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1.
2022 International Conference on Image Processing and Media Computing, ICIPMC 2022 ; : 73-79, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078213

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemics have spread worldwide in recent years by its extreme contagiousness. The diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial in the prevention, control, and treatment procedure. Deep learning-based image classification models have been proved to be valid for the pneumonia classification using chest X-ray images, helping physicians to diagnose and treat the disease more effectively. However, the vulnerability of deep neural networks was confirmed by researchers through the injection of tiny perturbations which is imperceptible to humans. These adversarial samples become a major threat to the medical safety system, especially in the disease detection field. In this regard, we made some experiments to attack chest X-ray images to investigate the efficiency of two types of attack methods with the sign and no-sign operators. Fast Gradient Sign Method (FGSM), Basic Iterative Method (BIM), and Projected Gradient Descent (PGD) were selected and transformed into no-sign attack methods to analyze their effectiveness on white-box and black-box testing. We theoretically and experimentally confirmed the alternative no-sign attack methods were more efficient. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
23rd International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology, ICEPT 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078212

ABSTRACT

Along with the COVID-19 pandemic and the large-scale application of 5G, IoT has become more critical for our daily lives. GaAs is a promising semiconductor for field effect transistors in IoT applications. Due to the high electron mobility of GaAs, n-type FinFET based on GaAs is expected with a higher conductance and electron velocity than Silicon. FinFET based on GaAs has a lower subthreshold swing (SS) and higher Ion/Ioff than FinFET based on Silicon, particularly at high temperatures.Negative Capacitance FinFET(NC-FinFET) is an important emerging technology for low-power applications. To further enhance the performance of the GaAs FinFET, we incorporate Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 films in the gate to achieve Negative Capacitance (NC). The NC effect brings a higher Ion/Ioff and a negative coefficient to reduce the SS of the FinFET. Our simulation research proves the GaAs-NC-FinFET has the slightest SS variation in 300K-400K and maximum Ion/Ioff compared with other FinFETs. © 2022 IEEE.

3.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005863

ABSTRACT

Apart from the goal of the digital world and other benefits of e-commerce, it becomes the need of time during this COVID-19 pandemic. Successful implementation and sustainable growth of e-commerce in developing countries is a challenge. The goal of the digital world without the implementation and sustainable growth of e-commerce in developing countries is incomplete. Based on UTAUT theory, we have developed an integrated model to study the developing countries' consumers' adoption intentions towards e-commerce. We collected a valid useable sample of 796 respondents from a developing country, applied the SEM-ANN two-step hybrid approach to testing the proposed hypothesis, and ranked the antecedents according to their importance. Results revealed that Trust in e-commerce, Perceived risk of using e-commerce, Ease of use in e-commerce, Curiosity about e-commerce, Facilitating Conditions, and Awareness of e-commerce benefits influence the adoption intentions of developing countries' consumers. Sensitivity analysis results revealed that Ease of use in e-commerce platforms and awareness of e-commerce benefits are the two most crucial factors behind the adoption intentions in developing countries. The study's findings help authorities adopt sustainable e-commerce, multinational companies effectively market their goods online, and academics better understand how inhabitants of developing nations perceive e-commerce.

4.
Collabra-Psychology ; 8(1):21, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1987198

ABSTRACT

Humans are social beings, but during the COVID-19 pandemic, people around the world were periodically in lockdown and were required to try to physically distance themselves from others. The resultant limitation of face-to-face interactions presented a challenge to wellbeing. During periods of lockdown, people could, however, still connect to others via technology, but it is unknown whether such interactions offer benefits comparable to face-to-face interactions. In the present study, we examined how different ways of interacting with others impacted wellbeing during a period of lockdown in the United Kingdom. In a 30-day diary study conducted in April-June 2020, 110 adults reported the time they spent daily on face-to-face interactions and technology-mediated communication (video, phone, text) with different interaction partners. They also indicated the time they spent on active and passive social media use and their end-of-day wellbeing. Multilevel regressions indicated that more face-to-face interactions both within and outside of one???s household positively predicted wellbeing, while technology-mediated communication had less consistent positive effects. Additionally, more active and less passive social media use predicted better wellbeing. These results highlight the complexity of benefits of different kinds of social interactions during lockdowns in the COVID-19 pandemic and point to the importance of taking into account communication channels, interaction partners, and how people use social media when studying the effects of connecting to others.

5.
B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963077

ABSTRACT

The intensity of the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic were a surprise to many people and functioned as an unexpected disturbance where individuals and businesses were slow to adapt their behavior. This event allows us to explore pre-pandemic structural differences in employment and estimate the public health impacts of these first few months of the pandemic. Novel datasets provided by the Connecticut Department of Health and the Massachusetts Department of Health enable us to link deaths to industry and occupation directly at the individual level. A significant number of working-aged people died from COVID-19, with black and Hispanic populations dying at much higher rates. Linking individual deaths with employment, we find that nearly half of these deaths come from people working non-telework essential jobs. Black and Hispanic non-telework essential workers died at a rate 14-percentage points higher than white individuals employed in these same occupations. © 2022 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston 2022.

7.
6th International Conference on Transportation Information and Safety, ICTIS 2021 ; : 1176-1182, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948783

ABSTRACT

Fatigue leads to the decrease of the flight crew's alertness, which will seriously affect the flight safety. In order to avoid the risk of infection caused by the overnight stay abroad of the air crew during the Covid-19 epidemic, CAAC proposed an exemption method to release the flight time restriction of regulation by increasing the number of flight crew and setting up an independent rest area on international flights. Based on the alertness energy theory, this paper simulates the crew alertness of three international scheduled flights of China Southern Airlines, including Guangzhou - Amsterdam, Guangzhou - Los Angeles, and Guangzhou - Sydney, to compare the difference of crew alertness between '3 sets of flight crew, without overnight rest' in accordance with exemption condition, and '2 sets of flight crew, with overnight rest' in accordance with regulation condition. The simulation results show that for the Guangzhou - Amsterdam and Guangzhou - Los Angeles flights, the cockpit alertness under the exemption condition is similar to that under the regulation condition, and the fatigue risk is acceptable;for the 'Guangzhou-Sydney' flight, because the return flight under the exemption condition is always in the negative range of human rhythm, the alertness is lower than that under the regulation condition. © 2021 IEEE.

8.
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry ; 93(6):121, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916437

ABSTRACT

Background Enforced national lockdown due to COVID-19 limited access to medical services. We evaluated the impact on those presenting with papilloedema, and those with a preexisting diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Design A single United Kingdom centre prospective cohort study between May 15, 2020 (start of emergency clinics after first 8 week national lockdown) and July 31, 2020. Demographics, diagnosis and outcomes were documented. Results The study recorded 130 individual patients, 123 with a diagnosis of idiopathic intracranial hyper-tension. 92% were female and mean age was 32.5 years. Emergency cerebrospinal fluid diversion surgery was required in 13% (17/130), a 4.7-fold (367%) increase compared to the same period in 2019. Weight increased in 58% (mean 6.2kg SD 4.6) and corresponded to a significant increase in papilloedema (Optical Coherence Tomography retinal nerve fibre layer 15mm SD 57.3, p=0.014). Elevated anxiety levels (hospital anxiety and depression scale >7) occurred in 64%. Conclusions There was a 367% increase in emergency shunting to save vision in idiopathic intracranial hypertension following national lockdown. Worsening of papilloedema, weight gain, and detrimental effects on mental health were recorded. Countermeasures should be implemented to minimise harm in this rare disease during future service restrictions and lockdowns.

9.
Frontiers in Environmental Science ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1875409

ABSTRACT

The organizational development following the philosophy of sustainability is becoming the prerequisite for companies, which urges and emphasizes them to incorporate social, economic, and environmental aspects into their manufacturing and operations. Despite plethora of researches exploring lean practices as the solution for improving productivity, it is limited to the operational aspects only, thus ignoring the other aspects of sustainability. Moreover, there is a dearth of studies that explored the combined effect of sustainable innovation, process innovation, and lean practices on the three aspects of sustainability. The current study is an attempt and contribution in the existing literature through the sample of 431 respondents from ISO 14001 certified Chinese organizations during COVID-19 pandemic conditions. The estimations were performed through the Partial Least Squares–Structural Equation Modeling. The results revealed a positive association among the proposed hypothesis of aforementioned studied phenomena. In addition, the current study explores the role of sustainable innovation as a mediator between lean and three dimensions of the sustainability, which is reportedly found to be a partial mediator as both direct and indirect effects are found to be statistically significant. Through the findings of the current study, the managers and decision makers can comprehend the potential of the possible benefits which can be reaped by incorporating both lean and sustainability within their operations. Copyright © 2022 Liu, Ding, Wen, Gao, Wang and Sun.

10.
MEDLINE; 2020.
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-329976

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic is the third zoonotic coronavirus (CoV) outbreak of the century after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) since 2012. Treatment options for CoVs are largely lacking. Here, we show that clofazimine, an anti-leprosy drug with a favorable safety and pharmacokinetics profile, possesses pan-coronaviral inhibitory activity, and can antagonize SARS-CoV-2 replication in multiple in vitro systems, including the human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes and ex vivo lung cultures. The FDA-approved molecule was found to inhibit multiple steps of viral replication, suggesting multiple underlying antiviral mechanisms. In a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, prophylactic or therapeutic administration of clofazimine significantly reduced viral load in the lung and fecal viral shedding, and also prevented cytokine storm associated with viral infection. Additionally, clofazimine exhibited synergy when administered with remdesivir. Since clofazimine is orally bioavailable and has a comparatively low manufacturing cost, it is an attractive clinical candidate for outpatient treatment and remdesivir-based combinatorial therapy for hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly in developing countries. Taken together, our data provide evidence that clofazimine may have a role in the control of the current pandemic SARS-CoV-2, endemic MERS-CoV in the Middle East, and, possibly most importantly, emerging CoVs of the future.

11.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329107

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination has been threatened by recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants. A systematic summary of the landscape of neutralizing antibodies against emerging variants is needed. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and 3 pre-print servers for studies that evaluated neutralizing antibodies titers induced by previous infection or vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 variants and comprehensively collected individual data. We calculated lineage-specific GMTs across different study participants and types of neutralization assays. Findings: We identified 56 studies, including 2,483 individuals and 8,590 neutralization tests, meeting the eligibility criteria. Compared with lineage B, we estimate a 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.0-2.2) reduction in neutralization against the B.1.1.7, 8.7-fold (95% CI: 6.5-11.7) reduction against B.1.351 and 5.0-fold (95% CI: 4.0-6.2) reduction against P.1. The estimated neutralization reductions for B.1.351 compared to lineage B were 240.2-fold (95% CI: 124.0-465.6) reduction for non-replicating vector platform, 4.6-fold (95% CI: 4.0-5.2) reduction for RNA platform, and 1.6-fold (95% CI: 1.2-2.1) reduction for protein subunit platform. The neutralizing antibodies induced by administration of inactivated vaccines and mRNA vaccines against lineage P.1 were also remarkably reduced by an average of 5.9-fold (95% CI: 3.7-9.3) and 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Interpretation: Our findings indicate that the antibody response established by natural infection or vaccination might be able to effectively neutralize B.1.1.7, but neutralizing titers against B.1.351 and P.1 suffered large reductions. Standardized protocols for neutralization assays, as well as updating immune-based prevention and treatment, are needed. Funding: Chinese National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars. Research in context: Evidence before this study: Several newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants have raised significant concerns globally, and there is concern that SARS-CoV-2 variants can evade immune responses that are based on the prototype strain. It is not known to what extent do emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants escape the immune response induced by previous infection or vaccination. However, existing studies of neutralizing potency against SARS-CoV-2 variants are based on limited numbers of samples and lack comparability between different laboratory methods. Furthermore, there are no studies providing whole picture of neutralizing antibodies induced by prior infections or vaccination against emerging variants. Therefore, we systematically reviewed and quantitively synthesized evidence on the degree to which antibodies from previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination effectively neutralize variants. Added value of this study: In this study, 56 studies, including 2,483 individuals and 8,590 neutralization tests, were identified. Antibodies from natural infection or vaccination are likely to effectively neutralize B.1.1.7, but neutralizing titers against B.1.351 and P.1 suffered large reductions. Lineage B.1.351 escaped natural-infection-mediated neutralization the most, with GMT of 79.2 (95% CI: 68.5-91.6), while neutralizing antibody titers against the B.1.1.7 variant were largely preserved (254.6, 95% CI: 214.1-302.8). Compared with lineage B, we estimate a 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.0-2.2) reduction in neutralization against the B.1.1.7, 8.7-fold (95% CI: 6.5-11.7) reduction against B.1.351 and 5.0-fold (95% CI: 4.0-6.2) reduction against P.1. The neutralizing antibody response after vaccinating with non-replicating vector vaccines against lineage B.1.351 was worse than responses elicited by vaccines on other platforms, with levels lower than that of individuals who were previously infected. The neutralizing antibodies induced by administration of inactivated vaccines and mRNA vaccines against lineage P.1 were also remarkably reduced by an average of 5.9-fold (95% CI: 3.7-9.3) and 1.5-fold (95% CI: 1.2-1.9). Implications of all the available evidence: Our findings indicate that antibodies from natural infection of the parent lineage of SARS-CoV-2 or vaccination may be less able to neutralize some emerging variants, and antibody-based therapies may need to be updated. Furthermore, standardized protocols for neutralizing antibody testing against SARS-CoV-2 are needed to reduce lab-to-lab variations, thus facilitating comparability and interpretability across studies.

12.
Cancer Radiother ; 26(4): 563-569, 2022 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1698887

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic continues to spread exponentially around the world. Cancer patients have a higher risk of commorbidity than the rest of the population. Radiotherapy departments are actively involved in the management of these patients, whether they have COVID or not, and it is recognized that the time taken to take charge and the continuity of treatment have a prognostic impact. The main objective was to assess the impact of the coronavirus on the treatment times of patients undergoing radiotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in the radiotherapy department of Gustave-Roussy institute (France) during the period from March 3, 2020 to January 12, 2021. Organizational changes, patient care times between the day of the scan and the last radiotherapy session as well as the time taken to take charge of patients between the first session and the last radiotherapy session has been studied. RESULTS: A total of 1183 patients were included, among which 60 had COVID-19. Patients were divided into four categories. Treatment times of patients who did not have COVID-19 and those of patients who did were not statistically significantly different. CONCLUSION: The organization of the radiotherapy department at the Gustave-Roussy institute is based on several points: carrying out preventive screening tests, protecting staff and patients and reorganizing the patient circuit. Thanks to the performance of diagnostic tests and the implementation of a specific workflow for patients with COVID, we ensure the continuity of patient treatment in complete safety without impacting treatment times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Radiation Oncology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Retrospective Studies
13.
International Journal of Knowledge Management ; 18(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1503966

ABSTRACT

Information and communication technologies (ICT) have played a pivotal role in facilitating knowledge acquisition and enabling distance education. Yet, knowledge about digital divide in distance education remains limited. This study examines digital barriers that underserved students face in distance education and their coping behaviors during the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Informed by distance education and digital divide literature, this study uses qualitative research method to analyze survey data collected from 206 college students in a four-year public university in the United States. Results revealed five major digital barriers and showed that the distribution of these digital barriers varied by student demographic background and socioeconomic status. Further analysis of respondents’ narratives revealed three coping behaviors, including improvising, building technical assets, and building social assets. Practical implications are provided to educators and policymakers to invest in ICT and implement equity-minded teaching practices to enhance digital inclusion. Copyright © 2022, IGI Global.

14.
IEEE/ACM 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE) ; : 173-174, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1486456

ABSTRACT

This is the artifact accompanying the paper "An Empirical Assessment of Global COVID-19 Contact Tracing Applications", accepted by ICSE 2021. The artifact presents the first automated security and privacy assessment tool that tests contact tracing apps for security weaknesses, malware, embedded trackers and private information leakage. COVIDGUARDIAN outperforms 4 state-of-the-practice industrial and open-source tools. Note that, Although the tool is tailored to focus on contact tracing apps, it can also be adapted to other types of apps with respect to the NLP PII learning context, e.g., by changing the source & sink list or updating the sensitive PII keywords.

15.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-291501

ABSTRACT

Genomic surveillance has shaped our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 variants, which have proliferated globally in 2021. We collected country-specific data on SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance, sequencing capabilities, public genomic data from multiple public repositories, and aggregated publicly available variant data. Then, different proxies were used to estimate the sequencing coverage and public availability extent of genomic data, in addition to describing the global dissemination of variants. We found that the COVID-19 global epidemic clearly featured increasing circulation of Alpha since the start of 2021, which was rapidly replaced by the Delta variant starting around May 2021. SARS-CoV-2 genomic surveillance and sequencing availability varied markedly across countries, with 63 countries performing routine genomic surveillance and 79 countries with high availability of SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. We also observed a marked heterogeneity of sequenced coverage across regions and countries. Across different variants, 21-46% of countries with explicit reporting on variants shared less than half of their variant sequences in public repositories. Our findings indicated an urgent need to expand sequencing capacity of virus isolates, enhance the sharing of sequences, the standardization of metadata files, and supportive networks for countries with no sequencing capability.

16.
Annals of Oncology ; 32:S1159, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1432924

ABSTRACT

Background: Outcomes and risk factors associated with COVID-19 worsening among cancer patients have previously been reported. However, the actual impact of SARs-Co-V2 infection on the cancer treatment strategy remains unknown. Here, we report the Gustave Roussy (GR) experience, one year after the onset of the pandemic focusing on the impact of COVID-19 in patients with ongoing management of oncohematological disease. Methods: All patients positively tested for SARS-CoV-2 and managed at GR between Mar 14th 2020 and Feb 15th 2021 (data cut-off) have been included. Patients underlying oncohematological disease and COVID19 characteristics have been collected. Cancer and COVID-19 management and outcomes have been assessed. Primary endpoint was the overall impact of COVID-19 on oncological and hematological treatment strategy assessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results: At the time of the analysis, 423 patients (median age: 62 years) were found positive for SARS-CoV-2 and managed at GR with a median follow up of 5.6 months (0-13 months). Among them, 284 (67%) were admitted due to COVID-19. Clinical deterioration occurred in 87 patients (21%), 43 patients (10%) were transferred in intensive care unit and 123 (29%) patients died, among which 47 (11%) died from COVID-19. Overall, 329 (78%) patients were on active treatment for underlying oncohematological disease at time of COVID diagnosis. Impact of COVID-19 on cancer treatment strategy in those patients is presented in the Table. The majority (N=268, 81%) had no change in oncological strategy. For those who experienced a delay, median delay in treatment was 21 days (N=99, [1-77]), 30 days (N=15, [15-56]), 7 days (N=8,[3-35]) for systemic treatment, surgery and radiotherapy respectively. [Formula presented] Conclusions: COVID-19 outbreak is associated with a significant mortality in patients with cancer. However, for patients who did not die from COVID-19, we provide the first report supporting that ongoing treatment was maintained or could be resumed in the majority of cases in a timely manner. Legal entity responsible for the study: Gustave Roussy. Funding: Has not received any funding. Disclosure: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest.

17.
43rd IEEE/ACM International Conference on Software Engineering - Software Engineering in Practice (ICSE-SEIP) / 43rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering - New Ideas and Emerging Results (ICSE-NIER) ; : 1085-1097, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1398276

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of COVID-19 has made manual contact tracing difficult. Thus, various public health authorities have experimented with automatic contact tracing using mobile applications (or "apps"). These apps, however, have raised security and privacy concerns. In this paper, we propose an automated security and privacy assessment tool-COVIDGUARDIAN-which combines identification and analysis of Personal Identification Information (PII), static program analysis and data flow analysis, to determine security and privacy weaknesses. Furthermore, in light of our findings, we undertake a user study to investigate concerns regarding contact tracing apps. We hope that COVIDGUARDIAN, and the issues raised through responsible disdosure to vendors, can contribute to the safe deployment of mobile contact tracing. As part of this, we offer concrete guidelines, and highlight gaps between user requirements and app performance.

18.
54th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2021 ; 2020-January:4838-4847, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1282950

ABSTRACT

Digital divide exists between the underserved student population and their peers, yet our knowledge about digital barriers and digital divide in distance education remains limited. In this study, we examine digital divide and digital barriers in distance education in the context of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) by addressing two questions: (1) What digital barriers are emerging in distance education during COVID-19? (2) Do underserved students experience digital barriers differently from their peers? Informed by distance education and digital divide literature, this study uses qualitative research method to analyze survey data collected from 206 college students in a four-year public university in the United States. Results revealed five major digital barriers and showed that the distribution of these digital barriers varied by demographic background and socioeconomic status of the students. Practical implications are provided to educators and policymakers to implement equity-minded teaching practices and enhance digital inclusion of the underserved student population in distance education. © 2021 IEEE Computer Society. All rights reserved.

19.
IEEE Access ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1225646

ABSTRACT

The global explosion of COVID-19 has brought unprecedented challenges to traditional higher education, especially for freshmen who have no major;they cannot determine what their real talents are. Thus, it is difficult for them to make correct choices based on their skills. Generally, existing methods mainly mine isomorphic information, ignoring relationships among heterogeneous information. Therefore, this paper proposes a new framework to give freshmen appropriate recommendations by mining heterogeneous educational information. This framework is composed of five stages: after data preprocessing, a weighted heterogeneous educational network (WHEN) is constructed according to heterogeneous information in student historical data. Then, the WHEN is projected into different subnets, on which metapaths are defined. Next, a WHEN-based embedding method is proposed, which helps mine the weighted heterogeneous information on multiple extended metapaths. Finally, with the information mined, a matrix factorization algorithm is used to recommend learning resources and majors for freshmen. A large number of experimental results show that the proposed framework can achieve better results than other baseline methods. This indicates that the proposed method is effective and can provide great help to freshmen during the COVID-19 storm. CCBY

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