Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 92
Filter
2.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):407, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063397

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Immunosuppressed solid organ transplant (SOT) patients have been repeatedly challenged in the COVID-19 pandemic with significant morbidities and mortality following infection and a suppressed immune response to vaccination. The aim of this study was to assess the impact on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality in the presence and absence of vaccination. Method(s): We studied adult (>18 years) patients from across the United States identified using the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) Enclave from Dec 10, 2020-Oct 12, 2021. Using multivariable logistic regression, we determined the odds of developing COVID-19 infection in the 6 months after full vaccination (defined as a breakthrough (BT) infection) in SOT recipients relative to nonimmunosuppressed (non-IS) patients. In SOT patients with BT COVID-19 infection, we then used multivariable logistic regression to determine the association of full and partial vaccination status with major adverse cardiac events, mortality, and additional secondary outcomes in the 90 days following COVID-19 diagnosis relative to unvaccinated/unconfirmed vaccination status SOT recipients). Result(s): Over the study period, 16,075 SOT patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 (515 were partially vaccinated, and 1,868 were fully vaccinated). Relative to non- IS, SOT was associated with an increased odds of BT COVID-19 infection in the 6 months post vaccine, that varied by organ type (i.e. OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.75-2.25 for kidney;OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.70-3.06 for lung), Table 1. In SOT patients who experienced BT COVID-19, full vaccination was associated with a small reduction in adverse outcomes relative to unvaccinated/unconfirmed vaccination status (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.89-0.93 for MARCE;OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.90-0.93 for death;OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.88-0.92 for hospitalization), Table 2. Conclusion(s): SOT patients are at a ~2-fold increased odds of BT COVID-19 infection after vaccination compared with non-IS patients. Vaccination in SOT patients, regardless of product, has a small but significant reduction in the risk of adverse outcomes after a diagnosis of COVID-19, however SOT recipients remain at high risk and should continue to use caution even after vaccination. (Table Presented).

3.
Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae ; 28(19):34-41, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2056461

ABSTRACT

Objective:To determine the therapeutic effect of Gegentang granules on a disease-syndrome mouse model combining human coronavirus 229E(hCoV-229E)pneumonia with Hanshi Yidu Xifei syndrome in vivo. Method: Mice were randomly divided into normal group,infection group,cold-dampness group,model group,chloroquine phosphate group(0.18 g·kg-1),interferon-α2b(IFN-α2b)group(1.83×106 U·kg-1), Gegentang granules high-dose and low-dose groups(6.6,3.3 g·kg-1)with 10 mice in each group. Cold-dampness environment and hCoV-229E infection were used for modeling,and the general status and lung index of mice in each group were observed. The viral load in lung tissue was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction(Real-time PCR),the pathological changes in lung tissue were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin(HE)staining,the levels of serum gastrointestinal hormones and inflammatory factors in lung tissue were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),and the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Result:Comparing with model group,Gegentang granules could significantly alleviate the physical signs of Hanshi Yidu Xifei syndrome,including listlessness,weakness of limbs,sticky stool,etc. Comparing with model group,Gegentang granules high-dose group significantly reduced lung index,histopathological score of interstitial lung and bronchus,and the level of serum motilin(P< 0.05,P<0.01),two doses of Gegentang granules could significantly increase the level of serum gastrin(P< 0.05,P<0.01),the percentage of CD4+ ,CD8+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood(P<0.05,P<0.01),and the level of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)in lung tissue was significantly decreased(P<0.01),and the level of interleukin-6(IL-6)showed decreasing tendency. Conclusion: Gegentang granules has therapeutic effect on model mice. It can improve the appearance and behavior characterization,regulate the level of gastrointestinal hormones,decrease lung index and histopathological score,and possibly play an immunomodulatory role by inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines in lung tissue and restoring the percentage of peripheral blood lymphocytes. © 2022, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Institute of Chinese Materia Medica. All rights reserved.

4.
Chinese Journal of Microbiology and Immunology (China) ; 42(7):520-526, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2055465

ABSTRACT

Objective To effectively express the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in Pichia pastoris and to evaluate its immunogenicity. Methods The gene encoding the RBD protein was synthesized and cloned into the pPICZαA plasmid. After linearization, the plasmid was transferred and integrated into the genome of Pichia pastoris. The expressed RBD protein in culture supernatant was analyzed by Western blot and Biolayer interferometry. After screening, a single clone expressing the RBD protein was selected. The high-level expression of RBD protein was achieved by optimizing the fermentation process, including the salt concentration adjusting of the medium and induction condition optimization (pH, temperature and duration) . The immunogenicity of the expressed RBD protein was evaluated in a mouse model. Results A single clone with a high expression level of RBD protein was obtained and named RBD-X33. The expression level of RBD protein in the fermentation supernatant reached up to 240 mg / L after optimization of the induction condition (HBSM medium, pH = 6. 5 ± 0. 3, 22℃ and 120 h) . In the mouse experiment, the recombinant RBD protein was formulated with Alum + CpG dual adjuvant and injected into mice. The binding IgG antibody levels were up to 2. 7 × 106 tested by ELISA and the neutralizing antibody levels were up to 726. 8 tested by live virus neutralizing antibody assay (prototype) . Conclusions The RBD protein could be efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris and induce stronger immune response in animals. This study suggested that the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein expressed in Pichia pastoris could serve as a candidate antigen in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. © 2022 Society of Microbiology and Immunology. All rights reserved.

5.
31st International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, IJCAI 2022 ; : 2348-2354, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2047071

ABSTRACT

Low-rank tensor factorization or completion is well-studied and applied in various online settings, such as online tensor factorization (where the temporal mode grows) and online tensor completion (where incomplete slices arrive gradually). However, in many real-world settings, tensors may have more complex evolving patterns: (i) one or more modes can grow;(ii) missing entries may be filled;(iii) existing tensor elements can change. Existing methods cannot support such complex scenarios. To fill the gap, this paper proposes a Generalized Online Canonical Polyadic (CP) Tensor factorization and completion framework (named GOCPT) for this general setting, where we maintain the CP structure of such dynamic tensors during the evolution. We show that existing online tensor factorization and completion setups can be unified under the GOCPT framework. Furthermore, we propose a variant, named GOCPTE, to deal with cases where historical tensor elements are unavailable (e.g., privacy protection), which achieves similar fitness as GOCPT but with much less computational cost. Experimental results demonstrate that our GOCPT can improve fitness by up to 2.8% on the JHU Covid data and 9.2% on a proprietary patient claim dataset over baselines. Our variant GOCPTE shows up to 1.2% and 5.5% fitness improvement on two datasets with about 20% speedup compared to the best model. © 2022 International Joint Conferences on Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.

6.
10th IEEE Joint International Information Technology and Artificial Intelligence Conference, ITAIC 2022 ; 2022-June:1133-1138, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018924

ABSTRACT

Catheter tip misalignment can lead to complications in patients together with serious medical malpractice cases. This article aims at the current surge in COVID-19 patients. Using X-ray imaging datasets from COVID-19 patients, previously published on Kaggle as 'RANZCR CLiP - Catheter and Line Position Challenge' and hosted by the Royal Australian and NZ College of Radiologists, a deep-learning algorithm was utilized to detect the position of the patient's catheter and automatically determine whether the catheter tip is misplaced or otherwise. This study employed U-Net to segment and identify catheter position types, together with employing Efficiency net B7 to determine whether the misaligned catheter is misaligned which scores 0.959(AUC). In addition, results were also compared using Efficiency Net B5, ResNet 200D. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1992676

ABSTRACT

One of the common motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is bradykinesia. Automated bradykinesia assessment is critically needed for helping neurologists achieve objective clinical diagnosis and hence provide timely and appropriate medical services. This need has become especially urgent after the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic in late 2019. Currently, the main factor limiting the accurate assessment is the difficulty of mining the fine-grained discriminative motion features. Therefore, we propose a novel contrastive graph convolutional network for automated and objective toe-tapping assessment, which is one of the most important tests of lower-extremity bradykinesia. Specifically, based on joint sequences extracted from videos, a supervised contrastive learning strategy was followed to cluster together the features of each class, thereby enhancing the specificity of the learnt class-specific features. Subsequently, a multi-stream joint sparse learning mechanism was designed to eliminate potentially similar redundant features of joint position and motion, hence strengthening the discriminability of features extracted from different streams. Finally, a spatial-temporal interaction graph convolutional module was developed to explicitly model remote dependencies across time and space, and hence boost the mining of fine-grained motion features. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate that this method achieved remarkable classification performance on a clinical video dataset, with an accuracy of 70.04% and an acceptable accuracy of 98.70%. These results obviously outperformed other existing sensor- and video-based methods. The proposed video-based scheme provides a reliable and objective tool for automated quantitative toe-tapping assessment, and is expected to be a viable method for remote medical assessment and diagnosis. IEEE

8.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1406931

ABSTRACT

Rationale Immune stimulation with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has emerged as a highly effective treatment for several cancer types. Research also suggests these agents may be therapeutic for viral infections. However, by interrupting inhibitory signaling pathways, ICIs can cause immune-related adverse events including pneumonitis. A critical question during the present SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been whether prior ICI treatment aggravates or improves virus-associated lung injury.

9.
International Journal of Business Communication ; : 24, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1978745

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has posed severe challenges that require collaborative efforts from multi-sector organizations. Guided by an institutional theory framework that considers how both organizational fields and national level contexts affect organizations' social partnership communication, the current study examines the COVID-19-related social partnership communication network on social media. The cross-national study using semantic network analysis and exponential random graph models (ERGMs) first maps the meaning of COVID-19 social partnership network, and then investigates the role of organizational fields and a country's political system, economic system, educational system, and cultural system on the formation of interorganizational communication ties surrounding the relief efforts of COVID-19. Results reveal the importance of the political system-such as the presence of populist government, economic disparity, and uncertainty avoidance cultural orientation in shaping the social media-based social partnership communication network. In addition, NGOs from multiple issue areas are actively engaged in the network, whereas corporations from manufacturing and financial industries are active players.

10.
Radiology: Artificial Intelligence ; 4(4), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1968372

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To conduct a prospective observational study across 12 U.S. hospitals to evaluate real-time performance of an interpretable artificial intelligence (AI) model to detect COVID-19 on chest radiographs. Materials and Methods: A total of 95 363 chest radiographs were included in model training, external validation, and real-time validation. The model was deployed as a clinical decision support system, and performance was prospectively evaluated. There were 5335 total real-time predictions and a COVID-19 prevalence of 4.8% (258 of 5335). Model performance was assessed with use of receiver operating characteristic analysis, precision-recall curves, and F1 score. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of race and sex with AI model diagnostic accuracy. To compare model accuracy with the performance of board-certified radiologists, a third dataset of 1638 images was read independently by two radiologists. Results: Participants positive for COVID-19 had higher COVID-19 diagnostic scores than participants negative for COVID-19 (me-dian, 0.1 [IQR, 0.0–0.8] vs 0.0 [IQR, 0.0–0.1], respectively;P, .001). Real-time model performance was unchanged over 19 weeks of implementation (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.70;95% CI: 0.66, 0.73). Model sensitivity was higher in men than women (P = .01), whereas model specificity was higher in women (P = .001). Sensitivity was higher for Asian (P = .002) and Black (P = .046) participants compared with White participants. The COVID-19 AI diagnostic system had worse accuracy (63.5% correct) compared with radiologist predictions (radiologist 1 = 67.8% correct, radiologist 2 = 68.6% correct;McNemar P, .001 for both). Conclusion: AI-based tools have not yet reached full diagnostic potential for COVID-19 and underperform compared with radiologist prediction.

11.
Electronic Library ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1961311

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The deployment of vaccines is the primary task in curbing the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this paper is to understand the public’s opinions on vaccines and then design effective interventions to promote vaccination coverage. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes a research framework based on the spatiotemporal perspective to analyse the public opinion evolution towards COVID-19 vaccine in China. The framework first obtains data through crawler tools. Then, with the help of data mining technologies, such as emotion computing and topic extraction, the evolution characteristics of discussion volume, emotions and topics are explored from spatiotemporal perspectives. Findings: In the temporal perspective, the public emotion declines in the later stage, but overall emotion performance is positive and stabilizing. This decline in emotion is mainly associated with ambiguous information about the COVID-19 vaccine. The research progress of vaccines and the schedule of vaccination have driven the evolution of public discussion topics. In the spatial perspective, the public emotion tends to be positive in 31 regions, whereas local emotion increases and decreases in different stages. The dissemination of distinctive information and the local epidemic prevention and control status may be potential drivers of topic evolution in local regions. Originality/value: The analysis results of media information can assist decision-makers to accurately grasp the subjective thoughts and emotional expressions of the public in terms of spatiotemporal perspective and provide decision support for macro-control response strategies and risk communication. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927733

ABSTRACT

Rationale: While oxygen therapy is standard for patients with pneumonia, a potential for increased oxidant damage exists. Understanding how oxygen therapy impacts inflammatory lung injury with SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) and related viruses will inform patient management. We investigated the effects of fractional inspired oxygen concentrations (FiO2s) of 30 or 60% in a mouse hepatitis virus-1 (MHV-1) model of acute lung injury we developed in A/J mice. Methods: MHV-1, a ß-coronavirus like SARS-CoV-2, can be studied at Biosafety Level-2. Intratracheal installation of MHV-1 in our model produces inflammatory lung injury, progressive arterial desaturation, and lethality over 14d, similar to COVID-19. Using this model, we compared outcomes in animals exposed in sealed chambers to atmospheric FiO2s of 21, 30 or 60% beginning 2h after of MHV-1 challenge and continuing for up to 14d. In each of three experiments, MHV-1 challenged animals were randomized to receive FiO2s of 21, 30 or 60% (10 animals per FiO2 group per experiment, 90 animals total). In another experiment, 30 animals challenged with noninfected viral culture medium were randomized to the same three FiO2s. Animals were observed for up to 14d. Results: Compared to FiO2 21%, chambers with FiO2 30 and 60% had similar humidities and temperatures but slightly lower carbon dioxide levels (CO2, p≤0.05) but all chamber CO2s were in the range of 400-2000 ppm. Compared to animals surviving with FiO2 21% in each of the three experiments [#survivors/#total animals (%)] [1/10 (10%);5/10 (50%);4/10 (40%)], and their survival times (Figure-1), survival was reduced in respective experiments with FiO2 30% [1/10 (10%);2/10 (20%);0/10 (0%)] and FiO2 60% [0/10 (0%);0/10 (0%);0/10 (0%)]. Patterns of survival were similar comparing the three experiments for each FiO2 and when combined, there was a significant dose-related difference in survival across the three FiO2's (p<0.0001) (Figure-1). Compared to FiO2 21%, survival decreased with FiO2 30% (p=0.06) and more so with FiO2 60% (p<0.0001) (log-rank test with Dunnett-Hsu adjustment). All animals challenged with noninfected viral culture medium and exposed similarly to FiO2s 21, 30 or 60% (n=10 per group) survived except one 30% animal that died at 12d despite appearing well. Conclusions: FiO2s of 30 and 60% that are considered therapeutic and relatively safe clinically, markedly worsened survival in mice with MHV-1 pneumonia, a ß-coronavirus like SARS-CoV-2. These findings emphasize the need to better understand how oxygen therapy impacts the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in patients.

13.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927731

ABSTRACT

Rationale: While inspired fractional inspired oxygen concentrations (FiO2s) > 0.60 are avoided clinically when possible due in large part to animal study findings, FiO2s ≤ 0.60 have generally been thought relatively safe in hypoxemic patients. However, increasing attention is now being focused on the effects of conservative versus liberal therapeutic oxygen protocols in critically ill patients, especially in light of the prolonged courses of oxygen therapy SARS-CoV-2 patients are receiving. Notably, in the development of a lethal ß-coronavirus pneumonia model in mice that produces lung injury and progressive reductions in oxygen saturations like SARS-CoV-2, we found that atmospheric FiO2s as low as 0.30 reduced survival compared to room air. This finding prompted us to systematically examine the literature for the experience with FiO2s ≤0.60 but >0.21 in animal models of lung infection and non-infectious injury. Preliminary results from this review are presented here. Methods: In collaboration with a Biomedical Librarian, we performed a systematic literature search of Pubmed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science for relevant citations of published studies through September 30, 2021, using individualized search strategies for each database. Published studies that investigated animals challenged with a lung infection or other injury, and that compared outcomes, including survival, measures of organ injury or other changes, in animals administered therapeutic oxygen levels (FiO2 ≤0.60 but >0.21) versus ones administered room air (FiO2=0.21) were selected for further review. Results: After preliminary title and review of 12,446 retrieved reports and then removal of 2,049 duplicates, 51 s were found that described studies specifically examining an FiO2 ≤0.60 but >0.21 in a preclinical animal model with or without an infectious or noninfectious challenge. Based on findings, animals were challenged with bacteria in 14 studies, lipopolysaccharide in 2, acid aspiration in 2, mechanical ventilation in 1, while 12 each examined the effects of oxygen alone or oxygen with another pharmacologic agent. No study examined FiO2s ≤0.60 with viral challenge. By contrast, we found 520 s specifically describing investigations of FiO2s >0.60 and 258 describing the use of “hyperoxic” oxygen administration in similar types of models. Conclusions: A large preclinical literature identified the adverse effects of FiO2s ≥0.60 and hyperoxia and informed clinical practice. While similar preclinical studies examining FiO2s ≤0.60 are limited, they may be just as informative and should be encouraged in light of ongoing questions regarding the benefits and risks of conservative versus liberal therapeutic oxygen protocols.

14.
Acs Es&T Water ; : 14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927047

ABSTRACT

We demonstrate a new methodology for quantitative trend analysis (QTA) to analyze and interpret SARS-CoV-2 RNA wastewater surveillance results concurrently with clinical case data. This demonstration is based on the work completed under the Ontario (Canada) Wastewater Surveillance Initiative (WSI) by two laboratories in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) at each of four large sewersheds, which were sampled over a 9-month period, along with sewershed-specific clinical case counts. The data from the last 5-months, representing a range of high and low case counts, was used for this demonstration. The QTA integrated clinical and wastewater virus signals, while combining recommendations from the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC) and the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC). The key steps in the QTA consisted of signal normalization with pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), as a fecal biomarker, statistical linear break-point trend analysis and integration of both wastewater virus signal and clinical cases trend results. Using this approach, the wastewater virus and clinical cases trends, direction, and magnitude were clearly identified and provided a unified complementary tool to support public health decisions on a targeted, sewershed-specific basis.

15.
IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922769

ABSTRACT

The long-lasting global pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has changed our daily life in many ways and put heavy burden on our mental health. Having a predictive model of negative emotions during COVID-19 is of great importance for identifying potential risky population. To establish a neural predictive model achieving both good interpretability and predictivity, we have utilized a large-scale (n =542) longitudinal dataset, alongside two independent samples for external validation. We built a predictive model based on psychologically meaningful resting state neural activities. The whole-brain resting-state neural activity and social-psychological profile of the subjects were obtained from Sept. to Dec. 2019 (Time 1). Their negative emotions were tracked and re-assessed twice, on Feb 22 (Time 2) and Apr 24 (Time 3), 2020, respectively. We first applied canonical correlation analysis on both the neural profiles and psychological profiles collected on Time 1, this step selects only the psychological meaningful neural patterns for later model construction. We then trained the neural predictive model using those identified features on data obtained on Time 2. It achieved a good prediction performance (r =0.44, p =8.13 ×10-27). The two most important neural predictors are associated with self-control and social interaction. This study established an effective neural prediction model of negative emotions, achieving good interpretability and predictivity. It will be useful for identifying potential risky population of emotional disorders related to COVID-19. IEEE

16.
2021 IEEE International Conference on Space-Air-Ground Computing, SAGC 2021 ; : 165-166, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1922767

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes the Susceptible-exposed of Small-world Network Model (SSEM) by combining the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model with the Small-world Network (SN) model. The scenarios of COVID-19 propagation in urban public transport network was set by the specific model parameters. A study area, Huicheng District, Huizhou City, Guangdong Province, China, was selected to estimate the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics of COVID-19 within 12 hours based on SSEM. The results show that, without taking protective measures, if the two infectious source were in a bus, after 12 hours, 324 bus stations, 762 infected people and 68.85km2 were covered in the study area. The results of this study will provide a reference for the future study of COVID-19 virus transmission mechanism in the small enclosed environment. © 2021 IEEE.

17.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis ; 30(2):252-270, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918368

ABSTRACT

On analyzing the results of cell-based assays, we have previously shown that perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaf extract (PLE), a food supplement and orally deliverable traditional Chinese medicine approved by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration, effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 by directly targeting virions. PLE was also found to modulate virus-induced cytokine expression levels. In this study, we explored the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of PLE in a hamster model by examining viral loads and virus-induced immunopathology in lung tissues. Experimental animals were intranasally challenged with different SARS-CoV-2 doses. Jugular blood samples and lung tissue specimens were obtained in the acute disease stage (3-4 post-infection days). As expected, SARS-CoV-2 induced lung inflammation and hemorrhagic effusions in the alveoli and perivascular areas;additionally, it increased the expression of several immune markers of lung injury - including lung Ki67-positive cells, Iba-1-positive macrophages, and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils. Virus-induced lung alterations were significantly attenuated by orally administered PLE. In addition, pretreatment of hamsters with PLE significantly reduced viral loads and immune marker expression. A purified active fraction of PLE was found to confer higher antiviral protection. Notably, PLE prevented SARS-CoV-2-induced increase in serum markers of liver and kidney function as well as the decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent fashion. Differently from lung pathology, monitoring of serum biomarkers in Syrian hamsters may allow a more humane assessment of the novel drugs with potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Our results expand prior research by confirming that PLE may exert an in vivo therapeutic activity against SARS-CoV-2 by attenuating viral loads and lung tissue inflammation, which may pave the way for future clinical applications.

18.
ACM TRANSACTIONS ON KNOWLEDGE DISCOVERY FROM DATA ; 16(3), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1909838

ABSTRACT

Online social media provides rich and varied information reflecting the significant concerns of the public during the coronavirus pandemic. Analyzing what the public is concernedwith from social media information can support policy-makers to maintain the stability of the social economy and life of the society. In this article, we focus on the detection of the network public opinions during the coronavirus pandemic. We propose a novel Relational Topic Model for Short texts (RTMS) to draw opinion topics from social media data. RTMS exploits the feature of texts in online social media and the opinion propagation patterns among individuals. Moreover, a dynamic version of RTMS (DRTMS) is proposed to capture the evolution of public opinions. Our experiment is conducted on a real-world dataset which includes 67,592 comments from 14,992 users. The results demonstrate that, compared with the benchmark methods, the proposed RTMS and DRTMS models can detect meaningful public opinions by leveraging the feature of social media data. It can also effectively capture the evolution of public concerns during different phases of the coronavirus pandemic.

19.
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi ; 57(6): 683-691, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903517

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between pathogens in the olfactory cleft area and olfactory disorders in patients with upper respiratory inflammation (URI) during the prevention and control of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: A total of 234 URI patients including acute upper respiratory infection, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), allergic rhinitis (AR) were continuously selected from September 2020 to March 2021 in Beijing Anzhen Hospital and 98 healthy adults were enrolled as controls. The secretions from the olfactory cleft of all subjects were collected with nasal swabs under nasal endoscopy. Multiple real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection method was used to detect nucleic acids of 33 types of respiratory pathogenic microorganism. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test was performed on all patients with URI. URI patients with olfactory dysfunction were followed up for 9 (8, 10) months (M (Q1, Q3)). SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: Among the 98 controls, 9 (9.18%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, including 1 (1.02%) rhinovirus, 1 (1.02%) parainfluenza virus type 3, 3 (3.06%) enterovirus, 1 (1.02%) staphylococcus aureus and 3 (3.06%) Moraxella catarrhalis. Among the 234 URI patients, 111 (47.44%) had olfactory disorders and 123 (52.56%) had normal sense of smell. In the olfactory disorder group (111 cases), 38 cases (34.23%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 4 cases (3.60%) were mixed infection, including 11 cases of rhinovirus (9.91%), 5 cases of coronavirus 229E (4.50%), 2 cases of coronavirus OC43/NL63 (1.80%), 3 cases of parainfluenza virus type 1 (2.70%), 2 cases of enterovirus (1.80%), 1 case of influenza B virus type BV (0.90%), 11 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (9.91%), 7 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (6.31%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.90%). In the normal smell group (123 cases), 18 cases (14.63%) were positive for pathogenic microorganisms, and 1 case (0.81%) was mixed infection, including 3 cases of rhinovirus (2.44%), 4 cases of coronavirus 229E (3.25%), 1 case of Influenza virus type 3 (0.81%), 3 cases of enterovirus (2.44%), 3 cases of Staphylococcus aureus (2.44%), 4 cases of Moraxella catarrhalis (3.25%), and 1 case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.81%). Univariate analysis between the two groups found that there were significant differences in the detection rate of pathogenic microorganisms, rhinovirus and Staphylococcus aureus between the groups (all P<0.05). The detection rate of parainfluenza virus type 1, Staphylococcus aureus, and rhinovirus were different between the patients with olfactory disorder and normal olfactory function in the three subgroups of acute upper respiratory tract infection, CRS and AR, respectively (χ2 value was 3.88, 4.53 and 4.73, respectively, all P<0.05). During the follow-up period, among the 111 patients with olfactory disorder, 71 (63.96%) patients' olfactory function returned to normal, 32 (28.83%) patients' olfactory function improved but not completely returned to normal, 8 (7.21%) patients' olfactory function did not improve. Conclusions: During the prevention and control of COVID-19, rhinovirus or Staphylococcus aureus infection or colonization of URI patients is closely related to olfactory disorders. Parainfluenza virus type 1 infection can cause relatively persistent olfactory disorders in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection. Staphylococcus aureus and rhinovirus colonization are related to the occurrence of olfactory dysfunction in CRS and AR patients respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Olfaction Disorders , Respiratory Tract Infections , Sinusitis , Adult , Coinfection/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation , Rhinovirus , Smell
20.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):18-19, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880917

ABSTRACT

Background: Real-world evidence on effectiveness of booster or additional doses of COVID-19 vaccine is limited. Methods: Using patient-level data from 50 sites in the U.S. National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C), we estimated COVID-19 booster vaccine effectiveness compared to full vaccination alone (completed 2 doses mRNA or 1 dose Janssen vaccine). At each month following full vaccination, we created comparable cohorts of patients with boosters propensity-score matched to those without boosters by age, sex, race/ethnicity, comorbidities, geographic region, prior COVID-19 infection, and calendar month of full vaccination. Booster efficacy was evaluated among patients with and without immunosuppressed/compromised conditions (ISC;HIV infection, solid organ or bone marrow transplant, autoimmune diseases, and cancer). We used Cox regression models to estimate hazards of breakthrough infection (COVID-19 diagnosis after last dose of vaccine) and logistic regression models to compare the risk of death ≤45 days after a breakthrough infection in the boosted vs. matched non-boosted groups. Results: By 11/18/2021, 656390 patients had received full vaccination, and 125409 fully vaccinated had received an additional booster (median time from last vaccine to booster dose: 7.4 months, IQR:6.6, 8.2). At completion of full vaccination, median age was 50 (IQR 33-64) years, 43% male, 50% white, 11% Black, 18% Latinx, 4.8% Asian American/Pacific Islander, and 20% had ISC. People receiving a booster were more likely to be older, male, white, and have ISC. Booster vaccine was significantly associated with a reduced hazard of breakthrough infection (Table). Booster efficacy ranged from 46% (booster receipt 1-4 months after full vaccination) to 83% (receipt 7 months after full vaccination) in people without ISC. Vaccine efficacy was lower, ranging from 43%-65%, in ISC patients (Table). Compared to fully vaccinated patients without booster receipt, patients with booster had an 83% (OR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.28) reduced risk of COVID-19 related death, independent of demographics, geographic region, comorbidities, ISC, prior COVID-19 infection, and time of full vaccination. Conclusion: A booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine has high effectiveness in reducing breakthrough infection risk among all fully vaccinated individuals, though only with moderate effectiveness among ISC patients. Nonetheless, booster vaccination significantly reduced risk for COVID-19 related death regardless of ISC status.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL