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BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053122, 2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794501


INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, where the greatest burden lies. Yet, there is little research concerning the specific issues involved in scaling up NCD interventions targeting low-resource settings. We propose to examine this gap in up to 27 collaborative projects, which were funded by the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) 2019 Scale Up Call, reflecting a total funding investment of approximately US$50 million. These projects represent diverse countries, contexts and adopt varied approaches and study designs to scale-up complex, evidence-based interventions to improve hypertension and diabetes outcomes. A systematic inquiry of these projects will provide necessary scientific insights into the enablers and challenges in the scale up of complex NCD interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will apply systems thinking (a holistic approach to analyse the inter-relationship between constituent parts of scaleup interventions and the context in which the interventions are implemented) and adopt a longitudinal mixed-methods study design to explore the planning and early implementation phases of scale up projects. Data will be gathered at three time periods, namely, at planning (TP), initiation of implementation (T0) and 1-year postinitiation (T1). We will extract project-related data from secondary documents at TP and conduct multistakeholder qualitative interviews to gather data at T0 and T1. We will undertake descriptive statistical analysis of TP data and analyse T0 and T1 data using inductive thematic coding. The data extraction tool and interview guides were developed based on a literature review of scale-up frameworks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current protocol was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC number 23482). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and more broadly through the GACD network.

Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Systems Analysis
3.; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202204.0172.v1


This study explored the living situations, financial conditions, religious obligations, and social distancing of Muslims during the covid 19 pandemic. In total, 20 Muslim community members living in the Kanto region were recruited, 15 of them were included in the in-depth qualitative and five in the focus group interviews. The Snowball method was used, and the questionnaires were designed into four themes. The audio/video interviews were conducted via Zoom and NAVIO was used to analyse the data thematically. The major Muslim events were cancelled, and the recommended physical distancing was maintained during the prayers at home and in the mosques. The Japanese government's financial support to each person was a beneficial step towards social protection, which was highlighted and praised by every single participant. Regardless of religious obligations, the closer of all major mosques in Tokyo demonstrates to the Japanese community how serious they are about adhering to the public health guidelines during the pandemic. This study highlighted that the pandemic has affected the religious patterns and behaviour of Muslims from inclusive to exclusive in a community and narrated the significance of religious commitments.

BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 107, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770521


BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, ordinary dental services were sustained in Nepal. Because a dental practice is considered to involve a high risk of infection, the needs of dentists should be identified, and demand-driven support should be provided. The purpose of this study was to investigate the situation and needs of dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to guide demand-driven support. First, we investigated how the situation of Nepali dentists differed according to their types of practices between private clinics and university/government hospitals. Second, we assessed the characteristics of dentists demanding four types of support: financial, material, technical, and guidelines/guidance support. METHODS: A cross-sectional online questionnaire survey was conducted between July 28th and August 7th 2020. Closed-ended questions were prepared regarding behavior, material availability, economic and psychological impacts, training, and the main support dentists wanted to receive. The situation of dentists between private clinics and university/government hospitals was determined using a chi-squared test for each variable. To examine the association between the characteristics of dentists and four types of support, multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for each variable. RESULTS: There were 352 dentists (137 males and 215 females) included in the analysis. Private clinic dentists experienced a bigger economic impact and demanded financial support that 45.5% of them did not receive a salary, compared to 18.9% in university/government hospitals. On the contrary, university/government hospitals experienced lack of PPE and demanded material support that 79.8% had personal protective equipment, compared to 92.5% in private clinics. Financial support was demanded significantly more by male than female dentists (ORs = 5.56; 95% CI = 2.96-10.45). Material support was demanded significantly more by dentists who received training regarding COVID-19 management (ORs = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.01-3.81). Technical support was demanded significantly less by male dentists (ORs = 0.44; 95% CI = 0.23-0.83). Guideline/guidance support was demanded significantly more by dentists who answered that Nepal Dental Association provided appropriate support (ORs = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.25-3.91). CONCLUSION: This study articulated the diverse needs of Nepali dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic. Demand-driven support should be provided in the future.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dentists/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Nepal/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
Tokyo Women's Medical University Journal ; : 2021002-2021002, 2021.
Article in English | J-STAGE | ID: covidwho-1268452