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1.
Sci China Life Sci ; 64(12): 2129-2143, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1212915

ABSTRACT

Prolonged viral RNA shedding and recurrence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been reported. However, the clinical outcome and pathogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we recruited 43 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients. We found that prolonged viral RNA shedding or recurrence mainly occurred in severe/critical patients (P<0.05). The average viral shedding time in severe/critical patients was more than 50 days, and up to 100 days in some patients, after symptom onset. However, chest computed tomography gradually improved and complete absorption occurred when SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR was still positive, but specific antibodies appeared. Furthermore, the viral shedding time significantly decreased when the A1,430G or C12,473T mutation occurred (P<0.01 and FDR<0.01) and increased when G227A occurred (P<0.05 and FDR<0.05). High IL1R1, IL1R2, and TNFRSF21 expression in the host positively correlated with viral shedding time (P<0.05 and false discovery rate <0.05). Prolonged viral RNA shedding often occurs but may not increase disease damage. Prolonged viral RNA shedding is associated with viral mutations and host factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Genome, Viral/genetics , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Virus Replication , Virus Shedding
2.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(12): 1690.e1-1690.e4, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018998

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim was to understand persistence of the virus in body fluids the and immune response of an infected host to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), an agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We determined the kinetics of viral load in several body fluids through real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, serum antibodies of IgA, IgG and IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and neutralizing antibodies by microneutralization assay in 35 COVID-19 cases from two hospitals in Guangdong, China. RESULTS: We found higher viral loads and prolonged shedding of virus RNA in severe cases of COVID-19 in nasopharyngeal (1.3 × 106 vs 6.4 × 104, p < 0.05; 7∼8 weeks) and throat (6.9 × 106 vs 2.9 × 105, p < 0.05; 4∼5 weeks), but similar in sputum samples (5.5 × 106 vs 0.9 × 106, p < 0.05; 4∼5 weeks). Viraemia was rarely detected (2.8%, n = 1/35). We detected early seroconversion of IgA and IgG at the first week after illness onset (day 5, 5.7%, n = 2/35). Neutralizing antibodies were produced in the second week, and observed in all 35 included cases after the third week illness onset. The levels of neutralizing antibodies correlated with IgG (rs = 0.85, p < 0.05; kappa = 0.85) and IgA (rs = 0.64, p < 0.05; kappa = 0.61) in severe, but not mild cases (IgG, rs = 0.42, kappa = 0.33; IgA, rs = 0.32, kappa = 0.22). No correlation with IgM in either severe (rs = 0.17, kappa = 0.06) or mild cases (rs = 0.27, kappa = 0.15) was found. DISCUSSION: We revealed a prolonged shedding of virus RNA in the upper respiratory tract, and evaluated the consistency of production of IgG, IgA, IgM and neutralizing antibodies in COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Body Fluids/virology , COVID-19/immunology , Viral Load , Virus Shedding , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , China , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kinetics , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sputum/virology
3.
World J Clin Cases ; 8(23): 6056-6063, 2020 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Suspected cases accounted for a large proportion in the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The deviation of the nucleic acid test by throat swab (the current gold standard of COVID-19) caused by variation in sampling techniques and reagent kits and coupled with nonspecific clinical manifestations make confirmation of the suspected cases difficult. Proper management of the suspected cases of COVID-19 is crucial for disease control. CASE SUMMARY: A 65-year-old male presented with fever, lymphopenia, and chest computed tomography (CT) images similar to COVID-19 after percutaneous coronary intervention. The patient was diagnosed as having bacterial pneumonia with cardiogenic pulmonary edema instead of COVID-19. This was based on four negative results for throat swab detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and one negative result for serological antibody of SARS-CoV-2 with the serological assay. Additionally, the distribution of ground-glass opacities and thickened blood vessels from the CT images differed from COVID-19 features, which further supported the exclusion of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Distinguishing COVID-19 patients from those with bacterial pneumonia with cardiogenic pulmonary edema can be difficult. Therefore, it requires serious identification.

4.
5.
Natl Sci Rev ; 7(9): 1428-1436, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-401795

ABSTRACT

Effective therapies are urgently needed for the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Chloroquine has been proved to have antiviral effect against coronavirus in vitro. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of chloroquine with different doses in COVID-19. In this multicenter prospective observational study, we enrolled patients older than 18 years old with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection excluding critical cases from 12 hospitals in Guangdong and Hubei Provinces. Eligible patients received chloroquine phosphate 500 mg, orally, once (half dose) or twice (full dose) daily. Patients treated with non-chloroquine therapy were included as historical controls. The primary endpoint is the time to undetectable viral RNA. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with undetectable viral RNA by day 10 and 14, hospitalization time, duration of fever, and adverse events. A total of 197 patients completed chloroquine treatment, and 176 patients were included as historical controls. The median time to achieve an undetectable viral RNA was shorter in chloroquine than in non-chloroquine (absolute difference in medians -6.0 days; 95% CI -6.0 to -4.0). The duration of fever is shorter in chloroquine (geometric mean ratio 0.6; 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8). No serious adverse events were observed in the chloroquine group. Patients treated with half dose experienced lower rate of adverse events than with full dose. Although randomized trials are needed for further evaluation, this study provides evidence for safety and efficacy of chloroquine in COVID-19 and suggests that chloroquine can be a cost-effective therapy for combating the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(8): 1834-1838, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209889

ABSTRACT

We prospectively assessed 49 coronavirus disease cases in Guangdong, China, to estimate the frequency and duration of detectable severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA in human body fluids. The prolonged persistence of virus RNA in various body fluids may guide the clinical diagnosis and prevention of onward virus transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , RNA, Viral/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Pharynx/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sputum/virology , Time Factors
7.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(2): 73-76, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-176020

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread across China and worldwide. Remdesivir had been proposed as a promising option for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provided a rapid review to critically assess the potential anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 and other coronaviruses based on the most up-to-date evidence. Even though remdesivir was proposed as a promising option for treating COVID-19 based on laboratory experiments and reports from compassionate use, its safety and effect in humans requires high-quality evidence from well-designed and adequately-powered clinical trials for further clarification.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Pandemics , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Cell ; 181(5): 997-1003.e9, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60418

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection and was first reported in central China in December 2019. Extensive molecular surveillance in Guangdong, China's most populous province, during early 2020 resulted in 1,388 reported RNA-positive cases from 1.6 million tests. In order to understand the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in China, we generated 53 genomes from infected individuals in Guangdong using a combination of metagenomic sequencing and tiling amplicon approaches. Combined epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses indicate multiple independent introductions to Guangdong, although phylogenetic clustering is uncertain because of low virus genetic variation early in the pandemic. Our results illustrate how the timing, size, and duration of putative local transmission chains were constrained by national travel restrictions and by the province's large-scale intensive surveillance and intervention measures. Despite these successes, COVID-19 surveillance in Guangdong is still required, because the number of cases imported from other countries has increased.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel
9.
J Med Virol ; 92(9): 1518-1524, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2600

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) quickly spread all over China and to more than 20 other countries. Although the virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus [SARS-Cov-2]) nucleic acid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test has become the standard method for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, these real-time PCR test kits have many limitations. In addition, high false-negative rates were reported. There is an urgent need for an accurate and rapid test method to quickly identify a large number of infected patients and asymptomatic carriers to prevent virus transmission and assure timely treatment of patients. We have developed a rapid and simple point-of-care lateral flow immunoassay that can detect immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies simultaneously against SARS-CoV-2 virus in human blood within 15 minutes which can detect patients at different infection stages. With this test kit, we carried out clinical studies to validate its clinical efficacy uses. The clinical detection sensitivity and specificity of this test were measured using blood samples collected from 397 PCR confirmed COVID-19 patients and 128 negative patients at eight different clinical sites. The overall testing sensitivity was 88.66% and specificity was 90.63%. In addition, we evaluated clinical diagnosis results obtained from different types of venous and fingerstick blood samples. The results indicated great detection consistency among samples from fingerstick blood, serum and plasma of venous blood. The IgM-IgG combined assay has better utility and sensitivity compared with a single IgM or IgG test. It can be used for the rapid screening of SARS-CoV-2 carriers, symptomatic or asymptomatic, in hospitals, clinics, and test laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Point-of-Care Testing , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Reagent Strips , Sensitivity and Specificity
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