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Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management ; 149(8), 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20242913


Water use was impacted significantly by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although previous studies quantitatively investigated the effects of COVID-19 on water use, the relationship between water-use variation and COVID-19 dynamics (i.e., the spatial-temporal characteristics of COVID-19 cases) has received less attention. This study developed a two-step methodology to unravel the impact of COVID-19 pandemic dynamics on water-use variation. First, using a water-use prediction model, the water-use change percentage (WUCP) indicator, which was calculated as the relative difference between modeled and observed water use, i.e., water-use variation, was used to quantify the COVID-19 effects on water use. Second, two indicators, i.e., the number of existing confirmed cases (NECC) and the spatial risk index (SRI), were applied to characterize pandemic dynamics, and the quantitative relationship between WUCP and pandemic dynamics was examined by means of regression analysis. We collected and analyzed 6-year commercial water-use data from smart meters of Zhongshan District in Dalian City, Northeast China. The results indicate that commercial water use decreased significantly, with an average WUCP of 59.4%, 54.4%, and 45.7%during the three pandemic waves, respectively, in Dalian. Regression analysis showed that there was a positive linear relationship between water-use changes (i.e., WUCP) and pandemic dynamics (i.e., NECC and SRI). Both the number of COVID-19 cases and their spatial distribution impacted commercial water use, and the effects were weakened by restriction strategy improvement, and the accumulation of experience and knowledge about COVID-19. This study provides an in-depth understanding of the impact of COVID-19 dynamics on commercial water use. The results can be used to help predict water demand under during future pandemic periods or other types of natural and human-made disturbance.

Kidney360 ; 3(2): 242-257, 2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776868


Background: Severe AKI is strongly associated with poor outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but data on renal recovery are lacking. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed these associations in 3299 hospitalized patients (1338 with COVID-19 and 1961 with acute respiratory illness but who tested negative for COVID-19). Uni- and multivariable analyses were used to study mortality and recovery after Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes Stages 2 and 3 AKI (AKI-2/3), and Machine Learning was used to predict AKI and recovery using admission data. Long-term renal function and other outcomes were studied in a subgroup of AKI-2/3 survivors. Results: Among the 172 COVID-19-negative patients with AKI-2/3, 74% had partial and 44% complete renal recovery, whereas 12% died. Among 255 COVID-19 positive patients with AKI-2/3, lower recovery and higher mortality were noted (51% partial renal recovery, 25% complete renal recovery, 24% died). On multivariable analysis, intensive care unit admission and acute respiratory distress syndrome were associated with nonrecovery, and recovery was significantly associated with survival in COVID-19-positive patients. With Machine Learning, we were able to predict recovery from COVID-19-associated AKI-2/3 with an average precision of 0.62, and the strongest predictors of recovery were initial arterial partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, serum creatinine, potassium, lymphocyte count, and creatine phosphokinase. At 12-month follow-up, among 52 survivors with AKI-2/3, 26% COVID-19-positive and 24% COVID-19-negative patients had incident or progressive CKD. Conclusions: Recovery from COVID-19-associated moderate/severe AKI can be predicted using admission data and is associated with severity of respiratory disease and in-hospital death. The risk of CKD might be similar between COVID-19-positive and -negative patients.

Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2