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1.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1686-1692, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446871

ABSTRACT

As far as comorbidity is concerned, cardiovascular diseases (CVD) appear to be accounted for the highest prevalence, severity, and fatality among COVID 19 patients. A wide array of causal links connecting CVD and COVID-19 baffle the overall prognosis as well as the efficacy of the given therapeutic interventions. At the centre of this puzzle lies ACE2 that works as a receptor for the SARS-CoV-2, and functional expression of which is also needed to minimize vasoconstriction otherwise would lead to high blood pressure. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 infection seems to reduce the functional expression of ACE2. Given these circumstances, it might be advisable to consider a treatment plan for COVID-19 patients with CVD in an approach that would neither aggravate the vasodeleterious arm of the renin-angiotensinogen-aldosterone system (RAAS) nor compromise the vasoprotective arm of RAAS but is effective to minimize or if possible, inhibit the viral replication. Given the immune modulatory role of Zn in both CVD and COVID-19 pathogenesis, zinc supplement to the selective treatment plan for CVD and COVID-19 comorbid conditions, to be decided by the clinicians depending on the cardiovascular conditions of the patients, might greatly improve the therapeutic outcome. Notably, ACE2 is a zinc metalloenzyme and zinc is also known to inhibit viral replication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2 , Zinc
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 637553, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247858

ABSTRACT

Plants have been extensively studied since ancient times and numerous important chemical constituents with tremendous therapeutic potential are identified. Attacks of microorganisms including viruses and bacteria can be counteracted with an efficient immune system and therefore, stimulation of body's defense mechanism against infections has been proven to be an effective approach. Polysaccharides, terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, and lactones are the important phytochemicals, reported to be primarily responsible for immunomodulation activity of the plants. These phytochemicals may act as lead molecules for the development of safe and effective immunomodulators as potential remedies for the prevention and cure of viral diseases. Natural products are known to primarily modulate the immune system in nonspecific ways. A number of plant-based principles have been identified and isolated with potential immunomodulation activity which justify their use in traditional folklore medicine and can form the basis of further specified research. The aim of the current review is to describe and highlight the immunomodulation potential of certain plants along with their bioactive chemical constituents. Relevant literatures of recent years were searched from commonly employed scientific databases on the basis of their ethnopharmacological use. Most of the plants displaying considerable immunomodulation activity are summarized along with their possible mechanisms. These discussions shall hopefully elicit the attention of researchers and encourage further studies on these plant-based immunomodulation products as potential therapy for the management of infectious diseases, including viral ones such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complementary Therapies/methods , Phytotherapy/methods , Plant Preparations/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Animals , Humans , Immunomodulation , Plants, Medicinal , Terpenes/therapeutic use
3.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
4.
Molecules ; 25(21):4878, 2020.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-884345

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.

5.
Front Public Health ; 8: 384, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-854042

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (CoV)-2 (SARS-CoV-2), previously called 2019 novel CoV, emerged from China in late December 2019. This virus causes CoV disease-19 (COVID-19), which has been proven a global pandemic leading to a major outbreak. As of June 19, 2020, the data from the World Health Organization (WHO) showed more than 8.7 million confirmed cases in over 200 countries/regions. The WHO has declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern on January 30, 2020. CoVs cause illnesses that range in severity from the common cold to severe respiratory illnesses and death. Nevertheless, with technological advances and imperative lessons gained from prior outbreaks, humankind is better outfitted to deal with the latest emerging group of CoVs. Studies on the development of in vitro diagnostic tests, vaccines, and drug re-purposing are being carried out in this field. Currently, no approved treatment is available for SARS-CoV-2 given the lack of evidence. The results from preliminary clinical trials have been mixed as far as improvement in the clinical condition and reduction in the duration of treatment are concerned. A number of new clinical trials are currently in progress to test the efficacy and safety of various approved drugs. This review focuses on recent advancements in the field of development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and treatment approaches for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , China/epidemiology , Humans
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