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1.
Journal of Affective Disorders ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2004181

ABSTRACT

Introduction COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented psychological affection that might impact the nationwide vaccination program in China. This study was to explore the association between COVID-19 vaccination and psychological disorders among healthcare workers. Methods The study included 1571 healthcare workers from an anonymous online survey. Participants' sociodemographic characteristics, uptake data for the COVID-19 vaccine, and scores of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21) were collected. Nonparametric tests were conducted to compare the mean scores of DASS-21 between different subgroups. The potential factors related to psychological disorders of healthcare workers were analyzed using logistic regression. Results The vaccination rate was 69.6 %, the incidence of vaccine-related adverse events was 35.13 %, and the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress were 24.8 %, 32 %, and 33.4 % in this study, respectively. Compared to vaccinated participants (single-dose and double-dose vaccines), unvaccinated participants got significantly higher mean scores of DASS-21 (p < 0.05 for all). Vaccinated participants who suffered no adverse events scored significantly lower than those who suffered 1–2 or ≥3 adverse events (p < 0.05 for all). Vaccination was negatively associated with higher depression, anxiety, and stress, however, the number of vaccine-related adverse events was positively associated with them. Limitations As this is a cross-sectional study, we could only speculate on the causality. Conclusions An obvious impact of the psychological disorders on the COVID-19 vaccine coverage and related adverse events was detected in this study. Public health agencies should attach great importance to the psychological states of our citizens before getting vaccinated.

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 895121, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993857

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly influenced the world. In wave after wave, many countries suffered from the pandemic, which caused social instability, hindered global growth, and harmed mental health. Although research has been published on various mental health issues during the pandemic, some profound effects on mental health are difficult to observe and study thoroughly in the short term. The impact of the pandemic on mental health is still at a nascent stage of research. Based on the existing literature, we used bibliometric tools to conduct an overall analysis of mental health research during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: Researchers from universities, hospitals, communities, and medical institutions around the world used questionnaire surveys, telephone-based surveys, online surveys, cross-sectional surveys, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, and systematic umbrella reviews as their research methods. Papers from the three academic databases, Web of Science (WOS), ProQuest Academic Database (ProQuest), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), were included. Their previous research results were systematically collected, sorted, and translated and CiteSpace 5.1 and VOSviewers 1.6.13 were used to conduct a bibliometric analysis of them. Result: Authors with papers in this field are generally from the USA, the People's Republic of China, the UK, South Korea, Singapore, and Australia. Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and Shanghai Jiao Tong University are the top three institutions in terms of the production of research papers on the subject. The University of Toronto, Columbia University, and the University of Melbourne played an important role in the research of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. The numbers of related research papers in the USA and China are significantly larger than those in the other countries, while co-occurrence centrality indexes in Germany, Italy, England, and Canada may be higher. Conclusion: We found that the most mentioned keywords in the study of mental health research during the COVID-19 pandemic can be divided into three categories: keywords that represent specific groups of people, that describe influences and symptoms, and that are related to public health policies. The most-cited issues were about medical staff, isolation, psychological symptoms, telehealth, social media, and loneliness. Protection of the youth and health workers and telemedicine research are expected to gain importance in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health
3.
J Integr Med ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are expected to have a worse prognosis than mild cases. Shenhuang Granule (SHG) has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for severe COVID-19 in a previous randomized clinical trial, but the active chemical constituents and underlying mechanisms of action remain unknown. The goal of this study is to explore the chemical basis and mechanisms of SHG in the treatment of severe COVID-19, using network pharmacology. METHODS: Ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to screen chemical constituents of SHG. Putative therapeutic targets were predicted by searching traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology database and analysis platform, SwissTargetPrediction, and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. The target protein-protein interaction network and enrichment analysis were performed to investigate the hub genes and presumptive mechanisms. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to verify the stability and interaction between the key chemical constituents of SHG and COVID-19 protein targets. RESULTS: Forty-five chemical constituents of SHG were identified along with 131 corresponding therapeutic targets, including hub genes such as HSP90AA1, MMP9, CXCL8, PTGS2, IFNG, DNMT1, TYMS, MDM2, HDAC3 and ABCB1. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that SHG mainly acted on the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway and cAMP signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed that the key constituents had a good affinity with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 protein targets. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that ginsenoside Rg4 formed a stable protein-ligand complex with helicase. CONCLUSION: Multiple components of SHG regulated multiple targets to inhibit virus invasion and cytokine storm through several signaling pathways; this provides a scientific basis for clinical applications and further experiments.

4.
Front Psychiatry ; 13: 892014, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903187

ABSTRACT

To investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and analyze the influencing factors of PTSS among adolescents in a large sample study during the COVID-19 pandemic, we did a cross-sectional study by collecting demographic data and mental health measurements from a large group of 175,318 adolescents in 32 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) that was used to measure the PTSS of the participants. The results showed that the prevalence of PTSS was 35.7% in Chinese adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that, for the personal risk factors, the older age, female gender, the personality domains of extroversion, the irregular sleep schedule, the lack of aerobic exercise, and the lack of peer support were associated with the higher levels of PTSS. The family subjective and objective factors were associated with higher levels of PTSS. Our findings suggested that family factors are the most important factors that affect Chinese adolescents' PTSS due to the longtime home quarantine.

5.
Work, Employment and Society ; : 09500170221080870, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1883423

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, millions of workers globally have been forced to work from home. Empirical data from Chinese cities in the Hubei province reveal work productivity decreased among many respondents working from home in 2020, primarily due to family interference with work. Such interference stems not only from the domain of daily life but also from other family members? e-working and e-learning. Conversely, respondents? work interferes with family;thus, interference operates bi-directionally. This article proposes an analytical framework of work-family interference along three dimensions: work-daily life, work-work, work-study, and each dimension can be understood through four distinct aspects: temporality, physicality, vocality, digitality. Remote workers encounter ?assemblages of work-family interference?, consisting of a heterogeneous mixture of these dimensions and aspects. Furthermore, some factors (e.g., living patterns, work culture, digital infrastructure) constrain effective work-family boundary management among urban households.

7.
Hip Pelvis ; 34(1): 25-34, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771580

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Mortality rates following hip fracture surgery have been well-studied. This study was conducted to examine mortality rates in asymptomatic patients presenting for treatment of acute hip fractures with concurrent positive COVID-19(+) tests compared to those with negative COVID-19(-) tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 149 consecutive patients undergoing hip fracture surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic at two academic medical centers were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups for comparative analysis: one group included asymptomatic patients with COVID-19+ tests versus COVID-19- tests. The primary outcome was mortality at 30-days and 90-days. Results: COVID-19+ patients had a higher mortality rate than COVID-19- patients at 30-days (26.7% vs 6.0%, P=0.005) and 90-days (41.7% vs 17.2%, P=0.046) and trended towards an increased length of hospital stay (10.1±6.2 vs 6.8±3.8 days, P=0.06). COVID-19+ patients had more pre-existing respiratory disease (46.7% vs 11.2%, P=0.0002). Results of a Cox regression analysis showed an increased risk of mortality at 30-days and 90-days from COVID-19+ status alone without an increased risk of death in patients with pre-existing chronic respiratory disease. Conclusion: Factors including time to surgery, age, preexisting comorbidities, and postoperative ambulatory status have been proven to affect mortality and complications in hip fracture patients; however, a positive COVID-19 test result adds another variable to this process. Implementation of protocols that will promote prompt orthogeriatric assessments, expedite patient transfer, limit operating room traffic, and optimize anesthesia time can preserve the standard of care in this unique patient population.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313379

ABSTRACT

Background: This article retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics and CT characteristics of chest CT of 10 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diagnosed in Heilongjiang Province. Methods: : A retrospective analysis of 10 COVID-19 patients confirmed by designated hospitals in Heilongjiang Province. Results: : The clinical manifestations were mainly fever (80%) and cough (50%). Laboratory tests showed elevated C-reactive protein (70%) and serum amyloid A (80%). CT mainly manifests as ground-glass opacity (100%) in the lung, more than two lung lobes (90%), and the lesions are mostly located in the right upper lobe (80%), and lobular septum thickening (60%) is common. Conclusions: : In this group of patients with COVID-19, the typical CT manifestations are double lung sheet ground-glass opacity, which are mainly distributed in the subpleural area, and the range of involvement is more than or equal to two lung lobes, “paving stones” changes;pulmonary lesions were absorbed and fibrous cord foci were formed during the transition period. It is worth noting that hilum, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion are less common. During the study period, follow-up imaging performed by some patients showed mild / moderate disease progression and gradually dissipating.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311955

ABSTRACT

Background: Since December 2019, acute respiratory disease (ARD) caused by 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) rapidly spread throughout China. Children and adults seemed to differ in the clinical course of the disease. The purpose of the current study is to comparatively analyze the clinical characteristics of children and adult patients with 2019-nCoV infection and to explore the possible causes for the discrepant aspects. Methods: : In this retrospective study, the medical records of 32 cases confirmed with 2019-nCoV ARD from Xi'an eighth hospital (Shaanxi, China) from January 31 to February 16, 2020 were reviewed. Results: : In all 32 patients contained 7 children and 25 adults. All children were family cluster. For adult patients, local residents of Wuhan, recently travelled to Wuhan, patient contacted with people from Wuhan were 14 (56%), 10 (40%), 1 (4%), respectively. The median incubation period of children and adult was 5 days (range, 3 to 12) and 4 days (range, 2 to 12), respectively. Altogether 10 (40%) adult patients had underlying conditions significantly, but no children had. Fever (Children 71.4% vs. Adult 96%) and cough (Children 71.4% vs. Adult 76%) were the most common symptoms in both groups. The third symptom observed in children was diarrhea and/or vomiting (57.1%), for adult it was myalgia or fatigue (52%). On admission, 5 (71.4%) children patients showed pneumonia roughly the same as adult patients (20, 80%), and that the two group shared a multitude of common imaging characteristics. 20% of adult with leucopoenia, but leukocytosis was significantly more frequently in children (28.6%, P=0.014). More children had elevated creatine kinase isoenzyme (57.1% vs. 4%, P=0.004). All patients were discharged after symptomatic treatment, including oxygen therapy, antiviral treatment, antibiotic treatment. Only one infant was intravenously injected low-dose glucocorticoids. Conclusions: : Our results multi-dimensionally demonstrate that children with 2019-nCoV infection present a clinical picture which is often distinct from that of adults. Knowledge of these differences will be helpful for the clinical diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) and for a future discussion on age specific infection case definitions.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322244

ABSTRACT

Supervised learning method requires a large volume of annotated datasets. Collecting such datasets is time-consuming and expensive. Until now, very few annotated COVID-19 imaging datasets are available. Although self-supervised learning enables us to bootstrap the training by exploiting unlabeled data, the generic self-supervised methods for natural images do not sufficiently incorporate the context. For medical images, a desirable method should be sensitive enough to detect deviation from normal-appearing tissue of each anatomical region;here, anatomy is the context. We introduce a novel approach with two levels of self-supervised representation learning objectives: one on the regional anatomical level and another on the patient-level. We use graph neural networks to incorporate the relationship between different anatomical regions. The structure of the graph is informed by anatomical correspondences between each patient and an anatomical atlas. In addition, the graph representation has the advantage of handling any arbitrarily sized image in full resolution. Experiments on large-scale Computer Tomography (CT) datasets of lung images show that our approach compares favorably to baseline methods that do not account for the context. We use the learnt embedding to quantify the clinical progression of COVID-19 and show that our method generalizes well to COVID-19 patients from different hospitals. Qualitative results suggest that our model can identify clinically relevant regions in the images.

11.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100668, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611203

ABSTRACT

Forsyqinlingines C (1) and D (2), two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids bearing a rare skeleton, were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD experiments. The plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 1 and 2 was also proposed. In vitro, two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activity performed by the inhibitory effect on the release of ß-glucuronidase in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as well as antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Forsythia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Forsythia/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Rats , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects
12.
Chin Med ; 16(1): 130, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551216

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is still spread and has made a severe public health threat around the world. To improve disease progression, emerging Chinese herbal compounds were used in clinical practice and some agents have proven beneficial in treating COVID-19. Here, the relevant literature from basic researches to clinical application were identified and comprehensively assessed. A variety of Chinese herbal compounds have been reported to be effective in improving symptoms and outcomes in patients with COVID-19, particularly together with routine treatment strategy. The pharmacological activities were mainly attributed to the relief of clinical symptoms, inhibition of cytokine storm, and improvement of organ function. Besides, the development of novel antiviral drugs from medicinal herbs were further discussed. The updated laboratory and clinical studies provided the evidence of Chinese herbal compounds such as Lianhua Qingwen prescription, Shufeng Jiedu prescription, and Qingfei Paidu Tang for the relief of COVID-19. However, both of the randomized controlled trials and real world researches need to be done for supporting the evidence including the efficacy and safety in fighting COVID-19.

13.
Resources Policy ; 74:102393, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1458826

ABSTRACT

The emergence of Covid-19 has created a global panic that affects global economic performance and causes natural resources commodity price volatility. In this regard, the current research study investigated the nexus of natural resource commodity price volatility and global economic performance from January 01, 2019, to July 01, 2021. Using the wavelet power spectrum and wavelet coherence approaches, the empirical findings reveal that only the natural resource commodity prices are vulnerable. However, no vulnerability has been observed for the global economic performance. Additionally, the wavelet coherence reveals that there is no long-run or the short run causal association between these two variables. Moreover, the Breitung-Candelon spectral Granger causality test confirms no causal relationship between natural resource commodity price volatility and global economic performance. Based on the empirical findings, this study provides some relevant policy implications.

14.
Integr Med Res ; 10(4): 100778, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446720

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused more than 180 million infections and 3.9 million deaths. To date, emerging clinical evidence has shown the synergetic benefits of Chinese herbal injections in treating this contagious respiratory disease. This review aims to summarize and analyze the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal injections in the therapy of COVID-19. METHODS: The literature from 3 electronic databases, PubMed, CNKI, and Web of Science, were searched using the search terms "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "traditional Chinese medicine", "herb", "herbal", and "injection". Then the identified articles were comprehensively evaluated. RESULTS: Limited data demonstrated that Chinese herbal injections could significantly improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients, especially in combination with conventional treatment strategies. The benefits of which were mainly associated with the relief of symptoms, prevention of secondary infection, regulation of inflammation and immune function. There was also evidence showing the inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro. Nevertheless, available real-world data suggested the increased risk of adverse event. Furthermore, the defects of existing researches and the insights for discovering novel antiviral drugs were prospectively discussed. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based advances revealed that Chinese herbal injections such as XueBiJing injection and ShenMai injection, exerted potent effects against COVID-19. Further laboratory researches and clinical evaluation are needed to gather scientific evidence on the efficacy and safety.

15.
Drugs Aging ; 38(10): 921-930, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the associations between drug therapies targeting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and adverse outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the associations between using medications for the cardiovascular system and the risks associated with COVID-19 in middle-aged and older adults. METHODS: A total of 77,221 participants (aged 50-86 years) from UK Biobank were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The medications included angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), ß-blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCB), statins, and aspirin. COVID-19 outcomes comprised a positive test result and severity of COVID-19 (defined as mild, hospitalization or death). We evaluated the risk among total participants and for sub-groups based on sex. Propensity score matching was performed 1:1 and logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Among the middle- and older aged participants, no significant associations between any class of medications and the likelihood of COVID-19 infection were observed. ACEI were associated with a higher mortality risk from COVID-19 (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.32) and CCB were associated with a lower hospitalization risk for COVID-19 (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.96) among the male patients with COVID-19, while a lower mortality risk from COVID-19 (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.96) was observed with ARB among the female patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The study suggested sex differences in the risk of death from COVID-19 with the use of ACEI and ARB among middle-aged and older adults. Sex differences in the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19 with the use of CCB was observed as well. It is of clinical importance that clinicians adopt different CVD treatment approaches for female and male patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics
16.
BMJ Health Care Inform ; 28(1)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Argentina is a low and middle-income country (LMIC) with a highly fragmented healthcare system that conflicts with access to healthcare stated by the country's Universal Health Coverage plan. A tele-mammography network could improve access to breast cancer screening decreasing its mortality. This research aims to conduct an economic evaluation of the implementation of a tele-mammography program to improve access to healthcare. METHODS: A cost-utility analysis was performed to explore the incremental benefit of annual tele-mammography screening for at-risk Argentinian women over 40 years old. A Markov model was developed to simulate annual mammography or tele-mammography screening in two hypothetical population-based cohorts of asymptomatic women. Parameter uncertainty was evaluated through deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Model structure uncertainty was also explored to test the robustness of the results. RESULTS: It was estimated that 31 out of 100 new cases of breast cancer would be detected by mammography and 39/100 by tele-mammography. The model returned an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of £26 051/quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) which is lower than the WHO-recommended threshold of £26 288/QALY for Argentina. Deterministic sensitivity analysis showed the ICER is most sensitive to the uptake and sensitivity of the screening tests. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed tele-mammography is cost-effective in 59% of simulations. DISCUSSION: Tele-mammography should be considered for adoption as it could improve access to expertise in underserved areas where adherence to screening protocols is poor. Disaggregated data by province is needed for a better- informed policy decision. Telemedicine could also be beneficial in ensuring the continuity of care when health systems are under stress like in the current COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSION: There is a 59% chance that tele-mammography is cost-effective compared to mammography for at-risk Argentinian women over 40- years old, and should be adopted to improve access to healthcare in underserved areas of the country.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Cost-Benefit Analysis/economics , Early Detection of Cancer/economics , Mammography/economics , Medical Informatics , Telemedicine , Adult , Argentina , Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , Breast Neoplasms/economics , COVID-19 , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Vulnerable Populations
17.
Gene ; 801: 145854, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Both COVID-19 and influenza are viral respiratory tract infections and the epidemics of viral respiratory tract infections remain highly prevalent with lethal consequences in susceptible individuals. Expression of ICAM-1 on vascular endothelium recruits leukocytes which initiates inflammation. IL-6 induces ICAM-1. Both ICAM-1 and IL-6 can be enhanced in influenza virus infection and COVID-19 patients. Besides initiation of virus entry host cells, whether HA alone, instead of whole virus, of influenza has the effects on expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in vascular endothelium with injury in the lungs, remains to be demonstrated. METHODS: RT-qPCR and Western blot as well as histopathologic examination were used to examine mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 as well as pathological injury in the lung tissues, respectively. RESULTS: After incubation of the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) with HA of H1N1 for 24 h, the mRNA and protein of ICAM-1 and IL-6 in HUVECs were increased in group of 5 µg/ml concentration with statistical significance (p < 0.05). Pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice was shown 12 h after tail intravenous injection with 100 µl of HA (50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml in normal saline), including widened alveolar spaces with angiotelectasis in alveolar wall, alveolar luminal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrates, alveolar luminal erythrocyte effusion. CONCLUSIONS: HA alone, instead of whole H1N1 virus, induced more expression of ICAM-1 and IL-6, two molecules involving in pathological and inflammatory responses, in HUVECs and pathological injury in lung tissues of the mice. This knowledge provides a new HA-targeted potential direction for prevention and treatment of disease related to H1N1 infection.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/physiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/physiology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
18.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control ; 68(7): 2507-2515, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288239

ABSTRACT

As being radiation-free, portable, and capable of repetitive use, ultrasonography is playing an important role in diagnosing and evaluating the COVID-19 Pneumonia (PN) in this epidemic. By virtue of lung ultrasound scores (LUSS), lung ultrasound (LUS) was used to estimate the excessive lung fluid that is an important clinical manifestation of COVID-19 PN, with high sensitivity and specificity. However, as a qualitative method, LUSS suffered from large interobserver variations and requirement for experienced clinicians. Considering this limitation, we developed a quantitative and automatic lung ultrasound scoring system for evaluating the COVID-19 PN. A total of 1527 ultrasound images prospectively collected from 31 COVID-19 PN patients with different clinical conditions were evaluated and scored with LUSS by experienced clinicians. All images were processed via a series of computer-aided analysis, including curve-to-linear conversion, pleural line detection, region-of-interest (ROI) selection, and feature extraction. A collection of 28 features extracted from the ROI was specifically defined for mimicking the LUSS. Multilayer fully connected neural networks, support vector machines, and decision trees were developed for scoring LUS images using the fivefold cross validation. The model with 128×256 two fully connected layers gave the best accuracy of 87%. It is concluded that the proposed method could assess the ultrasound images by assigning LUSS automatically with high accuracy, potentially applicable to the clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Ultrasonography/methods , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Health Sociol Rev ; : 1-17, 2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279990

ABSTRACT

Globally, the use of e-health has accelerated dramatically during the coronavirus pandemic. Based on both quantitative and qualitative data collected in China's Hubei province (i.e. the first epicentre of COVID-19), this research explores how the pandemic influences the practices of e-health from the perspective of users. Through analysis of 1,033 surveys and 14 in-depth interviews, we find that e-health has played a crucial role in residents' healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic. Certain external factors influence the choice of digital health, including the high risk of infection outdoors, the shutting down of transport systems, and dysfunctional healthcare facilities that neglect non-COVID-19 patients' clinical demands. Against this backdrop, we argue digital health acts as a functional equivalent to traditional medical treatment and has largely satisfied patients and users in the crisis period. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has unintentionally sped up the diffusion of digital medicine over the long term as respondents expressed their willingness to continue use of e-health in the post-COVID-19 phase. However, we assert that despite the increasing use of e-health, it cannot fully substitute traditional offline treatment. Thus, we suggest a combination of online and offline healthcare will be more commonly practiced in the future.

20.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 54(9): e10602, 2021. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1270959

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has impacted the mental health of healthcare providers at the frontline. Therefore, we conducted this study to estimate the prevalence rate of anxiety and insomnia and identify associated risk factors among healthcare workers in Jilin, China, during the period from January 25 to February 25, 2020. Zung's Self-Reported Anxiety Scale (SAS) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) scale were used to diagnose anxiety and insomnia, respectively. Associated risk factors were identified through a multivariate logistic regression model. A total of 300 healthcare workers were invited and 236 completed the study. Of them, 234 (99.15%) were medical workers, 197 (83.47%) were working at frontline departments, and 159 (67.37%) were fighting against COVID-19. Fifty-seven respondents (24.15%) had anxiety (SAS index score ≥45) and 94 (39.83%) had insomnia (ISI score ≥8). Based on the multivariate analysis, contact with people from Hubei province during work (no vs not clear) [OR=0.25, 95%CI: 0.10-0.61] and personal protective equipment (PPE) (not in place vs in place) [OR=6.22, 95%CI: 2.23-17.40] were significantly correlated with anxiety. PPE (not in place vs in place) was the only significant risk factor of insomnia [OR=10.56, 95%CI: 4.00-27.87]. The prevalence of anxiety and insomnia was high in our study, reflecting the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers. The unavailability of PPE in place was a significant risk factor of both anxiety and insomnia.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Depression , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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