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1.
Drug Discov Ther ; 2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090752

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of ciclesonide in the treatment of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as gauged by pneumonia progression. This multi-center, open-label randomized trial was conducted with patients recruited from 22 hospitals across Japan. Participants were patients admitted with mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 without signs of pneumonia on chest X-rays. Asymptomatic participants were diagnosed after identification through contact tracing. Trial participants were randomized to either the ciclesonide or control arm. Participants in the treatment arm were administered 400 µg of ciclesonide three times a day over seven consecutive days. The primary endpoint was exacerbated pneumonia within seven days. Secondary outcomes were changes in clinical findings, laboratory findings, and changes over time in the amount of the viral genome. In the treatment group, 16 patients (39.0%) were classified as having exacerbated pneumonia compared to 9 (18.8%) in the control group. The risk ratio (RR) was 2.08 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-3.75), indicating a worsening of pneumonia in the ciclesonide group. Significant differences were noted in participants with a fever on admission (RR: 2.62, 90% CI: 1.17-5.85, 95% CI: 1.00-6.82) and individuals 60 years of age or older (RR: 8.80, 90% CI: 1.76-44.06, 95% CI: 1.29-59.99). The current results indicated that ciclesonide exacerbates signs of pneumonia on images in individuals with mild or asymptomatic symptoms of COVID-19 without worsening clinical symptoms.

2.
Gastroenterology ; 2022 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We investigate interrelationships between gut microbes, metabolites, and cytokines that characterize COVID-19 and its complications, and we validate the results with follow-up, a Japanese Disease, Drug, Diet, Daily Life microbiome cohort, and non-Japanese data sets. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomics on stools and cytokine measurements on plasma from 112 hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and 112 non-COVID-19 control individuals matched by important confounders. RESULTS: Multiple correlations were found between COVID-19-related microbes (eg, oral microbes and short-chain fatty acid producers) and gut metabolites (eg, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, short-chain fatty acids, carbohydrates, neurotransmitters, and vitamin B6). Both were also linked to inflammatory cytokine dynamics (eg, interferon γ, interferon λ3, interleukin 6, CXCL-9, and CXCL-10). Such interrelationships were detected highly in severe disease and pneumonia; moderately in the high D-dimer level, kidney dysfunction, and liver dysfunction groups; but rarely in the diarrhea group. We confirmed concordances of altered metabolites (eg, branched-chain amino acids, spermidine, putrescine, and vitamin B6) in COVID-19 with their corresponding microbial functional genes. Results in microbial and metabolomic alterations with severe disease from the cross-sectional data set were partly concordant with those from the follow-up data set. Microbial signatures for COVID-19 were distinct from diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and proton-pump inhibitors but overlapping for rheumatoid arthritis. Random forest classifier models using microbiomes can highly predict COVID-19 and severe disease. The microbial signatures for COVID-19 showed moderate concordance between Hong Kong and Japan. CONCLUSIONS: Multiomics analysis revealed multiple gut microbe-metabolite-cytokine interrelationships in COVID-19 and COVID-19related complications but few in gastrointestinal complications, suggesting microbiota-mediated immune responses distinct between the organ sites. Our results underscore the existence of a gut-lung axis in COVID-19.

3.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(11): e37426, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column (PMX; Toraymyxin column) was approved for the relief of systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by bacterial infection or endotoxemia. PMX reduces lung damage by removing leukocytes and cytokines in addition to endotoxin removal in the setting of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia pathologically presents with diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). PMX direct hemoperfusion (PMX-DHP) demonstrated efficacy, improving oxygenation. The SARS-CoV-2 virus causes COVID-19, which emerged in December 2019. The condition may become severe about 1 week after onset, and respiratory failure rapidly develops, requiring intensive care management. A characteristic of COVID-19-related severe pneumonia is ground-glass opacities rapidly progressing in both lungs, which subsequently turn into infiltrative shadows. This condition could be classified as DAD. As for the congealing fibrinogenolysis system, D-dimer, fibrin/fibrinogen degradation product quantity, and prolonged prothrombin time were significant factors in nonsurviving COVID-19 cases, associated with aggravated pneumonia. Clinical trials are being conducted, but except for remdesivir and dexamethasone, no treatments have yet been approved. COVID-19 aggravates with the deterioration of oxygen saturation, decrease in lymphocytes, and the occurrence of an abnormal congealing fibrinogenolysis system, leading to diffuse lung damage. Once the condition transitions from moderate to severe, it is necessary to prevent further exacerbation by providing treatment that will suppress the aforementioned symptoms as soon as possible. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to access treatment options to prevent the transition from acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia to DAD. The mechanism of action envisioned for PMX-DHP is to reduce congealing fibrinogenolysis system abnormalities and increase oxygenation by removing activated leukocytes and cytokines, which are risk factors for the aggravation of COVID-19-related pneumonia. METHODS: We will conduct a multicenter, prospective, intervention, single-group study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of direct hemoperfusion using PMX-DHP for patients with COVID-19. Efficacy will be evaluated by the primary end point, which is the rate of Ordinal Scale for Clinical Improvement after PMX-DHP of at least 1 point from a status of 4, 5, or 6 on day 15. The effect of PMX-DHP will be estimated by setting a control group with background factors from non-PMX-DHP patients enrolled in the COVID-19 registry. This study will be carried out as a single-group open-label study and will be compared with a historical control. The historical control will be selected from the COVID-19 registry according to age, gender, and severity of pneumonia. RESULTS: The study period is scheduled from September 28, 2020, through April 30, 2023. Patient enrollment was scheduled from the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials publication for March 31, 2022. Data fixation is scheduled for October 2022, with the publication of the results by March 2023. CONCLUSIONS: From a clinical perspective, PMX-DHP is expected to become an adjunctive therapy to address unmet medical needs and prevent the exacerbation from moderate to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome in COVID-19 cases. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/37426.

4.
Global health & medicine ; 4(4):230-232, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034091

ABSTRACT

Summary In preparation for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, our hospital was responsible for accepting mainly media representatives, marketing partners, and other Games staff. Given that restricting our regular capacity to treat certain groups of patients could potentially result in social losses, to avoid this we made rigorous preparations for the entire hospital to accept Games-related patients. It was rational to set up a single 24-h contact point at the Emergency Department for making the decision on whether to accept the patient or not and for coordinating the patient's medical care. With respect to language support, International Health Care Center staffs were made available as interpreters on weekdays. Multilingual support was available all day via an application run on tablet devices. During a 67-day period, the hospital accepted 31 Games-related patients (mean age 43.4 years, male: female ratio 25:6). Eighteen patients were from Europe, 4 patients each were from North America and Asia, 2 each were from Central America, South America, and Africa, and 1 was from Oceania. The most common cause of visits was COVID-19, but none were severe cases. Other causes were diverse and included moderate and severe conditions. We summarized the challenges and experiences in handling Tokyo 2020 Games-related patients at a designated hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Glob Health Med ; 4(4): 230-232, 2022 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979991

ABSTRACT

In preparation for the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games, our hospital was responsible for accepting mainly media representatives, marketing partners, and other Games staff. Given that restricting our regular capacity to treat certain groups of patients could potentially result in social losses, to avoid this we made rigorous preparations for the entire hospital to accept Games-related patients. It was rational to set up a single 24-h contact point at the Emergency Department for making the decision on whether to accept the patient or not and for coordinating the patient's medical care. With respect to language support, International Health Care Center staffs were made available as interpreters on weekdays. Multilingual support was available all day via an application run on tablet devices. During a 67-day period, the hospital accepted 31 Games-related patients (mean age 43.4 years, male: female ratio 25:6). Eighteen patients were from Europe, 4 patients each were from North America and Asia, 2 each were from Central America, South America, and Africa, and 1 was from Oceania. The most common cause of visits was COVID-19, but none were severe cases. Other causes were diverse and included moderate and severe conditions. We summarized the challenges and experiences in handling Tokyo 2020 Games-related patients at a designated hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
Glob Health Med ; 4(2): 122-128, 2022 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955545

ABSTRACT

During the surge of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) delta variant, our institution operated an intensive care unit (ICU) for patients with severe COVID-19. The study aim was to determine the survival rate and treatment outcomes of patients with severe COVID-19 treated in the ICU during the surge. A total of 23 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 were admitted to the ICU between August 5 and October 6, 2021. Patients received multidrug therapy consisting of remdesivir, tocilizumab, heparin, and methylprednisolone. The patients were divided into two groups based on the ordinal scale (OS): a non-invasive oxygen therapy (OS-6) group, and an invasive oxygen therapy (OS-7) group. There were 13 (57%) and 10 (43%) patients in the OS-7 and OS-6 groups, respectively. All patients were unvaccinated. Sixteen patients (70%) were male. The median age was 53 years; the median body mass index (BMI) was 30.3 kg/m2; and the median P/F ratio on admission was 96. The 30-day survival rate was 69% and was significantly poorer in the OS-7 group (54%) than in the OS-6 group (89%; p = 0.05). The prevalence of obesity (p = 0.05) and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score on admission (p < 0.01) were significantly higher in the OS-7 group. Seven patients in the OS-7 group (54%) developed bacteremia. A low P/F ratio on admission was a significant unfavorable prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 10.9; p = 0.03). The survival rate was poor, especially in patients requiring invasive oxygen therapy. More measures are needed to improve the treatment outcomes of patients with severe COVID 19.

8.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(7): 971-974, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1828865

ABSTRACT

Corticosteroids are widely used to treat severe COVID-19, but in immunocompromised individuals, who are susceptible to persistent infection, long term corticosteroid use may delay viral clearance. We present a case of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection in a man with significantly impaired B-cell immunity due to non-Hodgkin lymphoma which had been treated with rituximab. SARS-CoV-2 shedding persisted, despite treatment with remdesivir. Viral sequencing confirmed the persistence of the same viral strain, ruling out the possibility of reinfection. Although SARS-CoV-2 IgG, IgA and IgM remained negative throughout the treatment period, after reduction of the corticosteroid dose, PCR became negative. Long-term corticosteroid treatment, especially in immunocompromised individuals, may result in suppression of cell-mediated immunity and prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Male , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(5): 999-1003, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1787703

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the sex-associated difference in the impact of obesity on antibody response to a COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: This study included 2,435 health care workers who received two doses of the BioNTech, Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccine and participated in a serological survey, during which they were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobin G (IgG) antibodies and asked for information on height, weight, and vaccination history via a questionnaire. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to estimate the geometric mean titers (GMT) of antibodies for each sex and BMI category. RESULTS: The relationship between BMI and anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers markedly differed by sex (p value for interaction = 0.04). Spike IgG antibody titers tended to decrease with increasing BMI in men (p value for trend = 0.03); GMT (95% CI) were 6,093 (4,874-7,618) and 4,655 (3,795-5,708) for BMI < 18.5 and ≥30 kg/m2 , respectively. In contrast, spike IgG antibody titers did not significantly differ across BMI categories in women (p value for for trend = 0.62); GMT (95% CI) were 6,171 (5,714-6,665) and 5,506 (4,404-6,883) for BMI <18.5 and ≥30, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI was associated with lower titers of SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies in men, but not in women, suggesting the need for careful monitoring of vaccine efficacy in men with obesity, who are at high risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Intern Med ; 61(6): 913-916, 2022 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745229

ABSTRACT

A 33-year-old woman with a fever, cough, and pharyngitis was admitted after left-sided pleural effusion was detected. The fever and upper respiratory symptoms were confirmed, and she was diagnosed with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) after showing a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test. After thoracentesis, pleural fluid revealed elevated adenosine deaminase values and a positive QuantiFeron test; tuberculous pleurisy was thus suspected. Subsequent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR and anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike IgG tests were negative, suggesting that the initial PCR result had been erroneous. However, we were unable to confirm this. Data concerning COVID-19 diagnostics are insufficient at present. It is important to make comprehensive judgments regarding the diagnosis and treatment of patients as well as public health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pleural Effusion , Tuberculosis, Pleural , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e683-e691, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While increasing coverage of effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emergent variants raise concerns about breakthrough infection. Data are limited, however, whether breakthrough infection during the epidemic of the variant is ascribed to insufficient vaccine-induced immunogenicity. METHODS: We describe incident COVID-19 in relation to the vaccination program among workers of a referral hospital in Tokyo. During the predominantly Delta epidemic, we followed 2415 fully vaccinated staff (BNT162b2) for breakthrough infection and selected 3 matched controls. We measured post-vaccination neutralizing antibodies against the wild-type, Alpha (B.1.1.7), and Delta (B.1.617.2) strains using live viruses and anti-spike antibodies using quantitative assays, and compared them using the generalized estimating equation model between the 2 groups. RESULTS: No COVID-19 cases occurred 1-2 months after the vaccination program during the fourth epidemic wave in Japan, dominated by the Alpha variant, while 22 cases emerged 2-4 months after the vaccination program during the fifth wave, dominated by the Delta variant. In the vaccinated cohort, all 17 cases of breakthrough infection were mild or asymptomatic and participants had returned to work early. There was no measurable difference between cases and controls in post-vaccination neutralizing antibody titers against the wild-type, Alpha, Delta, and anti-spike antibody titers, while neutralizing titers against the variants were considerably lower than those against the wild-type. CONCLUSIONS: Post-vaccination neutralizing antibody titers were not decreased among patients with breakthrough infection relative to their controls under the Delta variant outbreak. The result points to the importance of infection-control measures in the post-vaccination era, irrespective of immunogenicity profile.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Tokyo/epidemiology , Vaccination
12.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 217-223, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To alleviate the overflow of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in hospitals, less invasive and simple criteria are required to triage the patients. We evaluated the relationship between COVID-19 severity and fatty liver on plain computed tomography (CT) scan performed on admission. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, we considered all COVID-19 patients at a large tertiary care hospital between January 31 and August 31, 2020. COVID-19 severity was categorized into severe (moderate and severe) and non-severe (asymptomatic and mild) groups, based on the Japanese National COVID-19 guidelines. Fatty liver was detected on plain CT scan. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate factors associated with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 222 patients (median age: 52 years), 3.2%, 58.1%, 20.7%, and 18.0% presented with asymptomatic, mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19, respectively. Although 59.9% had no fatty liver on plain CT, mild, moderate, and severe fatty liver occurred in 13.1%, 18.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. Age and presence of fatty liver were significantly associated with severe COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that fatty liver on plain CT scan on admission can become a risk factor for severe COVID-19. This finding may help clinicians to easily triage COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Liver , Humans , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
13.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-296362

ABSTRACT

Obesity may downregulate vaccine-induced immunogenicity, but the epidemiological evidence for the COVID-19 vaccine is limited, and the sex-associated difference is unknown. It was observed that a higher body mass index was associated with lower titers of spike IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in men but not in women.

15.
Intern Med ; 60(14): 2297-2300, 2021 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311331

ABSTRACT

We herein report a 67-year-old kidney transplant patient who died of COVID-19. He was treated with hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin and received mechanical ventilation that temporarily improved his respiratory status. Despite our efforts, however, he later developed respiratory failure and died 43 days after the disease onset. The autopsy revealed prominent organization of alveoli and alveolar ducts, with a massive accumulation of macrophages in the lungs. A few severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antigen-positive cells were detected in the lung, suggesting delayed virus clearance owing to his long-term immunosuppressed state, leading to constant lung damage and ultimately respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Lung , Male , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Glob Health Med ; 3(2): 56-59, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175884

ABSTRACT

The rapid global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has posed a significant challenge to various countries in terms of the capacity of hospitals to admit and care for patients during the crisis. To estimate hospital capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic, clinicians working in tertiary hospitals around the world were surveyed regarding available COVID-19 hospital statistics. Data were obtained from 8 tertiary centers in 8 countries including the United States, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Turkey, Singapore, India, Pakistan, and Japan. The correlation between the number of patients with COVID-19 per 1 million population vs. the maximum number of inpatients with COVID-19 in a representative tertiary hospital in each country was determined, as was the correlation between COVID-19 deaths per 1 million population vs. the maximum number of patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). What was noteworthy was that none of the 8 hospitals reduced emergency room (ER) activity even at the peak of the pandemic although treatment of patients without COVID-19 decreased by 0-70% depending on the extent of the epidemic. Although various measures are being actively implemented to slow the spread of the virus and reduce the strain on the health care system, the reality is that there are still a significant number of hospitals at risk of being overloaded in the event of a future surge in cases.

17.
Glob Health Med ; 3(2): 90-94, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170608

ABSTRACT

We assessed the consistency of seropositive results of three rapid immunoassays (Kits A, B, and C) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to highly accurate serological tests (Abbott and Roche) among healthcare workers in a hospital in Tokyo. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G was 0.41%, 2.36%, and 0.08% using Kits A, B, and C, respectively. Of the 51 samples that were seropositive on any rapid test, all were seronegative on both the Abbott and the Roche assays. Given that the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G varied widely according to the choice of rapid test and the rapid test results were inconsistent with the results of highly accurate tests, the diagnostic accuracy of rapid serological tests for SARS-CoV-2 should be assessed before introducing these tests for point-of-care testing or surveillance.

19.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(8): 581-589, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current gold standard in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) diagnostics is the real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for detecting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. Alternatively, nasal swab (NS) or saliva swab (SS) specimens are used, although available data on test accuracy are limited. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of NPS/NS/SS samples for this purpose. METHODS: Ten patients were included after being tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in NPS samples according to the National Institute of Infectious Disease guidelines. In comparison with this conventional diagnostic method, NPS/NS/SS samples were tested using the cobas 6800 systems RT-PCR device. To investigate the usefulness of the cobas method and the difference among sample types, the agreement and sensitivity were calculated. Five to six samples were collected over a total period of 5-6 d from each patient. RESULTS: Fifty-seven sets of NPS/NS/SS samples were collected, of which 40 tested positive for COVID-19 by the conventional method. Overall, the concordance rates using the conventional method were 86.0%/70.2%/54.4% for NPS/NS/SS samples (cobas); however, for samples collected up to and including on Day 9 after disease onset (22 negative and one positive specimens), the corresponding rates were 95.7%/87.0%/65.2%. The overall sensitivity estimates were 100.0%/67.5%/37.5% for NPS/NS/SS samples (cobas). For samples up to 9 d after onset, the corresponding values were 100.0%/86.4%/63.6%. CONCLUSIONS: NS samples are more reliable than SS samples and can be an alternative to NPS samples. They can be a useful diagnostic method in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nasopharynx , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Saliva , Specimen Handling
20.
Glob Health Med ; 3(2): 67-72, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1128387

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), two receptors on the cell membrane of bronchial epithelial cells, are indispensable for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. ACE2 receptor is increased among aged, males, and smokers. As smoking upsurges ACE2 expression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are prone to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and are at a higher risk for severe forms of COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) once infected. The expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in asthma patients is identical (or less common) to that of healthy participants. ACE2 especially, tends to be low in patients with strong atopic factors and in those with poor asthma control. Therefore, it could be speculated that asthma patients are not susceptible to COVID-19. Epidemiologically, asthma patients are less likely to suffer from COVID-19, and the number of hospitalized patients due to exacerbation of asthma in Japan is also clearly reduced during the COVID-19 pandemic; therefore, they are not aggravating factors for COVID-19. Related academic societies in Japan and abroad still lack clear evidence regarding asthma treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic, and recommend that regular treatment including biologics for severe patients be continued.

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