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1.
Journal of food and drug analysis ; 30(2):252-270, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2147169

ABSTRACT

On analyzing the results of cell-based assays, we have previously shown that perilla (Perilla frutescens) leaf extract (PLE), a food supplement and orally deliverable traditional Chinese medicine approved by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration, effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 by directly targeting virions. PLE was also found to modulate virus-induced cytokine expression levels. In this study, we explored the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of PLE in a hamster model by examining viral loads and virus-induced immunopathology in lung tissues. Experimental animals were intranasally challenged with different SARS-CoV-2 doses. Jugular blood samples and lung tissue specimens were obtained in the acute disease stage (3–4 post-infection days). As expected, SARS-CoV-2 induced lung inflammation and hemorrhagic effusions in the alveoli and perivascular areas;additionally, it increased the expression of several immune markers of lung injury – including lung Ki67-positive cells, Iba-1-positive macrophages, and myeloperoxidase-positive neutrophils. Virus-induced lung alterations were significantly attenuated by orally administered PLE. In addition, pretreatment of hamsters with PLE significantly reduced viral loads and immune marker expression. A purified active fraction of PLE was found to confer higher antiviral protection. Notably, PLE prevented SARS-CoV-2-induced increase in serum markers of liver and kidney function as well as the decrease in serum high-density lipoprotein and total cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent fashion. Differently from lung pathology, monitoring of serum biomarkers in Syrian hamsters may allow a more humane assessment of the novel drugs with potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. Our results expand prior research by confirming that PLE may exert an in vivo therapeutic activity against SARS-CoV-2 by attenuating viral loads and lung tissue inflammation, which may pave the way for future clinical applications.

2.
Bioeng Transl Med ; 5(3): e10177, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898553

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put tremendous strain on healthcare systems worldwide. It is challenging for clinicians to differentiate COVID-19 from other acute respiratory tract infections via clinical symptoms because those who are infected display a wide range of symptoms. An effective, point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tool could mitigate healthcare system strain, protect healthcare professionals, and support quarantine efforts. We believe that a POC tool can be developed that would be rapid, easy to use, and inexpensive. It could be used in the home, in resource-limited areas, and even in clinical settings. In this article, we summarize the current state of COVID-19 diagnostic methods and make a case for an all-in-one, highly sensitive POC assay that integrates antibody detection, protein detection, and serum cytokine detection to diagnose COVID-19 infection. We believe this article will provide insights into the current state of diagnostics for COVID-19, and promote additional research and tool development that could be exceptionally impactful.

3.
Front Bioeng Biotechnol ; 10: 796996, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731753

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a globally devastating impact. This highly contagious virus has significantly overburdened and undermined medical systems. While most infected patients experience only mild symptoms, those who are severely affect require urgent medical interventions and some develop acute respiratory failure and require mechanical ventilation. The broad and potentially deadly impact of infection underscores the critical need for early recognition, especially for those at risk for respiratory failure. Those who are severely impacted and at high risk for respiratory failure have been found to present high levels of serum cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6). Timely diagnosis and management of those at risk for respiratory failure is crucial. Measurement of IL-6 may provide a means for distinguishing such patients. Currently, most serum IL-6 detection relies on the use of laboratory-based conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Although some rapid assays have been developed recently, they need to be conducted by specific technicians in central laboratory settings with advanced and expensive equipment. In this study, we propose an IL-6 test strip combined with a spectrum-based optical reader for early recognition of COVID-19-infected patients at imminent risk of acute respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilator support. For our analyses, clinical demographic data and sera samples were obtained from three medical centers, and test strip specificity and detection performance were analyzed. This would help healthcare personnel stratify the risk of respiratory failure and provide prompt, and suitable management.

4.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0236221, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705650

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the long-term health consequences of COVID-19 are not fully understood. We aimed to determine the long-term lung pathology and blood chemistry changes in Syrian hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were inoculated with 105 PFU of SARS-CoV-2, and changes post-infection (pi) were observed for 20 days. On days 5 and 20 pi, the lungs were harvested and processed for pathology and viral load count. Multiple blood samples were collected every 3 to 5 days to observe dynamic changes in blood chemistry. Infected hamsters showed consistent weight loss until day 7 pi At day 5 pi, histopathology of the lungs showed moderate to severe inflammation and the virus could be detected. These results indicate that SARS-CoV-2 has an acute onset and recovery course in the hamster infection model. During the acute onset, blood triglyceride levels increased significantly at day 3 pi During the recovery course, uric acid and low-density lipoprotein levels increased significantly, but the total protein and albumin levels decreased. Together, our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters not only causes lung damage but also causes long-term changes in blood biochemistry during the recovery process. IMPORTANCE COVID-19 is now considered a multiorgan disease with a wide range of manifestations. There are increasing reports of persistent and long-term effects after acute COVID-19, but the long-term health consequences of COVID-19 are not fully understood. This study reported for the first time the use of blood samples collected continuously in a SARS-CoV-2-infected hamster model, which provides more information about the dynamic changes in blood biochemistry during the acute and recovery phases of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection in hamsters not only causes lung damage but also causes long-term changes in blood biochemistry during the recovery process. The study may be used by several researchers and clinicians, especially those who are studying potential treatments for patients with post-acute COVID-19 syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mesocricetus , Uric Acid/blood
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(2)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705620

ABSTRACT

As of August 2021, there have been over 200 million confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and more than 4 million COVID-19-related deaths globally. Although real-time polymerase chain reaction is considered to be the primary method of detection for SARS-CoV-2 infection, the use of serological assays for detecting COVID-19 antibodies has been shown to be effective in aiding with diagnosis, particularly in patients who have recovered from the disease and those in later stages of infection. Since it has a high detection rate and few limitations compared to conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay protocols, we used a lateral flow immunoassay as our diagnostic tool of choice. Since lateral flow immunoassay results interpreted by the naked eye may lead to erroneous diagnoses, we developed an innovative, portable device with the capacity to capture a high-resolution reflectance spectrum as a means of promoting diagnostic accuracy. We combined this spectrum-based device with commercial lateral flow immunoassays to detect the neutralizing antibody in serum samples collected from 30 COVID-19-infected patients (26 mild cases and four severe cases). The results of our approach, lateral flow immunoassays coupled with a spectrum-based reader, demonstrated a 0.989 area under the ROC curve, 100% sensitivity, 95.7% positive predictive value, 87.5% specificity, and 100% negative predictive value. As a result, our approach exhibited great value for neutralizing antibody detection. In addition to the above tests, we also tested plasma samples from 16 AstraZeneca-vaccinated (ChAdOx1nCoV-19) patients and compared our approach and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results to see whether our approach could be applied to vaccinated patients. The results showed a high correlation between these two approaches, indicating that the lateral flow immunoassay coupled with a spectrum-based reader is a feasible approach for diagnosing the presence of a neutralizing antibody in both COVID-19-infected and vaccinated patients.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(18)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409702

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with high infectivity and mortality has caused severe social and economic impacts worldwide. Growing reports of COVID-19 patients with multi-organ damage indicated that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) may also disturb the cardiovascular system. Herein, we used human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) as the in vitro platform to examine the consequence of SARS-CoV2 infection on iCMs. Differentiated iCMs expressed the primary SARS-CoV2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme-II (ACE2) and the transmembrane protease serine type 2 (TMPRSS2) receptor suggesting the susceptibility of iCMs to SARS-CoV2. Following the infection of iCMs with SARS-CoV2, the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein was detected in the host cells, demonstrating the successful infection. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the SARS-CoV2 infection upregulates several inflammation-related genes, including the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The pretreatment of iCMs with TNF-α for 24 h, significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, SASR-CoV2 entry receptors. The TNF-α pretreatment enhanced the entry of GFP-expressing SARS-CoV2 pseudovirus into iCMs, and the neutralization of TNF-α ameliorated the TNF-α-enhanced viral entry. Collectively, SARS-CoV2 elevated TNF-α expression, which in turn enhanced the SARS-CoV2 viral entry. Our findings suggest that, TNF-α may participate in the cytokine storm and aggravate the myocardial damage in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells , Myocardium/cytology , Myocardium/immunology , Myocardium/pathology , Myocytes, Cardiac/metabolism , Myocytes, Cardiac/virology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Up-Regulation/immunology , Virus Internalization/drug effects
7.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(1): 9-13, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010670

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has brought an unprecedented impact upon the global economy and public health. Although the SARS-CoV-2 virology has been gradually investigated, measures to combat this new threat in public health are still absent. To date, no certificated drug or vaccine has been developed for the treatment or prevention of coronavirus disease Extensive researches and international coordination has been conducted to rapidly develop novel vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Several major breakthroughs have been made through the identification of the genetic sequence and structural/non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2, which enabled the development of RNA-, DNA-based vaccines, subunit vaccines, and attenuated viral vaccines. In this review article, we present an overview of the recent advances of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and the challenges that may be encountered in the development process, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of these approaches that may help in effectively countering COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
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