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1.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-486321

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of multiple highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants during the recent pandemic, the comparison of their infectivity has become a substantially critical issue for public health. However, a direct assessment of these viral characteristics has been challenging due to the lack of appropriate experimental models and efficient methods. Here, we integrated human alveolar organoids and single-cell transcriptome sequencing techniques to facilitate the evaluation. In a proof-of-concept study using the assay with four highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, including GR (B.1.1.119), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (BA.1), a rapid evaluation of the relative infectivity was possible. Our results demonstrate that the Omicron (BA.1) variant is 3-5-fold more infectious to human alveolar cells than the other SARS-CoV-2 variants at the early phase of infection. To our knowledge, this study provides the first direct measurement of the infectivity of the Omicron variant and new experimental procedures that can be applied for monitoring newly emerging viral variants.

2.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1750948

ABSTRACT

T cells, including both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, play a pivotal role in mediating various inflammation and immune disorders. A long-standing challenge in T cell-based immunotherapy is to precisely inactivate or delete the pathogenic T cells in inflammation and autoimmune diseases, or to selectively expand the immunocompetent T cell in tumor or other immune compromised situations, without inducing global immunosuppression or zealous immune activation respectively. To achieve this, a specific marker is needed to differentiate the pathogenic or immunocompetent T cell among the rests. Indeed, recent progress of immunology strongly suggests that CXC chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6, CD186) is such a kind of marker. Here, we review the emerging role of CXCR6 as a novel target for immunotherapy and discuss the underlying mechanism. We propose that CXCR6-based immunotherapy will play a significant role in autoimmune, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), tumor, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and even ageing-related inflammatory infliction.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324760

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 epidemic continues to spread rapidly around the world, causing severe multi-organ injury and high mortality in a subset of patients. Individuals with diabetes mellitus are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and worse outcomes than the general population without diabetes. While glucose control was observed to be associated with attenuated mortality, limited evidence is available to determine whether glucose control by insulin was beneficial for COVID-19 patients with diabetes.Methods: This retrospective study focused on a cohort of 689 COVID-19 patients from Wuhan, China, diagnosed with diabetes, and assessed the clinical outcomes associated with insulin treatment. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and proportional Cox regression were employed to analyze the influence of insulin treatment on all cause death.Results: Among the 689 diabetic patients infected with COVID-19, 106 patients died (fatality was 15.4%). The fatality of COVID-19 patients with diabetes treated with insulin was significantly higher than those without insulin treatment (27.2% vs. 3.5%, p < 0.001). The HR was 6.57 (95% CI 3.09 to 13.99;p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, gender, coronary heart disease, COPD, chronic kidney disease, pulse, respiratory rate, SpO2, lymphocyte count, albumin, NT-proBNP and glucose. Further survival analysis in several subgroups and critically ill group showed the similar effect of insulin on adverse outcome in COVID-19 patients with diabetes.Conclusion: According to this retrospective study, insulin treatment increases the mortality in COVID-19 patients with diabetes. Thus, close observation especially glucose and vital signs monitoring are very important when COVID-19 patients with diabetes treated with insulin.Funding: This work was supported in part by projects from Ministry of Science and Technology of China (No. 2020YFC0844500), Nature Science Foundation of China (Nos. 31130031), Emergency project fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. 2020YJFK0105) and Chinese Academy of Engineering and Ma Yun Foundation (No. 2020-CMKYGG-05). Conflict of Interest: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the institutional review board of Tongji Hospital (IRBID: TJ-IRB20200229). The written informed consent was waived by the Ethics Committee because of the retrospective and anonymous nature of the data.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(612): eabh2624, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371845

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing autoantibodies against type I interferons (IFNs) have been found in some patients with critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, the prevalence of these antibodies, their longitudinal dynamics across the disease severity scale, and their functional effects on circulating leukocytes remain unknown. Here, in 284 patients with COVID-19, we found type I IFN­specific autoantibodies in peripheral blood samples from 19% of patients with critical disease and 6% of patients with severe disease. We found no type I IFN autoantibodies in individuals with moderate disease. Longitudinal profiling of over 600,000 peripheral blood mononuclear cells using multiplexed single-cell epitope and transcriptome sequencing from 54 patients with COVID-19 and 26 non­COVID-19 controls revealed a lack of type I IFN­stimulated gene (ISG-I) responses in myeloid cells from patients with critical disease. This was especially evident in dendritic cell populations isolated from patients with critical disease producing type I IFN­specific autoantibodies. Moreover, we found elevated expression of the inhibitory receptor leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 1 (LAIR1) on the surface of monocytes isolated from patients with critical disease early in the disease course. LAIR1 expression is inversely correlated with ISG-I expression response in patients with COVID-19 but is not expressed in healthy controls. The deficient ISG-I response observed in patients with critical COVID-19 with and without type I IFN­specific autoantibodies supports a unifying model for disease pathogenesis involving ISG-I suppression through convergent mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Autoantibodies , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology
5.
Nature ; 591(7848): 124-130, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1368933

ABSTRACT

Although infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some individuals1-3, many others experience milder symptoms. Here, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the distinction between severe and mild phenotypes in the pathology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its origins, we performed a whole-blood-preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major immune cell types of the blood-including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of the serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 exhibit a coordinated pattern of expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs)3 across every cell population, whereas these ISG-expressing cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Paradoxically, individuals with severe COVID-19 produce very high titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and have a lower viral load compared to individuals with mild disease. Examination of the serum from patients with severe COVID-19 shows that these patients uniquely produce antibodies that functionally block the production of the ISG-expressing cells associated with mild disease, by activating conserved signalling circuits that dampen cellular responses to interferons. Overzealous antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many patients with COVID-19, and perhaps also in individuals with other viral infections. Our findings reveal potential targets for immunotherapies in patients with severe COVID-19 to re-engage viral defence.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Interferons/antagonists & inhibitors , Interferons/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , Base Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Interferons/metabolism , Male , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Protein Domains , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis , Viral Load/immunology
7.
Cell Commun Signal ; 19(1): 76, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318284

ABSTRACT

Hypoxia is a pathological condition common to many diseases, although multiple organ injuries induced by hypoxia are often overlooked. There is increasing evidence to suggest that the hypoxic environment may activate innate immune cells and suppress adaptive immunity, further stimulating inflammation and inhibiting immunosurveillance. We found that dysfunctional immune regulation may aggravate hypoxia-induced tissue damage and contribute to secondary injury. Among the diverse mechanisms of hypoxia-induced immune dysfunction identified to date, the role of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has recently attracted much attention. Besides leading to tumour immune evasion, PD-L1 has also been found to participate in the progression of the immune dysfunction which mediates hypoxia-induced multiple organ injury. In this review, we aimed to summarise the role of immune dysfunction in hypoxia-induced multiple organ injury, the effects of hypoxia on the cellular expression of PD-L1, and the effects of upregulated PD-L1 expression on immune regulation. Furthermore, we summarise the latest information pertaining to the involvement, diagnostic value, and therapeutic potential of immunosuppression induced by PD-L1 in various types of hypoxia-related diseases, including cancers, ischemic stroke, acute kidney injury, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Video Abstract.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity/genetics , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Tumor Hypoxia/genetics , Acute Kidney Injury/genetics , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Inflammation/genetics , Ischemic Stroke/genetics , Ischemic Stroke/immunology , Monitoring, Immunologic , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/immunology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/genetics , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/immunology , Tumor Hypoxia/immunology
8.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-453472

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant originally from India is rapidly spreading across the world and causes to resurge infections of SARS-CoV-2. We previously reported that CT-P59 presented its in vivo potency against Beta and Gamma variants, despite its reduced activity in cell experiments. Yet, it remains uncertain to exert the antiviral effect of CT-P59 on the Delta and its associated variants (L452R). To tackle this question, we carried out cell tests and animal study. CT-P59 showed reduced antiviral activity but enabled neutralization against Delta, Epsilon, and Kappa variants in cells. In line with in vitro results, the mouse challenge experiment with the Delta variant substantiated in vivo potency of CT-P59 showing symptom remission and virus abrogation in the respiratory tract. Collectively, cell and animal studies showed that CT-P59 is effective against the Delta variant infection, hinting that CT-P59 has therapeutic potency for patients infected with Delta and its associated variants. HighlightsO_LICT-P59 exerts the antiviral effect on authentic Delta, Epsilon and Kappa variants in cell-based experiments. C_LIO_LICT-P59 showed neutralizing potency against variants including Delta, Epsilon, Kappa, L452R, T478K and P681H pseudovirus variants. C_LIO_LIThe administration of clinically relevant dose of CT-P59 showed in vivo C_LIO_LIprotection against Delta variants in animal challenge experiment. C_LI

9.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153635, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are life-threatening diseases and could occur in severe COVID-19 patients. Re-Du-Ning injection (RDN) is a tradition Chinese medicine preparation which has been clinically used for treatment of respiratory diseases including COVID-19. PURPOSE: To elucidate the potential mechanisms of RDN for the treatment of ALI. METHODS: Female C57BL/6J mice were used to establish ALI model by intraperitoneal injection 10 mg/kg LPS, and RDN injection was intraperitoneally administered with the dose of 5 and 10 ml/kg. The cytokines were measured by ELISA and qPCR. The data related to NETs were analyzed by ELISA, immunofluorescence, Western blotting and network pharmacological approach. RESULTS: RDN robustly alleviated LPS-induced ALI. Meanwhile, RDN downregulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1ß, IL-6 and TNF-α. Specifically, RDN treatment inhibited the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and remarkably suppressed the protein of PAD4. The active compound from RDN decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2. CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate that RDN ameliorates LPS-induced ALI through suppressing MAPK pathway to inhibit the formation of NETs.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Extracellular Traps , Acute Lung Injury/chemically induced , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Animals , Female , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148226, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253611

ABSTRACT

Absorbing carbonaceous aerosols, i.e. black and brown carbon (BC and BrC), affected heavily on climate change, regional air quality and human health. The nationwide lockdown measures in 2020 were performed to against the COVID-19 outbreak, which could provide an important opportunity to understand their variations on light absorption, concentrations, sources and formation mechanism of carbonaceous aerosols. The BC concentration in Wuhan megacity (WH) was 1.9 µg m-3 during lockdown, which was 24% lower than those in the medium-sized cities and 26% higher than those in small city; in addition, 39% and 16-23% reductions occurred compared with the same periods in 2019 in WH and other cities, respectively. Fossil fuels from vehicles and industries were the major contributors to BC; and compared with other periods, minimum contribution (64-86%) mainly from fossil fuel to BC occurred during the lockdown in all cities. Secondary BrC (BrCsec) played a major role in the BrC light absorption, accounting for 65-77% in WH during different periods. BrCsec was promoted under high humidity, and decreased through the photobleaching of chromophores under higher Ox. Generally, the lockdown measures reduced the BC concentrations significantly; however, the variation of BrCsec was slight.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Soot/analysis , Carbon/analysis , China , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(4): 4777-4798, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200418

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic affecting more than 200 countries with 87 million patients worldwide as of January 7, 2021. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) replicates in a large amount and reaches high-titer levels in a short time after the infection. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 shows clinical symptoms mainly including fever, fatigue, dry cough, and dyspnea. In more severe COVID-19 patients, viral pneumonia characterized by bilateral ground glass or patchy opacity, may lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, multi-organ damage, and even death. Unfortunately, there is no effective therapy for COVID-19 until now. Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG), a magnesium salt of 18-α glycyrrhizic acid stereoisomer, belongs to the fourth generation of glycyrrhizic acid preparation. MgIG has various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-virus, and immunoregulation, showing the protection against the injury of the vital organs (such as kidney, heart, and lung). Clinically, MgIG injection is usually used as a hepatoprotective agent to treat liver diseases. This narrative review summarizes the research and application of MgIG, and provides the evidence supporting the recommended MgIG as supportive therapy in the "Management Standard for Mild and Common Patients of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (Second Edition)", which is jointly issued by National Health Commission of People's Republic of China and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Saponins , China , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/therapeutic use , Triterpenes
12.
Front Immunol ; 11: 595342, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106024

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) underlined the urgent need for alleviating cytokine storm. We propose here that activating the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP) is a potential therapeutic strategy. However, there is currently no approved drugs targeting the regulatory pathway. It is evident that nicotine, anisodamine and some herb medicine, activate the CAP and exert anti-inflammation action in vitro and in vivo. As the vagus nerve affects both inflammation and specific immune response, we propose that vagus nerve stimulation by invasive or non-invasive devices and acupuncture at ST36, PC6, or GV20, are also feasible approaches to activate the CAP and control COVID-19. It is worth to investigate the efficacy and safety of the strategy in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Vagus Nerve Stimulation/methods , Vagus Nerve/immunology , Acupuncture , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Cytokines/blood , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Inflammation/therapy , Nicotine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Solanaceous Alkaloids/pharmacology
13.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-5273

ABSTRACT

A review. Coronaviruses, a large family of single-stranded RNA viruses, are responsible for three large-scale worldwide epidemics in the first two decades of the 21st century.Coronaviruses, a large family of single-stranded RNA viruses, are responsible for three large-scale worldwide epidemics in the first two decades of the 21st century. It is imperative to strengthen the research on coronaviruses. This review summarizes the similarities and differences of three coronaviruses including SARS-coV, MERS-coV, SARS-coV-2 in structure, gene, origin, infectiousness, and pathogenicity. The review illuminates immune response mechanism and intervention strategies in term of cytokine storm, neutrophil extracellular traps, imbalance of lymphocyte subsets in patients infected with coronavirus based on exptl. studies and clin. case reports. Finally, new therapeutic strategies and ideas are put forward for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2091 (COVID-19).

15.
Cell Metab ; 33(1): 65-77.e2, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956992

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by SARS-COV-2 infection can lead to multi-organ injuries and significant mortality in severe and critical patients, especially among those individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) as a comorbidity. While attenuated mortality was observed with aggressive glucose control, it was unclear whether therapeutic regimens including insulin treatment were beneficial for patients with COVID-19 and T2D. This retrospective study investigated 689 patients with COVID-19 and T2D from a cohort of 3,305 cases from Wuhan, China. Unexpectedly, we found that insulin treatment for patients with COVID-19 and T2D was associated with a significant increase in mortality (27.2% versus 3.5%; adjusted HR, 5.38 [2.75-10.54]). Further analysis showed that insulin treatment was associated with enhanced systemic inflammation and aggravated injuries of vital organs. Therefore, insulin treatment for patients with COVID-19 and T2D should be used with caution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/mortality , Insulins/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , Cohort Studies , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Insulins/metabolism , Insulins/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
16.
Res Sq ; 2020 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-903184

ABSTRACT

While SARS-CoV-2 infection has pleiotropic and systemic effects in some patients, many others experience milder symptoms. We sought a holistic understanding of the severe/mild distinction in COVID-19 pathology, and its origins. We performed a wholeblood preserving single-cell analysis protocol to integrate contributions from all major cell types including neutrophils, monocytes, platelets, lymphocytes and the contents of serum. Patients with mild COVID-19 disease display a coordinated pattern of interferonstimulated gene (ISG) expression across every cell population and these cells are systemically absent in patients with severe disease. Severe COVID-19 patients also paradoxically produce very high anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers and have lower viral load as compared to mild disease. Examination of the serum from severe patients demonstrates that they uniquely produce antibodies with multiple patterns of specificity against interferon-stimulated cells and that those antibodies functionally block the production of the mild disease-associated ISG-expressing cells. Overzealous and autodirected antibody responses pit the immune system against itself in many COVID-19 patients and this defines targets for immunotherapies to allow immune systems to provide viral defense.

17.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 781, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-613298

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Development of a core outcome set (COS) for clinical trials for COVID-19 is urgent because of the pandemic wreaking havoc worldwide and the heterogeneity of outcomes in clinical trials. METHODS: A preliminary list of outcomes was developed after a systematic review of protocols of clinical trials for COVID-19. Then, two rounds of the Delphi survey were conducted. Stakeholders were traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) experts, Western medicine (WM) experts, nurses, and the public. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were also invited to participate in a questionnaire written in understandable language. Then different stakeholders participated in a consensus meeting by video conference to vote. RESULTS: Ninety-seven eligible study protocols were identified from 160 clinical trials. Seventy-six outcomes were identified from TCM clinical trials and 126 outcomes were identified from WM clinical trials. Finally, 145 outcomes were included in the first round of the Delphi survey. Then, a COS for clinical trials of TCM and WM was developed. The COS included clinical outcomes (recovery/improvement/progression/death), etiology (SARS-CoV-2 nucleic-acid tests, viral load), inflammatory factor (C-reactive protein), vital signs (temperature, respiration), blood and lymphatic-system parameters (lymphocytes, virus antibody), respiratory outcomes (pulmonary imaging, blood oxygen saturation, PaO2/FiO2 ratio, arterial blood gas analysis, mechanical ventilation, oxygen intake, pneumonia severity index), clinical efficacy (prevalence of preventing patients with mild-to-moderate disease progressing to severe disease), and symptoms (clinical symptom score). Outcomes were recommended according to different types of disease. Outcome measurement instruments/definitions were also recommended. CONCLUSION: Though there are some limitations for the research, such as insufficient patients and the public involvement, and the unbalanced stakeholders' region, the COS for COVID-19 may improve consistency of outcome reporting in clinical trials. It also should be updated with research progression.

18.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-988865

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 was reported recently, but its transcriptomic architecture is unknown. Utilizing two complementary sequencing techniques, we here present a high-resolution map of the SARS-CoV-2 transcriptome and epitranscriptome. DNA nanoball sequencing shows that the transcriptome is highly complex owing to numerous recombination events, both canonical and noncanonical. In addition to the genomic RNA and subgenomic RNAs common in all coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 produces a large number of transcripts encoding unknown ORFs with fusion, deletion, and/or frameshift. Using nanopore direct RNA sequencing, we further find at least 41 RNA modification sites on viral transcripts, with the most frequent motif being AAGAA. Modified RNAs have shorter poly(A) tails than unmodified RNAs, suggesting a link between the internal modification and the 3' tail. Functional investigation of the unknown ORFs and RNA modifications discovered in this study will open new directions to our understanding of the life cycle and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. HighlightsO_LIWe provide a high-resolution map of SARS-CoV-2 transcriptome and epitranscriptome using nanopore direct RNA sequencing and DNA nanoball sequencing. C_LIO_LIThe transcriptome is highly complex owing to numerous recombination events, both canonical and noncanonical. C_LIO_LIIn addition to the genomic and subgenomic RNAs common in all coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 produces transcripts encoding unknown ORFs. C_LIO_LIWe discover at least 41 potential RNA modification sites with an AAGAA motif. C_LI

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