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1.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199221093896, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is emerging as an important biomarker of acute physiologic stress in a myriad of medical conditions, and is a confirmed poor prognostic indicator in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the role of NLR in predicting poor outcome in COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed NLR in COVID-19 patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes enrolled into an international 12-center retrospective study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, consecutively admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020. Increased NLR was defined as ≥7.2. Logistic regression models were generated. RESULTS: Incidence of LVO stroke was 38/6698 (.57%). Mean age of patients was 62 years (range 27-87), and mortality rate was 30%. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not predictive of mortality. Elevated NLR and poor vessel recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score of 1 or 2a) synergistically predicted poor outcome (likelihood ratio 11.65, p = .003). Patients with NLR > 7.2 were 6.8 times more likely to die (OR 6.8, CI95% 1.2-38.6, p = .03) and almost 8 times more likely to require prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 7.8, CI95% 1.2-52.4, p = .03). In a multivariate analysis, NLR > 7.2 predicted poor outcome even when controlling for the effect of low TICI score on poor outcome (NLR p = .043, TICI p = .070). CONCLUSIONS: We show elevated NLR in LVO patients with COVID-19 portends significantly worse outcomes and increased mortality regardless of recanalization status. Severe neuro-inflammatory stress response related to COVID-19 may negate the potential benefits of successful thrombectomy.

2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 779217, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775765

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, online education has become an important approach to learning in the information era and an important research topic in the field of educational technology as well as that of education in general. Teacher-student interaction in online education is an important factor affecting students' learning performance. This study employed a questionnaire survey to explore the influence of teacher-student interaction on learning effects in online education as well as the mediating role of psychological atmosphere and learning engagement. The study involved 398 college students studying at Chinese universities as the research object. Participants filled out a self-report questionnaire. The study found that (1) the level of teacher-student interaction positively affected students' learning effects (r = 0.649, p < 0.01). (2) The psychological atmosphere mediated the positive effect of the level of teacher-student interaction on learning effects with mediating effect value of 0.1248. (3) Learning engagement mediated the positive effect of teacher-student interaction on learning effects with a mediating effect value of 0.1539. (4) The psychological atmosphere and learning engagement play a chain-mediating role in the mechanism of teacher-student interaction affecting students' learning effects; that is, teacher-student interaction promotes students' learning engagement by creating a good psychological atmosphere, which, in turn, influences learning effects. The mediating effect value was 0.0403. The results indicate that teacher-student interaction not only directly affects students' learning effects but also influences students' learning effects through the mediating effect of the psychological atmosphere and learning engagement.

3.
Genome Res ; 32(2): 228-241, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642462

ABSTRACT

The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still elusive, which impedes disease progression prediction, differential diagnosis, and targeted therapy. Plasma cell-free RNAs (cfRNAs) carry unique information from human tissue and thus could point to resourceful solutions for pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of cfRNA profiles between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors using serial plasma. Analyses of the cfRNA landscape, potential gene regulatory mechanisms, dynamic changes in tRNA pools upon infection, and microbial communities were performed. A total of 380 cfRNA molecules were up-regulated in all COVID-19 patients, of which seven could serve as potential biomarkers (AUC > 0.85) with great sensitivity and specificity. Antiviral (NFKB1A, IFITM3, and IFI27) and neutrophil activation (S100A8, CD68, and CD63)-related genes exhibited decreased expression levels during treatment in COVID-19 patients, which is in accordance with the dynamically enhanced inflammatory response in COVID-19 patients. Noncoding RNAs, including some microRNAs (let 7 family) and long noncoding RNAs (GJA9-MYCBP) targeting interleukin (IL6/IL6R), were differentially expressed between COVID-19 patients and healthy donors, which accounts for the potential core mechanism of cytokine storm syndromes; the tRNA pools change significantly between the COVID-19 and healthy group, leading to the accumulation of SARS-CoV-2 biased codons, which facilitate SARS-CoV-2 replication. Finally, several pneumonia-related microorganisms were detected in the plasma of COVID-19 patients, raising the possibility of simultaneously monitoring immune response regulation and microbial communities using cfRNA analysis. This study fills the knowledge gap in the plasma cfRNA landscape of COVID-19 patients and offers insight into the potential mechanisms of cfRNAs to explain COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , RNA/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 770125, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512052

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.668407.].

6.
Hum Immunol ; 83(2): 119-129, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499900

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Great international efforts have been put into the development of prophylactic vaccines and neutralizing antibodies. However, the knowledge about the B cell immune response induced by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is still limited. Here, we report a comprehensive characterization of the dynamics of immunoglobin heavy chain (IGH) repertoire in COVID-19 patients. By using next-generation sequencing technology, we examined the temporal changes in the landscape of the patient's immunological status and found dramatic changes in the IGH within the patient's immune system after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Although different patients have distinct immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, by employing clonotype overlap, lineage expansion, and clonotype network analyses, we observed a higher clonotype overlap and substantial lineage expansion of B cell clones 2-3 weeks after the onset of illness, which is of great importance to B-cell immune responses. Meanwhile, for preferences of V gene usage during SARS-CoV-2 infection, IGHV3-74 and IGHV4-34, and IGHV4-39 in COVID-19 patients were more abundant than those of healthy controls. Overall, we present an immunological resource for SARS-CoV-2 that could promote both therapeutic development as well as mechanistic research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Male , Middle Aged
7.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 668407, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337662

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emergent infectious pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is highly contagious and pathogenic. COVID-19 has rapidly swept across the world since it was first discovered in December 2019 and has drawn significant attention worldwide. During the early stages of the outbreak in China, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) were involved in the whole treatment process. As an indispensable part of TCM, Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) played an irreplaceable role in the prevention and treatment of this epidemic. Their use has achieved remarkable therapeutic efficacy during the period of medical observation and clinical treatment of mild, moderate, severe, and critical cases and during convalescence. In order to better propagate and make full use of the benefits of TCM in the treatment of COVID-19, this review will summarize the potential target of SARS-CoV-2 as well as the theoretical basis and clinical efficacy of recommended 22 CPMs by the National Health Commission and the Administration of TCM and local provinces or cities in the treatment of COVID-19. Additionally, the study will further analyze the drug composition, potential active ingredients, potential targets, regulated signaling pathways, and possible mechanisms for COVID-19 through anti-inflammatory and immunoregulation, antiviral, improve lung injury, antipyretic and organ protection to provide meaningful information about the clinical application of CPMs.

9.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
12.
Immunity ; 53(3): 685-696.e3, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a current world-wide public health threat. However, little is known about its hallmarks compared to other infectious diseases. Here, we report the single-cell transcriptional landscape of longitudinally collected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in both COVID-19- and influenza A virus (IAV)-infected patients. We observed increase of plasma cells in both COVID-19 and IAV patients and XIAP associated factor 1 (XAF1)-, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-, and FAS-induced T cell apoptosis in COVID-19 patients. Further analyses revealed distinct signaling pathways activated in COVID-19 (STAT1 and IRF3) versus IAV (STAT3 and NFκB) patients and substantial differences in the expression of key factors. These factors include relatively increase of interleukin (IL)6R and IL6ST expression in COVID-19 patients but similarly increased IL-6 concentrations compared to IAV patients, supporting the clinical observations of increased proinflammatory cytokines in COVID-19 patients. Thus, we provide the landscape of PBMCs and unveil distinct immune response pathways in COVID-19 and IAV patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 24(5): 601-609, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-672021

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Without a specific antiviral treatment or vaccine, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic, affecting over 200 countries worldwide. A better understanding of B- and T-cell immunity is critical to the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A cohort of 129 patients with COVID-19 and 20 suspected cases were enrolled in this study, and a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay (LFIA) and a magnetic chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (MCLIA) were evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 IgM/IgG detection. Additionally, 127 patients with COVID-19 were selected for the detection of IgM and IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate B-cell immunity, and peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were quantified in 95 patients with COVID-19 to evaluate T-cell immunity. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of LFIA-IgM/IgG and MCLIA-IgM/IgG assays for detecting SARS-CoV infection were > 90%, comparable with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection. IgM antibody levels peaked on day 13 and began to fall on day 21, while IgG antibody levels peaked on day 17 and were maintained until tracking ended. Lymphocyte and subset enumeration suggested that lymphocytopenia occurred in patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: LFIA-IgM/IgG and MCLIA-IgM/IgG assays can indicate SARS-CoV-2 infection, which elicits an antibody response. Lymphocytopenia occurs in patients with COVID-19, which possibly weakens the T-cell response.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Child , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Neurosurg Open ; 1(3): okaa008, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665686

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulability and neurovascular events, but data on outcomes is limited. OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical course and outcomes of a case series of COVID-19 patients with a variety of cerebrovascular events. METHODS: We performed a multicentric, retrospective chart review at our three academic tertiary care hospitals, and identified all COVID-19 patients with cerebrovascular events requiring neuro-intensive care and/or neurosurgical consultation. RESULTS: We identified 26 patients between March 1 and May 24, 2020, of whom 12 (46%) died. The most common event was a large-vessel occlusion (LVO) in 15 patients (58%), among whom 8 died (8/15, 53%). A total of 9 LVO patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy, of whom 5 died (5/9, 56%). A total of 7 patients (27%) presented with intracranial hemorrhage. Of the remaining patients, 2 had small-vessel occlusions, 1 had cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, and another had a vertebral artery dissection. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome occurred in 8 patients, of whom 7 died. Mortalities had a higher D-dimer on admission (mean 20 963 ng/mL) than survivors (mean 3172 ng/mL). Admission Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was poor among mortalities (median 7), whereas survivors had a favorable GCS at presentation (median 14) and at discharge (median 14). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may be associated with hemorrhage as well as ischemia, and prognosis appears poorer than expected-particularly among LVO cases, where outcome remained poor despite mechanical thrombectomy. However, a favorable neurological condition on admission and lower D-dimer may indicate a better outcome.

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