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Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911495

ABSTRACT

A trace element is a chemical element with a concentration (or other measures of an amount) that is very low. The essential TEs, such as copper (Cu), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) and the electrolyte magnesium (Mg) are among the most commonly studied micronutrients. Each element has been shown to play a distinctive role in human health, and TEs, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), are among the essential elements required for the organisms' well-being as they play crucial roles in several metabolic pathways where they act as enzyme co-factors, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Epidemics of infectious diseases are becoming more frequent and spread at a faster pace around the world, which has resulted in major impacts on the economy and health systems. Different trace elements have been reported to have substantial roles in the pathogenesis of viral infections. Micronutrients have been proposed in various studies as determinants of liver disorders, COVID-19 and T2DM risks. This review article sheds light on the roles and mechanisms of micronutrients in the pathogenesis and prevention of chronic hepatitis B, C and E, as well as Coronavirus-19 infection and type-2 diabetes mellitus. An update on the status of the aforementioned micronutrients in pre-clinical and clinical settings is also briefly summarized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Selenium , Trace Elements , Copper/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/prevention & control , Humans , Iron/metabolism , Micronutrients/metabolism , Micronutrients/therapeutic use , Selenium/metabolism , Selenium/therapeutic use , Trace Elements/metabolism , Trace Elements/therapeutic use , Zinc/metabolism , Zinc/therapeutic use
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