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2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(13): 3020-3027, 2020 Jul.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679282

ABSTRACT

According to the classification of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of coronavirus disease 2019 by the national competent authority, this study determined that human coronavirus 229 E(HCoV-229 E) was infected in a mouse model of cold and dampness syndrome, so as to build the human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome model. The model can simulate the traditional Chinese medicine treatment of common disease syndromes in Coronavirus Disease 2019 Diagnosis and Treatment Program(the sixth edition for trial). Specific steps were as follows. ABALB/c mouse model of cold and dampness syndrome was established, based on which, HCoV-229 E virus was infected; then the experiment was divided into normal control group, infection control group, cold-dampness control group, cold-dampness infection group(the model group), high-dose Chaiyin Particles group(8.8 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and low-dose Chaiyin Particles group(4.4 g·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). On the day of infection, Chaiyin Particles was given for three consecutive days. Lung tissues were collected the day after the last dose, and the lung index and inhibition rate were calculated. The nucleic acid of lung tissue was extracted, and the HCoV-229 E virus load was detected by Real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR. Blood leukocytes were separated, and the percentage of T and B lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Lung tissue protein was extracted, and IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ contents were detected by ELISA. High and low-dose Chaiyin Particles significantly reduced the lung index(P<0.01) of mice of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome, and the inhibition rates were 61.02% and 55.45%, respectively. Compared with the model control group, high and low-dose Chaiyin Particles significantly increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.05, P<0.01), and reduced IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01). In vitro results showed that TC_(50), TC_0, IC_(50) and TI of Chaiyin Particles were 4.46 mg·mL~(-1), 3.13 mg·mL~(-1), 1.12 mg·mL~(-1) and 4. The control group of in vitro culture cells had no HCoV-229 E virus nucleic acid expression. The expression of HCoV-229 E virus nucleic acid in the virus control group was 1.48×10~7 copies/mL, and Chaiyin Particles significantly reduced HCoV-229 E expression at doses of 3.13 and 1.56 mg·mL~(-1), and the expression of HCoV-229 E nucleic acid was 9.47×10~5 and 9.47×10~6 copies/mL, respectively. Chaiyin Particles has a better effect on the mouse model with human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome, and could play a role by enhancing immunity, and reducing inflammatory factor expression.

3.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635481

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent for COVID-19 pneumonia. Little is known about the kinetics, tissue distribution, cross-reactivity and neutralization antibody response in COVID-19 patients. Two groups of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients were enrolled in this study, including 12 severe patients in ICUs who needed mechanical ventilation and 11 mild patients in isolation wards. Serial clinical samples were collected for laboratory detection. Results showed that most of the severe patients had viral shedding in a variety of tissues for 20~40 days post onset of disease (8/12, 66.7%); while the majority of mild patients had viral shedding restricted to the respiratory tract and had no detectable virus RNA after 10 days post-onset (9/11, 81.8%). Mild patients showed significantly lower IgM response compared with that of the severe group. IgG responses were detected in most patients in both severe and mild groups at 9 days post onset and remained high level throughout the study. Antibodies cross-reactive to SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 were detected in COVID-19 patients but not in MERS patients. High-levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced after about 10 days post onset in both severe and mild patients which were higher in the severe group. SARS-CoV-2 pseudotype neutralization test and focus reduction neutralization test with authentic virus showed consistent results. Sera from COVID-19 patients, but not convalescent SARS and MERS patients inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and N IgG level exhibited moderate correlation with neutralization titers in patients' plasma. This study improves our understanding of immune response in human after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

5.
Cell ; 2020 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592236

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is a virulent pneumonia, with >4,000,000 confirmed cases worldwide and >290,000 deaths as of May 15, 2020. It is critical that vaccines and therapeutics be developed very rapidly. Mice, the ideal animal for assessing such interventions, are resistant to SARS-CoV-2. Here, we overcome this difficulty by exogenous delivery of human ACE2 with a replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad5-hACE2). Ad5-hACE2-sensitized mice developed pneumonia characterized by weight loss, severe pulmonary pathology, and high-titer virus replication in lungs. Type I interferon, T cells, and, most importantly, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) are critical for virus clearance and disease resolution in these mice. Ad5-hACE2-transduced mice enabled rapid assessments of a vaccine candidate, of human convalescent plasma, and of two antiviral therapies (poly I:C and remdesivir). In summary, we describe a murine model of broad and immediate utility to investigate COVID-19 pathogenesis and to evaluate new therapies and vaccines.

6.
Nature ; 2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381745

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents a global health emergency that is in urgent need of intervention1-3. The entry of SARS-CoV-2 into its target cells depends on binding between the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein and its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)2,4-6. Here we report the isolation and characterization of 206 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies derived from single B cells from 8 individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2. We identified antibodies that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2; this activity correlates with competition with ACE2 for binding to RBD. Unexpectedly, the anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and the infected plasma did not cross-react with the RBDs of SARS-CoV or Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV), although there was substantial plasma cross-reactivity to their trimeric spike proteins. Analysis of the crystal structure of RBD-bound antibody revealed that steric hindrance inhibits viral engagement with ACE2, thereby blocking viral entry. These findings suggest that anti-RBD antibodies are largely viral-species-specific inhibitors. The antibodies identified here may be candidates for development of clinical interventions against SARS-CoV-2.

7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1465-1472, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324716

ABSTRACT

In the previous research, our laboratory established a mouse model combining disease with syndrome of human coronavi-rus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome, based on the national traditional Chinese medicine clinical classification of Novel Coronavirus Infected Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment Plan. In this study, a mouse model combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome was used to evaluate the effectiveness of Reyanning Mixture to provide animal experimental support for clinical application. Mice were divided into normal group, 229 E infection group, cold-dampness group, cold-dampness+229 E infection group(the model group), Reyanning high and low dose groups. The cold-dampness group, cold-dampness+229 E infection group, two Reyanning groups were given cold and damp stimulation for 7 days. On the 5 th day, the 229 E infection group, cold-dampness+229 E infection group, and two Reyanning groups were infected with HCoV-229 E virus. Reyanning was administered for 3 days, starting from the day of infection. Blood was collected on the 4 th day and the lung tissue was dissected to calculate the lung index and inhibition rate; flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of T and B lymphocytes in peripheral blood; RT-PCR was used to detect the nucleic acid virus load in lung tissue; ELISA was used to detect motilin and gastrin in serum, and inflammatory factors TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in lung tissue proteins. Reyanning Mixture could reduce the lung index(P<0.01) of coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung; it could significantly increase the percentage of CD8~+ T lymphocytes and CD4~+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood of model mice(P<0.05, P<0.01). The low dose of Reyanning could effectively increase the percentage of total B lymphocytes(P<0.05), reduce virus load in lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 in the lung tissue of model mice(P<0.01), reduce the content of motilin in the serum of model mice(P<0.01). Reyanning Mixture convey a better effect in treating coronavirus pneumonia mice with pestilence attacking the lung. It manifested obvious effects in improving lung lesions, enhancing the gastrointestinal function of mice, improving the autoimmune function of mice, and reducing the expression of inflammatory factors in vivo, which could provide evidences for clinical research.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Humans , Lung , Mice
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(7): 1473-1480, 2020 Apr.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324715

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to investigate the therapeutic effect of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid recommended by Provincial Novel Coronary Virus Pneumonia Treatment Scheme on the treatment of BALB/c mice with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome and to explore its clinical application in the treatment of novel coronavirus pneumonia, and to provide laboratory data support for clinical Chinese medicine. According to the classification of syndromes of novel coronavirus pneumonia by the national competent department of traditional Chinese medicine, this study determined that human coronavirus 229 E(HCoV-229 E)-infected mouse model of cold and dampness syndrome can be used to study human coronavirus pneumonia combined with pestilence attacking the lung syndrome model. This model is suitable for simulating traditional Chinese medicine treatment of common disease syndromes in Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment program(trial implementation of the sixth edition). Specific steps are as follows. BALB/c mice of cold and dampness syndrome is infected with HCoV-229 E virus, and were divided into normal control group, infection control group, cold-dampness control group, cold-dampness infection group(the model group), and Compound Qilan Oral Liquid high dose group(22 mL·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) and low dose group(11 mL·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)). On the day of infection, the Compound Qilan Oral Liquid was administered for three consecutive days. On the last dosing day, the lung tissue was dissected, and the lung index and inhibition rate were calculated. The nucleic acid of lung tissue was extracted and the HCoV-229 E virus load was detected by RT-PCR. Blood leukocytes were separated and the percentage of T and B lymphocytes was detected by flow cytometry. Lung tissue protein was extracted and the contents of IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected by ELISA. Serum was separated and the contents of gastrin(GAS) and motilin(MTL) were detected by ELISA. Histopathological analysis was performed with lung tissue. The high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced the lung index(P<0.01) of mice with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome, and the inhibition rates were 59.01% and 47.72%, respectively. Compared with the model control group, the high and low doses of Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid significantly reduced lung tissue viral load(P<0.01), increased cross blood CD4~+ T lymphocytes, CD8~+ T lymphocytes and total B lymphocyte percentage(P<0.01), reduced serum motilin content(P<0.01), reduced IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels in lungs(P<0.01) and reduced lung tissue inflammation. Compound Qinlan Oral Liquid has a better effect on the mouse model with combining disease with syndrome of human coronavirus pneumonia with pestilence attacking lung syndrome, which may attribute to its function of in virus replication inhibition, gastrointestinal function improvement, immunity enhancement, and inflammatory factor reduction.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Lung , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
9.
J Virol ; 94(15)2020 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324607

ABSTRACT

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory disease in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. We isolated the clade B MERS-CoV ChinaGD01 strain from a patient infected during the South Korean MERS outbreak in 2015 and compared the phylogenetics and pathogenicity of MERS-CoV EMC/2012 (clade A) and ChinaGD01 (clade B) in vitro and in vivo Genome alignment analysis showed that most clade-specific mutations occurred in the orf1ab gene, including mutations that were predicted to be potential glycosylation sites. Minor differences in viral growth but no significant differences in plaque size or sensitivity to beta interferon (IFN-ß) were detected between these two viruses in vitro ChinaGD01 virus infection induced more weight loss and inflammatory cytokine production in human DPP4-transduced mice. Viral titers were higher in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice than with EMC/2012 infection. Decreased virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers were detected in the lungs of ChinaGD01-infected mice. In conclusion, MERS-CoV evolution induced changes to reshape its pathogenicity and virulence in vitro and in vivo and to evade adaptive immune response to hinder viral clearance.IMPORTANCE MERS-CoV is an important emerging pathogen and causes severe respiratory infection in humans. MERS-CoV strains from early epidemic clade A and contemporary epidemic clade B have not been phenotypically characterized to compare their abilities to infect cells and mice. In this study, we showed that a clade B virus ChinaGD01 strain caused more severe disease in mice, with delayed viral clearance, increased inflammatory cytokines, and decreased antiviral T cell responses, than the early clade A virus EMC/2012. Given the differences in pathogenicity of different clades of MERS-CoV, periodic assessment of currently circulating MERS-CoV is needed to monitor potential severity of zoonotic disease.

11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 991-993, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-133551

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 caused a major outbreak of severe pneumonia (COVID-19) in humans. Viral RNA was detected in multiple organs in COVID-19 patients. However, infectious SARS-CoV-2 was only isolated from respiratory specimens. Here, infectious SARS-CoV-2 was successfully isolated from urine of a COVID-19 patient. The virus isolated could infect new susceptible cells and was recognized by its' own patient sera. Appropriate precautions should be taken to avoid transmission from urine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/urine , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/urine , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Aged , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Vero Cells
12.
J Travel Med ; 2020 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108962

ABSTRACT

Stringent non-pharmaceutical measures to contain the COVID-19 outbreak in China also significantly reduced the spread of influenza in the winter season 2020.

13.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 2020 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-88716

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome, hypercoagulability, hypertension, and multiorgan dysfunction. Effective antivirals with safe clinical profile are urgently needed to improve the overall prognosis. In an analysis of a randomly collected cohort of 124 patients with Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), we found that hypercoagulability as indicated by elevated concentrations of D-dimers was associated with disease severity. By virtual screening of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug library, we identified an anticoagulation agent dipyridamole (DIP) in silico, which suppressed SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. In a proof-of-concept trial involving 31 patients with COVID-19, DIP supplementation was associated with significantly decreased concentrations of D-dimers (P<0.05), increased lymphocyte and platelet recovery in the circulation, and markedly improved clinical outcomes in comparison to the control patients. In particular, all 8 of the DIP-treated severely ill patients showed remarkable improvement: 7 patients (87.5%) achieved clinical cure and were discharged from the hospitals while the remaining 1 patient (12.5%) was in clinical remission.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 707-713, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18586

ABSTRACT

This study aims to analyze the different clinical characteristics between children and their families infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Clinical data from nine children and their 14 families were collected, including general status, clinical, laboratory test, and imaging characteristics. All the children were detected positive result after their families onset. Three children had fever (22.2%) or cough (11.2%) symptoms and six (66.7%) children had no symptom. Among the 14 adult patients, the major symptoms included fever (57.1%), cough (35.7%), chest tightness/pain (21.4%), fatigue (21.4%) and sore throat (7.1%). Nearly 70% of the patients had normal (71.4%) or decreased (28.6%) white blood cell counts, and 50% (7/14) had lymphocytopenia. There were 10 adults (71.4%) showed abnormal imaging. The main manifestations were pulmonary consolidation (70%), nodular shadow (50%), and ground glass opacity (50%). Five discharged children were admitted again because their stool showed positive result in SARS-CoV-2 PCR. COVID-19 in children is mainly caused by family transmission, and their symptoms are mild and prognosis is better than adult. However, their PCR result in stool showed longer time than their families. Because of the mild or asymptomatic clinical process, it is difficult to recognize early for pediatrician and public health staff.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Adult , Chest Pain , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cough , Family Health , Feces/virology , Female , Fever , Humans , Infant , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies
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