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1.
Healthcare ; 10(12), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199986

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 outbreak disrupted medical access for patients receiving chronic opioid therapy. This study investigated their prescription opioid dosages before and after the 2020 outbreak in Taiwan. Methods: A prospective questionnaire survey was conducted among registered outpatients receiving long-term opioids before July 2019 in Taiwan. The questionnaire included items from the Taiwanese Brief Pain Inventory and quality of life assessment. Follow-up surveys in outpatient departments through October 2020 were conducted to collect opioid prescription data. Results: After a mean of 531 days, the questionnaire responses of 103 of the initial 117 respondents were reviewed. Daily opioid doses decreased for 31 respondents (30.1%), remained roughly equivalent (defined as +/- 2.5%) for 27 (26.2%), and increased for 45 (43.7%) after the first wave of the pandemic. The use of strong opioids and nonopioid medications did not significantly differ among the three groups, but less fentanyl patch use was noted in the decreased-dose group after the outbreak. More than 70% of the patients received daily high-dose opioids (>= 90 morphine milligram equivalents);moreover, 60% reported constipation. No deaths due to opioid overdose occurred during the study period. Conclusions: The COVID-19 outbreak in 2020 did not interrupt access to long-term opioid prescriptions for most registered patients with chronic pain in Taiwan. Less fentanyl patch use was observed in participants whose opioid dose was tapering.

2.
Frontiers in Immunology ; 13:984789, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198860

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Several COVID-19 vaccines list "uncontrolled epilepsy" as a contraindication for vaccination. This consequently restricts vaccination against COVID-19 in patients with epilepsy (PWE). However, there is no strong evidence that COVID-19 vaccination can exacerbate conditions in PWE. This study aims to determine the impact of COVID-19 vaccination on PWE.

3.
Natural Products Journal ; 13(1) (no pagination), 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2197849

ABSTRACT

Background: A virus is a tiny agent, around one-hundredth the size of a bacterium which can infect cells of plants and animals. Seven coronaviruses are known to infect humans;three of them are serious, namely, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome, China, 2002), MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome, Saudi Arabia, 2012), and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) (2019-2020). SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV belong to beta coronaviruses (betaCoVs). Objective(s): In this mini-review, we want to consider the importance of vitamin D and C, especially plants containing these two vitamins, in the fight against COVID-19. Method(s): The manuscript includes review articles, randomized control experiments, analytical studies, and observations, which have been gathered from different sources such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed. A literature review was carried out using keywords such as vitamin D, vitamin C, COVID-19, influenza, plant, and coronaviruses. Result(s): Various sources of vitamin D for humans are food, dietary supplements, and the skin by exposure to 7-dehydrocholesterol to ultraviolet light. There are some new findings on the influence of vitamin D in preventing and controlling influenza and COVID-19. Vitamin D may play a role in preventing influenza and COVID-19 by producing large quantities of IL-1 and IL-6 or interleukins. Conclusion(s): Vitamin D deficiency is a potential link between respiratory infection and immune eva-sion, and vitamin D is a pleiotropic factor known to modulate the immune response against the patho-gen. Copyright © 2023 Bentham Science Publishers.

4.
Innov Aging ; 6(Suppl 1):780, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2189048

ABSTRACT

Reminiscence therapy (RT) is a multi-sensory treatment that uses a combination of sight, touch, taste, smell and sound to help persons with dementia (PWD) remember events, people and places from their past lives. Currently, digital technologies such as mobile applications and immersive solutions including virtual and augmented reality, are gaining momentum as supplementary tools for RT. This paper presents a usability study of a web-based and virtual reality application to understand the limitations and opportunities of digital platforms for facilitating engaging experiences for PWD towards recalling memories, while easing the therapy process for the caregivers. A total of ten healthcare caregivers were recruited from the Geriatric Dementia Unit and Geriatric Transitional Unit in Ontario Shores Center for Mental Health Sciences, Ontario Canada. Usability feedback from the caregivers were collected from the interviews after the completion of the System Usability Scale (SUS) questionnaire. Institutional caregivers found both web-based and virtual reality (VRRT) usable with SUS score above average (68/100), but required improvements related to the onboarding training of caregivers. The interview revealed four overarching themes related to the VRRT: (1) Ease of use;(2) Positive impact on caregiving;(3) Potential of reduction in responsive behaviors;(4) Feasibility for promoting social connection during COVID-19 pandemic. Next steps will focus on improving the user experience and expanding the application for immersive VR supporting head-mounted displays, hand tracking, and physiological measures, as well as conducting an usability study with PWD to expand our understanding of using RT digital tools with various levels of immersion.

6.
Various Methods and Novel Techniques: Rapid Molecular Detection of Human, Plant, Genetic, and Microbial Infectious Diseases, Pathogenic Bacteria, and Organisms ; : 1-88, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146847

ABSTRACT

“This book is an extraordinary source of information for analysis of various biomarkers in diseases due to infections. The book includes various methods for detection of infectious diseases in humans and other organisms. Of these methods, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) are noteworthy. There is clear description of each method about different strengths and weaknesses and that varies by sensitivity, specificity, and rapidity. These techniques can be used for the detection of pathogens like SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, influenza, lymphocystis disease virus, swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus, swine vesicular disease virus, classical swine fever virus, infectious bursal disease virus, Marek’s disease virus, human papillomaviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, Newcastle disease virus, sacbrood virus, beak and feather disease virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, bovine herpesvirus-1, and more. It is also possible to diagnose molecular marks of cancer, identification of genetically modified organisms, and detection of food adulteration. The book would be highly useful for health professional and researchers.” – Professor Dr. Ram B Singh,MBBS, MD(Int.Medi-Cardiol), DTNH, Certified Nutrition Specialist(USA), Halberg Hospital and Research Institute, Civil Lines, India. © 2022 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

7.
5th International Conference on Intelligent Autonomous Systems, ICoIAS 2022 ; : 220-224, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2136306

ABSTRACT

Disinfection robots, which replace human efforts to disinfect the environment, are becoming popular due to the ongoing impact of COVID-19. To address the existing problems of imperfect and costly automatic charging systems for disinfection robots, this paper designs an automatic charging system for disinfection robots based on structure-Aware semantic mapping, which optimizes the automatic charging scheme for robots and integrates LIDAR and infrared modules to achieve the goal. Firstly, the data is associated with the charging pile's priori information through structure perception, and the identified semantic information is mapped into the local map of the robot SLAM. Then the infrared module is used to adjust the position of the charging port to align with the charging pile, and TOF laser distance measuring function is also added to avoid damage to the charging pile from the disinfection robot. In 50 times of simulation experiments, our proposed automatic charging system achieves an accurate alignment rate of 96%. © 2022 IEEE.

8.
Cailiao Daobao/Materials Reports ; 36(20), 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2120563

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) has a huge impact on human health and socioeconomic development. Thus, inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 is a big concern for environmental public health and sanitary security. The virus will not be inactivated immediately after leave the host, leading to extended transmission routes. Water is an important medium for SARS-CoV-2 transmission, especially the urban domestic sewage and medical wastewater. The surface functional protein and nucleic acid (RNA) are the main components of SARS-CoV-2, which can be attacked and destroyed by reactive species such as oxidative radicals, leading to inactivation of virus. The photocatalysis technology using nanomaterials can efficiently produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) under light irradiation. Therefore, by the attack of ROS, the structural protein of virus can be destroyed, the RNA can be damaged to inhibit its biological development, or its binding process to the host can be blocked. In this study, the environmental distribution and transmission characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 are presented firstly. Then, the mechanisms of photocatalysis by using nanomaterials and its application on SARS-CoV-2 inactivation are illustrated. The research progress on inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 through nanomaterial photocatalysis is comprehensively summarized, and the promising photocatalysts that can be used for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation are also proposed. This study can provide guidance for the development of photocatalytic nanomaterials for the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, and has great significance for epidemic prevention and control, especially for cutting off the transmission route of virus in water. © 2022 Cailiao Daobaoshe/ Materials Review. All rights reserved.

9.
European journal of public health ; 32(Suppl 3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102622

ABSTRACT

Background Two community hubs are currently located in Durham Region, Ontario, Canada, to provide a single point of access to a wide range of support services for individuals experiencing homelessness and other at-risk populations. The community hub in Oshawa is formally known as the Back Door Mission for the Relief of Poverty and the community hub in Ajax is formally known as the Ajax Hygiene Hub. It is unclear if these two community hubs are effective in addressing the needs of individuals experiencing homelessness and how the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact these services amongst this population. This study was conducted to identify gaps and barriers within the community hub models as well as provide recommendations to improve the coordination and delivery of services serving individuals experiencing homelessness and other at-risk populations. Methods A mixed methods approach was utilized in this study, which included surveys for individuals experiencing homelessness, through open-ended and close-ended questions to assess their experiences at either one of the two community hubs. A total of 75 surveys were completed by the study participants (40 surveys in Oshawa and 35 in Ajax). Thematic analysis was performed for all the open-ended survey responses. A literature review was also conducted to evaluate the community hub models as well as best practices for the implementation locally, nationally, and internationally. Results Data analysis for the open-ended survey responses revealed the need for housing support, increased resources for medical services, and the expansion of programs provided by the community hubs. Conclusions Homelessness is a major public health issue however community hubs play a pivotal role in addressing this concern in Durham Region. The equitable access to a diverse range of services that are co-located in a community hub is imperative for individuals experiencing homelessness, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Key messages The needs of homeless populations, program outcomes, service gaps, partnership collaboration, and best practices were explored to help inform the development of new community hubs in Durham Region. Study highlighted the effectiveness of community hubs in addressing the needs of homeless populations, whether it should become a permanent solution, and be developed in Durham Region and beyond.

10.
Biomedical Signal Processing and Control ; 79, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068739

ABSTRACT

At the end of 2019, a novel coronavirus, COVID-19, was ravaging the world, wreaking havoc on public health and the global economy. Today, although Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is the gold standard for COVID-19 clinical diagnosis, it is a time-consuming and labor-intensive procedure. Simultaneously, an increasing number of individuals are seeking for better alternatives to RT-PCR. As a result, automated identification of COVID-19 lung infection in computed tomography (CT) images may help traditional diagnostic approaches in determining the severity of the disease. Unfortunately, a shortage of labeled training sets makes using AI deep learning algorithms to accurately segregate diseased regions in CT scan challenging. We design a simple and effective weakly supervised learning strategy for COVID-19 CT image segmentation to overcome the segmentation issue in the absence of adequate labeled data, namely LLC-Net. Unlike others weakly supervised work that uses a complex training procedure, our LLC-Net is relatively easy and repeatable. We propose a Local Self-Coherence Mechanism to accomplish label propagation based on lesion area labeling characteristics for weak labels that cannot offer comprehensive lesion areas, hence forecasting a more complete lesion area. Sec-ondly, when the COVID-19 training samples are insufficient, the Scale Transform for Self-Correlation is designed to optimize the robustness of the model to ensure that the CT images are consistent in the prediction results from different angles. Finally, in order to constrain the segmentation accuracy of the lesion area, the Lesion Infection Edge Attention Module is used to improve the information expression ability of edge modeling. Experiments on public datasets demonstrate that our method is more effective than other weakly supervised methods and ach-ieves a new state-of-the-art performance.

11.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2044793

ABSTRACT

Designing a senior-level course that involves problem-based learning, including project completion task, is laborious and challenging. A well-designed project motivates the students to be self-learners and prepares them for future industrial or academic endeavors. The COVID-19 pandemic brought many challenges when instructions were forced to move either online or to a remote teaching/learning environment. Due to this rapid transition, delivery modes in teaching and learning modalities faced disruption making course design more difficult. The senior level Flight Controls course AME - 4513 is designed with Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) related projects for the students to have a better understanding of UAS usage on various applications in support of Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The purpose of this paper is to present the UAS lab modules in a junior level robotics lab, AME - 4802, which preceded the Flight Controls course in the school of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering at the University of Oklahoma. Successfully completing the course project requires independent research and involves numerical simulations of UAS. The Robotics Lab course focuses on hands-on projects of robotic systems with an emphasis on semi-autonomous mobile robots, including an UAS introduction module. • The UAS module in the Robotics Lab class is introduced in Spring 2020. Therefore, most of the students enrolled in the Spring 2020 Robotics Lab course have introductory knowledge about the UAS system when taking the Fall 2020 Flight Control course. In addition, Spring 2020 Robotics Lab was affected due to COVID-19. • The UAS module was not introduced in 2019 Spring Robotics lab. Thus, the students enrolled in Fall 2019 Flight Controls course did not have prior knowledge on the UAS system. • We thus present the implementation of UAS module in a junior level robotics lab which preceded the senior level Flight Controls course in following Fall semester, when the same instructor taught the course. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

13.
Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences ; 37(8):1108-1115, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2025828

ABSTRACT

Quarantine and isolation are effective means to prevent transmission of COVID-19, but the problems arised during the period of quarantine and isolation are worth pondering. This article first streamlines five types of problems during the recent period of quarantine and isolation. Based on a brief review of related research on domestic and international literature, the article argues that it will be a suitable approach to carry out research from the perspective of spatial organization combined with the concept of systems theory. Then, it explores the reasons of the aforementioned problems from the objective laws of spatial organization and systems theory. It points out that the lack of systematical consideration of quarantine and isolation decisions in theory and the absence of preparations for switching from normal to abnormal status in practice are the fundamental reasons. Finally, three policy suggestions have been proposed from the perspectives of the optimization of spatial organization system, the enhancement of infrastructure and capabilities, and the backup mechanism and drills. © 2022, Science Press. All rights reserved.

14.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009533

ABSTRACT

Background: Access to health care including clinical trials (CT) leading to paradigm-changing cancer treatments are critical for high quality cancer care and equity in society. In this report, we highlight methods in accruing to ETCTN wherein underrepresented rural, low-income, and racial minorities comprise >50% of enrollment. Methods: University of Kansas Cancer Center (KUCC) is one of eight National Cancer Institute (NCI) designated cancer centers awarded CATCH-UP.2020 (CATCH-UP), a congressionally mandated P30 supplement to enhance access for minority/underserved populations to ETCTN precision medicine CT. KUCC catchment area is 23% rural by Rural Urban Continuum Codes (RUCC);almost 90 % of counties are designated primary care HPSA's (Health Professional Shortage Areas). KUCC Early Phase and Masonic Cancer Alliance (rural outreach network) partnered to operationalize CATCH-UP. We engaged disease-focused champion investigators in disease working groups and MCA physicians who selected scientifically sound CT that fit catchment area needs. Patient and Investigator Voices Organizing Together, a patient research advocacy group provided practical feedback. MCA navigator coordinated recruitment. Telehealth was used for rural patients that would have a significant distance to travel just to be screened. Results: CATCH-UP was initiated in September 2020. Twenty-eight CT were activated, many in community sites. Average activation time was 81 days. Delays were mainly from CT amendments. KUCC enrolled the first patient in the CATCH-UP program. In 6 months, we met accrual requirements (24/year, 50% minorities). During first year, we enrolled 47 (>50% minorities), an increase of 680% from our average accrual of 6/year (>50% minorities) in ETCTN through Early Drug Development Opportunity Program (2016-2020). To date, we have enrolled 61, 54% from rural, HPSA, race and other minorities. Although the proportion of minorities did not change but remained high, this funding allowed us to substantially increase the number of patients from a catchment area with high proportion of geographically and socioeconomically underserved minorities given access to early phase CT through ETCTN. Conclusions: Amid COVID-19 pandemic, the NCI CATCH-UP program and methods we used allowed access to novel therapies for rural, medically underserved, and other minority groups.

15.
Kexue Tongbao/Chinese Science Bulletin ; 67(21):2509-2521, 2022.
Article in Chinese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1993426

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a public health emergency of international concern. Exposure to droplets produced in the coughs and sneezes of infected individuals has been perceived as the dominant transmission mode for COVID-19. However, increasingly more evidence supports claims of COVID-19 having airborne transmission. An in-depth understanding of the transmission pathways and influencing factors of SARS-CoV-2 is of great significance for formulating more effective intervention strategies. A large number of epidemiological investigations into the influence of atmospheric environmental conditions on virus transmission have been conducted. In this paper, we review current understandings of the association between COVID-19 and atmospheric environmental conditions. We first summarize the epidemiological investigations on the impact of atmospheric environmental factors (including solar radiation, temperature and humidity, wind speed, particulate matters, and gaseous pollutants) on the spread of COVID-19, and 164 epidemiological investigations are included, in which air temperature and relative humidity received the greatest attention. However, the impact of these factors on the prevalence of COVID-19 remains largely uncertain. 56% and 41% of investigations of temperature and humidity, respectively, show that cold and dry weather promotes COVID-19 transmission, while some studies come to the opposite conclusion, and still others do not show a significant relationship between them. Investigations of solar radiation are limited, but have come to the consistent conclusion that weak solar radiation is linked to increased severity of COVID-19 infection. Investigation of the impact of air pollution mainly focuses on particulate matters, and more than 70% of investigations indicate that PM2.5 likely contributes to the spread of COVID-19. Similarly, 62%, 51%, and 31% of investigations of NOx, O3, and SO2, respectively, indicate that the exposure to severe pollution can aggravate COVID-19 transmission. Therefore, the available findings reveal the complexity of the impact of atmospheric environmental conditions on the spread of COVID-19. We further discuss their mechanisms from three perspectives: (1) Atmospheric environmental conditions influence the generation of virus-laden aerosols and the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in the atmosphere. Relative humidity can affect the evaporation process of water on virus-laden aerosol, and thus affect its atmospheric life and probability of being inhaled by human body. (2) Atmospheric environmental conditions directly affect the stability of infection activity of SARS-CoV-2. Generally, high temperature, medium relative humidity, and intense solar radiation promote the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2. (3) Atmospheric environmental conditions indirectly affect the infection ability of SARS-CoV-2 by changing the defense ability of host cells. Air pollutants, especially PM2.5, can affect human susceptibility to the virus by increasing the expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2) in host cells. Meanwhile, meteorological conditions and air pollution can lead to respiratory system and other diseases in the human body, thus reducing human immunity and increasing the risk of virus infection, as well as the numbers of severely infected and fatal cases. All three mechanisms may contribute to the prevalence of COVID-19, but the dominant mechanism remains unclear. Finally, future directions of in-depth studies regarding the association between the epidemic and atmospheric conditions are proposed. © 2022 Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

16.
Language Learning & Technology ; 26(2):38-49, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1988493

ABSTRACT

It is expected that the field of language education will see an increased need for teachers to accept online teaching. Based on the Technology Acceptance Model, this study examined pre-service EFL teachers' acceptance of online teaching and the factors influencing them. The participants were TESOL majors at three universities in China. The data were collected from a questionnaire survey with 204 participants and semi-structured individual interviews with 12 participants. The study reveals that pre-service English teachers generally accept online teaching after completing one-semester of purely online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results also suggest that participants' enjoyable experiences in using online technologies, perceived usefulness of online teaching, social influences, and technological pedagogical content knowledge influence their acceptance of online teaching.

17.
Finance Research Letters ; : 103182, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1936444

ABSTRACT

We explore how information-sharing and financial inclusion influence bank risk in 84 countries from 1996-2020. Results show that greater information-sharing and financial inclusion lessen bank risk levels. The average bank's Z-score increases by 3.51 – 9.09%, attributable to enhanced information-sharing and higher financial inclusion. Inclusion-based deposit mobilization reduces bank probability of insolvency, suggesting that inclusion provides banks with cheap funding sources, reducing moral hazard problems and risky behaviors. Results remain robust across risk indicators and controlling for FinTech-based inclusion and COVID-19-induced risk. They support the hypothesis of increased social returns to transparency, information-sharing, and reaching out to financially excluded segments.

18.
8th International Conference on Information Systems Security and Privacy (ICISSP) ; : 388-395, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1918009

ABSTRACT

Social network users receive a large amount of social data every day. These data may contain malicious unwanted social spams, even though each social network has its social spam filtering mechanism. Moreover, spammers may send spam to multiple social networks concurrently, and the spam on the same topic from different social networks has similarities. Therefore, it is crucial to building a universal spam detection system across different social networks that can effectively fend off spam continuously. In this paper, we designed and implemented a tool Spam-Fender to facilitate spam detection across social networks. In order to utilize the raw social data obtained from multiple social networks, we utilized a semi-supervised learning method to convert unlabelled data into usable data for training the model. Moreover, we developed an incremental learning method to enable the model to learn new data continuously. Performance evaluations demonstrate that our proposed system can effectively detect social spam with satisfactory accuracy levels. In addition, we conducted a case study on the COVID-19 dataset to evaluate our system.

19.
Clinical Cancer Research ; 27(6 SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1816883

ABSTRACT

Background The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has assaulted all aspects of daily life. Medical professionals in oncology face additional challenges with balancing prompt cancer diagnosis and urgent treatment against potential COVID-19 exposure risk in these high-risk patients. We designed this prospective freewill study to offer testing for SAR2-CoV-2 viral RNA and/or anti-COVID-19, respectively in asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients. The overall goal was to evaluate the prevalence of infection in this group of asymptomatic healthcare providers to reduce exposure of cancer patients to asymptomatic staff. Methods Asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients were asked to voluntarily be tested for either SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA or antibodies or both. Either NP swabs and/or blood samples (EDTA tube) were collected. Tests are performed at Sinochips Kansas LLC, Sinochips Diagnostics (CLIA number:17D2176068, CAP number: 8709463). The PCR test is performed with FDA authorized 2019-Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel EUA. The Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (Roche Diagnostics) immunoassay was used to qualitative detection of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human plasma. Results From 06/18/2020 to 12/18/2020, 861 participated in the study. 1095 tests were completed for SAR2-CoV-2 virus infection, and 918 were completed for antibody. Amount participants, 530 had both virus and antibody tested. 235 were tested more than once for viral infection and 166 were tested more than once for the antibody. Median age of participants was 39 years (IQR 32-51 years). Among these 84.7% were females, 84.4% white, 6.7% African American, 4.8% Asian and 84.7% non-Hispanic. The cumulative incidence of a positive test for the virus was 2.2% (16/712), and for the antibody test was 3.8% (26/679). 5 had both viral and antibody tests positive, with an average time of 4.1 weeks from viral testing positivity to detectable antibody among 3 cases and 2 cases with both viral infection and antibody detected at same time. There were 3 cases virus was detected more than once after turning positive. 2 remained positive at 16 and 22 days after initial test and one turned negative at 36 days as of last follow up. There were 7 cases where the antibody was tested more than once after turning positive and all 7 remained positive as of last follow up (range 7-103 days). Conclusion Prospective voluntary testing in asymptomatic medical and research staff who work in direct contact with cancer patients was feasible and resulted in identification of asymptomatic carriers who then placed in quarantine, thereby limiting exposure to cancer patients. Medical and research staff who work with cancer patients are general very cautious and the frequency of infections were significantly lower than general society. In addition, it seems that 1) virus and antibody may co-exist in the same person after exposure, and 2) the antibody may last for a relatively long time.

20.
Cancer Research ; 82(4 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779478

ABSTRACT

Background: Infection with SARS-CoV-2 has led to a global pandemic and has significantly impacted the care of cancer patients. Breast cancer patients receiving active systemic therapy need protection against COVID19 but the efficacy of vaccines in this population is unknown. Although specific biomarkers associated with protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection have yet to be identified, measurement of serum antibody activity is generally accepted as a surrogate of in vivo humoral response to vaccine. This study evaluates the efficiency and durability of binding antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in response to COVID19 vaccine in breast cancer patients receiving systemic treatment. Methods: Breast cancer patients, who were unvaccinated, partially or fully vaccinated with Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 (PF), Moderna mRNA-1273 (Mod) or Johnson & Johnson AD26.COV2.S (J&J) were enrolled in this prospective longitudinal study. Eligible patients were on systemic treatment with cytotoxic chemotherapy, chemotherapy plus a checkpoint inhibitor (CPI), CPI alone or a CDK 4/6 inhibitor. Longitudinal blood samples are being collected at baseline, prior to vaccination in unvaccinated patients (T0), 2 weeks after the first vaccine dose and before Sthe second dose for the mRNA vaccines (T1), 1 month (T2), 3 months (T3), 6 months (T4) and 12 month post vaccination. For J&J, there was no T1 timepoint. Roche Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody immunoassay was used to measure antibody titers (range 0.4 to 250 U/mL). Cut points of <0.8 U/mL = negative, ≥0.8 U/mL = seropositive, were based on validated product specifications. Results: Of the 84 breast cancer patients enrolled, 9 had documented COVID infection at baseline and were excluded from analysis. Mean age was 58 years;99% were female, 85% were Caucasian, 49% had early stage disease and 51% had metastatic breast cancer. 67% were receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, 20% a CKD 4/6 inhibitor, 13% a CPI with or without chemotherapy. 61.2% were vaccinated with PF, 34.3% with Mod and 4.5% with J&J vaccines. Seropositivity rate for the entire group was 10% at T0, 78% at T1, 98% at T2 and 100% at T3. Seropositivity rates of all cohorts at different timepoints are shown in the table. Mean titers for all patients were 12.6 U/mL at T0, 102.3 U/mL at T1, 204.4 U/mL at T2 and 214.6 U/mL at T3 timepoints. Similar incremental increase in antibody levels was observed in all cohorts (Table). Conclusions: 78% of the patients with breast cancer on active systemic treatment were seropositive after the first dose of COVID19 vaccine and 98% after the second dose. The antibody response was maintained at 3 months, with 100% seropositivity rate. 6-month antibody response will be available at the time of presentation. Durability of antibody response at 6 and 12 months will help determine the timing of additional vaccine booster doses in this population. Importantly, this study has found that active treatment with chemotherapy, immunotherapy or CDK4/6 inhibitor therapy does not impact antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with breast cancer. Table: Seropositivity rate and mean Anti-S protein antibody levels by cohort at each time point. T0= baseline, T1=after first vaccine dose (mRNA vaccines), T2= 4 weeks after 2 doses of mRNA vaccine or after single dose of J&J vaccine, T3=3 months after the first dose of vaccine.

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