an international, prospective, observational cohort study involving 354 hospitals spanning 54 countries were included. A cohort of 746 COVID-19 patients with pre-existing hypertension admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in 2020 were targeted. Multi-state survival analysis was performed to evaluate in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay up to 90 days following ICU admission. Results: A total of 746 patients were included - 543 (73%) with pre-existing hypertension had received ACEi/ARBs before ICU admission, while 203 (27%) had not. Cox proportional hazards model showed that previous ACEi/ARB use was associated with a decreased hazard of in-hospital death (HR, 0.73, 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.93). Sensitivity analysis adjusted for propensity scores showed similar results for hazards of death. The average length of hospital stay was longer in ACEi/ARB group with 21.4 days (95% CI: 19.9 to 23.0 days) in ICU and 6.7 days (5.9 to 7.6 days) in general ward compared to non-ACEi/ARB group with 16.2 days (14.1 to 18.5 days) and 6.3 days (5.0 to 7.7 days), respectively. When analysed separately, there was insufficient evidence of differential effects between ACEi and ARB use on the hazards of death and discharge. Conclusions: In critically ill COVID-19 patients with comorbid hypertension, use of ACEi/ARBs prior to ICU admission was associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality following adjustment for baseline characteristics although patients with ACEi/ARB showed longer length of hospital stay.

12.
ASAIO J ; 68(2): 163-167, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526208

ABSTRACT

Previous experience has shown that transporting patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a safe and effective mode of transferring critically ill patients requiring maximum mechanical ventilator support to a quaternary care center. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic posed new challenges. This is a multicenter, retrospective study of 113 patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, cannulated at an outside hospital and transported on ECMO to an ECMO center. This was performed by a multidisciplinary mobile ECMO team consisting of physicians for cannulation, critical care nurses, and an ECMO specialist or perfusionist, along with a driver or pilot. Teams practised strict airborne contact precautions with eyewear while caring for the patient and were in standard Personal Protective Equipment. The primary mode of transportation was ground. Ten patients were transported by air. The average distance traveled was 40 miles (SD ±56). The average duration of transport was 133 minutes (SD ±92). When stratified by mode of transport, the average distance traveled for ground transports was 36 miles (SD ±52) and duration was 136 minutes (SD ±93). For air, the average distance traveled was 66 miles (SD ±82) and duration was 104 minutes (SD ±70). There were no instances of transport-related adverse events including pump failures, cannulation complications at outside hospital, or accidental decannulations or dislodgements in transit. There were no instances of the transport team members contracting COVID-19 infection within 21 days after transport. By adhering to best practices and ACE precautions, patients with COVID-19 can be safely cannulated at an outside hospital and transported to a quaternary care center without increased risk to the transport team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): e1223-e1233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stroke has been reported in observational series as a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019, but more information is needed regarding stroke prevalence and outcomes. We explored the prevalence and outcomes of acute stroke in an international cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database. SETTING: A registry of coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICUs at over 370 international sites was reviewed for patients diagnosed with acute stroke during their stay. PATIENTS: Patients older than 18 years old with acute coronavirus disease 2019 infection in ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 2,699 patients identified (median age 59 yr; male 65%), 59 (2.2%) experienced acute stroke: 0.7% ischemic, 1.0% hemorrhagic, and 0.5% unspecified type. Systemic anticoagulant use was not associated with any stroke type. The frequency of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking was higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in stroke-free and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was more common among patients with hemorrhagic (56%) and ischemic stroke (16%) than in those without stroke (10%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients had higher cumulative 90-day probabilities of hemorrhagic (relative risk = 10.5) and ischemic stroke (relative risk = 1.7) versus nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Hemorrhagic stroke increased the hazard of death (hazard ratio = 2.74), but ischemic stroke did not-similar to the effects of these stroke types seen in noncoronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In an international registry of ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019, stroke was infrequent. Hemorrhagic stroke, but not ischemic stroke, was associated with increased mortality. Further, both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was strongly associated with both stroke and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(11): e0567, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1515112

ABSTRACT

Factors associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 patients on invasive mechanical ventilation are still not fully elucidated. OBJECTIVES: To identify patient-level parameters, readily available at the bedside, associated with the risk of in-hospital mortality within 28 days from commencement of invasive mechanical ventilation or coronavirus disease 2019. DESIGN SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective observational cohort study by the global Coronavirus Disease 2019 Critical Care Consortium. Patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation from February 2, 2020, to May 15, 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Patient characteristics and clinical data were assessed upon ICU admission, the commencement of invasive mechanical ventilation and for 28 days thereafter. We primarily aimed to identify time-independent and time-dependent risk factors for 28-day invasive mechanical ventilation mortality. RESULTS: One-thousand five-hundred eighty-seven patients were included in the survival analysis; 588 patients died in hospital within 28 days of commencing invasive mechanical ventilation (37%). Cox-regression analysis identified associations between the hazard of 28-day invasive mechanical ventilation mortality with age (hazard ratio, 1.26 per 10-yr increase in age; 95% CI, 1.16-1.37; p < 0.001), positive end-expiratory pressure upon commencement of invasive mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, 0.81 per 5 cm H2O increase; 95% CI, 0.67-0.97; p = 0.02). Time-dependent parameters associated with 28-day invasive mechanical ventilation mortality were serum creatinine (hazard ratio, 1.28 per doubling; 95% CI, 1.15-1.41; p < 0.001), lactate (hazard ratio, 1.22 per doubling; 95% CI, 1.11-1.34; p < 0.001), Paco2 (hazard ratio, 1.63 per doubling; 95% CI, 1.19-2.25; p < 0.001), pH (hazard ratio, 0.89 per 0.1 increase; 95% CI, 0.8-14; p = 0.041), Pao2/Fio2 (hazard ratio, 0.58 per doubling; 95% CI, 0.52-0.66; p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (hazard ratio, 0.92 per 10 mm Hg increase; 95% CI, 0.88-0.97; p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This international study suggests that in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 on invasive mechanical ventilation, older age and clinically relevant variables monitored at baseline or sequentially during the course of invasive mechanical ventilation are associated with 28-day invasive mechanical ventilation mortality hazard. Further investigation is warranted to validate any causative roles these parameters might play in influencing clinical outcomes.

15.
BMJ Neurology Open ; 3(Suppl 1):A13-A14, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1476584

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveCOVID-19 has been identified as a risk factor for severe cerebrovascular complications, albeit mostly in small patient populations, limited to specific regions, and including all severities of disease. Utilising the largest database of critically-ill COVID-19 patients, we investigated risk factors for stroke in intensive care unit (ICU) COVID-19 patients.MethodsData for this matched case-control study were extracted from a large international registry of adult COVID-19 patients requiring ICU admission. Patients with imaging-confirmed cerebrovascular events identified following ICU admission were compared against five controls per case, matched for demographics, morphometrics, illness severity, and ICU days. Expert consensus determined key clinical and laboratory variables for risk assessment.ResultsFrom January 1-December 21 2020, 2,715 ICU patients were registered across >370 sites spanning 52 countries;acute stroke was identified during the ICU stay in 59(2.2%);27(46%) haemorrhagic, 19(32%) ischaemic, 13(22%) unspecified. Stroke patients had higher SOFA and APACHE scores, more frequent hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and more often required mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, and ECMO. Diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and Caucasian ethnicity were identified as risk factors for ischaemic versus haemorrhagic stroke and being stroke-free. Ethnicity (Hispanic or black), higher PaO2, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) were significant risk factors for haemorrhagic stroke.Anticoagulation had no association with either stroke subtype.ConclusionsSevere illness and more aggressive management were major risk factors for acute stroke. Traditional vascular risk factors and Caucasian ethnicity were risk factors for ischaemic stroke, while Hispanic or black ethnicity, higher PaO2, and ECMO were significant risk factors for haemorrhagic stroke.

16.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 738086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441122

ABSTRACT

Background: In a disease that has only existed for 18 months, it is difficult to be fully informed of the long-term sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Evidence is growing that most organ systems can be affected by the virus, causing severe disabilities in survivors. The extent of the aftermath will declare itself over the next 5-10 years, but it is likely to be substantial with profound socio-economic impact on society. Methods: This is an international multi-center, prospective long-term follow-up study of patients who developed severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) and were admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The study will be conducted at international tertiary hospitals. Patients will be monitored from time of ICU discharge up to 24 months. Information will be collected on demographics, co-existing illnesses before ICU admission, severity of illness during ICU admission and post-ICU quality of life as well as organ dysfunction and recovery. Statistical analysis will consist of patient trajectories over time for the key variables of quality of life and organ function. Using latent class analysis, we will determine if there are distinct patterns of patients in terms of recovery. Multivariable regression analyses will be used to examine associations between baseline characteristics and severity variables upon admission and discharge in the ICU, and how these impact outcomes at all follow-up time points up to 2 years. Ethics and Dissemination: The core study team and local principal investigators will ensure that the study adheres to all relevant national and local regulations, and that the necessary approvals are in place before a site may enroll patients. Clinical Trial Registration:anzctr.org.au: ACTRN12620000799954.

17.
Front Neurol ; 12: 664599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370992

ABSTRACT

Background: There is growing evidence that SARS-Cov-2 infection is associated with severe neurological complications. Understanding the nature and prevalence of these neurologic manifestations is essential for identifying higher-risk patients and projecting demand for ongoing resource utilisation. This review and meta-analysis report the neurologic manifestations identified in hospitalised COVID-19 patients and provide a preliminary estimate of disease prevalence. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus were searched for studies reporting the occurrence of neurological complications in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Results: A total of 2,207 unique entries were identified and screened, among which 14 cohort studies and 53 case reports were included, reporting on a total of 8,577 patients. Central nervous system manifestations included ischemic stroke (n = 226), delirium (n = 79), intracranial haemorrhage (ICH, n = 57), meningoencephalitis (n = 13), seizures (n = 3), and acute demyelinating encephalitis (n = 2). Peripheral nervous system manifestations included Guillain-Barrè Syndrome (n = 21) and other peripheral neuropathies (n = 3). The pooled period prevalence of ischemic stroke from identified studies was 1.3% [95%CI: 0.9-1.8%, 102/7,715] in all hospitalised COVID-19 patients, and 2.8% [95%CI: 1.0-4.6%, 9/318] among COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. The pooled prevalence of ICH was estimated at 0.4% [95%CI: 0-0.8%, 6/1,006]. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic exerts a substantial neurologic burden which may have residual effects on patients and healthcare systems for years. Low quality evidence impedes the ability to accurately predict the magnitude of this burden. Robust studies with standardised screening and case definitions are required to improve understanding of this disease and optimise treatment of individuals at higher risk for neurologic sequelae.

18.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): e1223-e1233, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315707

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Stroke has been reported in observational series as a frequent complication of coronavirus disease 2019, but more information is needed regarding stroke prevalence and outcomes. We explored the prevalence and outcomes of acute stroke in an international cohort of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 who required ICU admission. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected database. SETTING: A registry of coronavirus disease 2019 patients admitted to ICUs at over 370 international sites was reviewed for patients diagnosed with acute stroke during their stay. PATIENTS: Patients older than 18 years old with acute coronavirus disease 2019 infection in ICU. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of 2,699 patients identified (median age 59 yr; male 65%), 59 (2.2%) experienced acute stroke: 0.7% ischemic, 1.0% hemorrhagic, and 0.5% unspecified type. Systemic anticoagulant use was not associated with any stroke type. The frequency of diabetes, hypertension, and smoking was higher in patients with ischemic stroke than in stroke-free and hemorrhagic stroke patients. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was more common among patients with hemorrhagic (56%) and ischemic stroke (16%) than in those without stroke (10%). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients had higher cumulative 90-day probabilities of hemorrhagic (relative risk = 10.5) and ischemic stroke (relative risk = 1.7) versus nonextracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Hemorrhagic stroke increased the hazard of death (hazard ratio = 2.74), but ischemic stroke did not-similar to the effects of these stroke types seen in noncoronavirus disease 2019 ICU patients. CONCLUSIONS: In an international registry of ICU patients with coronavirus disease 2019, stroke was infrequent. Hemorrhagic stroke, but not ischemic stroke, was associated with increased mortality. Further, both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke were associated with traditional vascular risk factors. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was strongly associated with both stroke and death.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 199, 2021 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous respiratory system static compliance (CRS) values and levels of hypoxemia in patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) requiring mechanical ventilation have been reported in previous small-case series or studies conducted at a national level. METHODS: We designed a retrospective observational cohort study with rapid data gathering from the international COVID-19 Critical Care Consortium study to comprehensively describe CRS-calculated as: tidal volume/[airway plateau pressure-positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)]-and its association with ventilatory management and outcomes of COVID-19 patients on mechanical ventilation (MV), admitted to intensive care units (ICU) worldwide. RESULTS: We studied 745 patients from 22 countries, who required admission to the ICU and MV from January 14 to December 31, 2020, and presented at least one value of CRS within the first seven days of MV. Median (IQR) age was 62 (52-71), patients were predominantly males (68%) and from Europe/North and South America (88%). CRS, within 48 h from endotracheal intubation, was available in 649 patients and was neither associated with the duration from onset of symptoms to commencement of MV (p = 0.417) nor with PaO2/FiO2 (p = 0.100). Females presented lower CRS than males (95% CI of CRS difference between females-males: - 11.8 to - 7.4 mL/cmH2O p < 0.001), and although females presented higher body mass index (BMI), association of BMI with CRS was marginal (p = 0.139). Ventilatory management varied across CRS range, resulting in a significant association between CRS and driving pressure (estimated decrease - 0.31 cmH2O/L per mL/cmH20 of CRS, 95% CI - 0.48 to - 0.14, p < 0.001). Overall, 28-day ICU mortality, accounting for the competing risk of being discharged within the period, was 35.6% (SE 1.7). Cox proportional hazard analysis demonstrated that CRS (+ 10 mL/cm H2O) was only associated with being discharge from the ICU within 28 days (HR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.28, p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS: This multicentre report provides a comprehensive account of CRS in COVID-19 patients on MV. CRS measured within 48 h from commencement of MV has marginal predictive value for 28-day mortality, but was associated with being discharged from ICU within the same period. Trial documentation: Available at https://www.covid-critical.com/study . TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTRN12620000421932.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Lung Compliance/physiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Cohort Studies , Critical Care/methods , Europe , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
20.
BMC Med Ethics ; 22(1): 70, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: ECMO is a particularly scarce resource during the COVID-19 pandemic. Its allocation involves ethical considerations that may be different to usual times. There is limited pre-pandemic literature on the ethical factors that ECMO physicians consider during ECMO allocation. During the pandemic, there has been relatively little professional guidance specifically relating to ethics and ECMO allocation; although there has been active ethical debate about allocation of other critical care resources. We report the results of a small international exploratory survey of ECMO clinicians' views on different patient factors in ECMO decision-making prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic. We then outline current ethical decision procedures and recommendations for rationing life-sustaining treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and examine the extent to which current guidelines for ECMO allocation (and reported practice) adhere to these ethical guidelines and recommendations. METHODS: An online survey was performed with responses recorded between mid May and mid August 2020. Participants (n = 48) were sourced from the ECMOCard study group-an international group of experts (n = 120) taking part in a prospective international study of ECMO and intensive care for patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The survey compared the extent to which certain ethical factors involved in ECMO resource allocation were considered prior to and during the pandemic. RESULTS: When initiating ECMO during the pandemic, compared to usual times, participants reported giving more ethical weight to the benefit of ECMO to other patients not yet admitted as opposed to those already receiving ECMO, (p < 0.001). If a full unit were referred a good candidate for ECMO, participants were more likely during the pandemic to consider discontinuing ECMO from a current patient with low chance of survival (53% during pandemic vs. 33% prior p = 0.002). If the clinical team recommends that ECMO should cease, but family do not agree, the majority of participants indicated that they would continue treatment, both in usual circumstances (67%) and during the pandemic (56%). CONCLUSIONS: We found differences during the COVID-19 pandemic in prioritisation of several ethical factors in the context of ECMO allocation. The ethical principles prioritised by survey participants were largely consistent with ECMO allocation guidelines, current ethical decision procedures and recommendations for allocation of life-sustaining treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/ethics , Health Care Rationing , Resource Allocation/ethics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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