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1.
Genome Biol ; 23(1): 125, 2022 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a broad spectrum of COVID-19 disease, from mild or no symptoms to hospitalization and death. COVID-19 disease severity has been associated with some pre-existing conditions and the magnitude of the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2, and a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the risk of critical illness revealed a significant genetic component. To gain insight into how human genetic variation attenuates or exacerbates disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we implicated putatively functional COVID risk variants in the cis-regulatory landscapes of human immune cell types with established roles in disease severity and used high-resolution chromatin conformation capture to map these disease-associated elements to their effector genes. RESULTS: This functional genomic approach implicates 16 genes involved in viral replication, the interferon response, and inflammation. Several of these genes (PAXBP1, IFNAR2, OAS1, OAS3, TNFAIP8L1, GART) were differentially expressed in immune cells from patients with severe versus moderate COVID-19 disease, and we demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for GART in T cell-dependent antibody-producing B cell differentiation in a human tonsillar organoid model. CONCLUSIONS: This study offers immunogenetic insight into the basis of COVID-19 disease severity and implicates new targets for therapeutics that limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and its resultant life-threatening inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Genome biology ; 23(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877242

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 infection results in a broad spectrum of COVID-19 disease, from mild or no symptoms to hospitalization and death. COVID-19 disease severity has been associated with some pre-existing conditions and the magnitude of the adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2, and a recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the risk of critical illness revealed a significant genetic component. To gain insight into how human genetic variation attenuates or exacerbates disease following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we implicated putatively functional COVID risk variants in the cis-regulatory landscapes of human immune cell types with established roles in disease severity and used high-resolution chromatin conformation capture to map these disease-associated elements to their effector genes. Results This functional genomic approach implicates 16 genes involved in viral replication, the interferon response, and inflammation. Several of these genes (PAXBP1, IFNAR2, OAS1, OAS3, TNFAIP8L1, GART) were differentially expressed in immune cells from patients with severe versus moderate COVID-19 disease, and we demonstrate a previously unappreciated role for GART in T cell-dependent antibody-producing B cell differentiation in a human tonsillar organoid model. Conclusions This study offers immunogenetic insight into the basis of COVID-19 disease severity and implicates new targets for therapeutics that limit SARS-CoV-2 infection and its resultant life-threatening inflammation. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s13059-022-02691-1.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7222, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565718

ABSTRACT

Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a major complication of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric patients. Weeks after an often mild or asymptomatic initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 children may present with a severe shock-like picture and marked inflammation. Children with MIS-C present with varying degrees of cardiovascular and hyperinflammatory symptoms. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of the plasma proteome of more than 1400 proteins in children with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesize that the proteome would reflect heterogeneity in hyperinflammation and vascular injury, and further identify pathogenic mediators of disease. We show that protein signatures demonstrate overlap between MIS-C, and the inflammatory syndromes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We demonstrate that PLA2G2A is an important marker of MIS-C that associates with TMA. We find that IFNγ responses are dysregulated in MIS-C patients, and that IFNγ levels delineate clinical heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Proteome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CXCL9 , Child , Group II Phospholipases A2 , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Proteomics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Vascular Diseases
6.
Blood Adv ; 4(23): 6051-6063, 2020 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962802

ABSTRACT

Most children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have mild or minimal disease, with a small proportion developing severe disease or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that complement activation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and sought to understand if TMA was present in these patients. We enrolled 50 hospitalized pediatric patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 21, minimal coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; n = 11, severe COVID-19) or MIS-C (n = 18). As a biomarker of complement activation and TMA, soluble C5b9 (sC5b9, normal 247 ng/mL) was measured in plasma, and elevations were found in patients with minimal disease (median, 392 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 244-622 ng/mL), severe disease (median, 646 ng/mL; IQR, 203-728 ng/mL), and MIS-C (median, 630 ng/mL; IQR, 359-932 ng/mL) compared with 26 healthy control subjects (median, 57 ng/mL; IQR, 9-163 ng/mL; P < .001). Higher sC5b9 levels were associated with higher serum creatinine (P = .01) but not age. Of the 19 patients for whom complete clinical criteria were available, 17 (89%) met criteria for TMA. A high proportion of tested children with SARS-CoV-2 infection had evidence of complement activation and met clinical and diagnostic criteria for TMA. Future studies are needed to determine if hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for TMA, if TMA-directed management is helpful, and if there are any short- or long-term clinical consequences of complement activation and endothelial damage in children with COVID-19 or MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cluster Analysis , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Creatinine/blood , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/complications
7.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 67(11): e28693, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743696

ABSTRACT

There are no proven safe and effective therapies for children who develop life-threatening complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma (CP) has demonstrated potential benefit in adults with SARS-CoV-2, but has theoretical risks.We present the first report of CP in children with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing data on four pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We measured donor antibody levels and recipient antibody response prior to and following CP infusion. Infusion of CP was not associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and did not suppress endogenous antibody response. We found CP was safe and possibly efficacious. Randomized pediatric trials are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(11): 5967-5975, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDInitial reports from the severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic described children as being less susceptible to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than adults. Subsequently, a severe and novel pediatric disorder termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) emerged. We report on unique hematologic and immunologic parameters that distinguish between COVID-19 and MIS-C and provide insight into pathophysiology.METHODSWe prospectively enrolled hospitalized patients with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and classified them as having MIS-C or COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 were classified as having either minimal or severe disease. Cytokine profiles, viral cycle thresholds (Cts), blood smears, and soluble C5b-9 values were analyzed with clinical data.RESULTSTwenty patients were enrolled (9 severe COVID-19, 5 minimal COVID-19, and 6 MIS-C). Five cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) contributed to the analysis. TNF-α and IL-10 discriminated between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19. The presence of burr cells on blood smears, as well as Cts, differentiated between patients with severe COVID-19 and those with MIS-C.CONCLUSIONPediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for critical illness with severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Cytokine profiling and examination of peripheral blood smears may distinguish between patients with MIS-C and those with severe COVID-19.FUNDINGFinancial support for this project was provided by CHOP Frontiers Program Immune Dysregulation Team; National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; National Cancer Institute; the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society; Cookies for Kids Cancer; Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation for Childhood Cancer; Children's Oncology Group; Stand UP 2 Cancer; Team Connor; the Kate Amato Foundations; Burroughs Wellcome Fund CAMS; the Clinical Immunology Society; the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology; and the Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections , Cytokines/blood , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology
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