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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11417, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921706

ABSTRACT

Women and gender-diverse individuals have faced disproportionate socioeconomic burden during COVID-19. There have been reports of greater negative mental health changes compared to men based on cross-sectional research that has not accounted for pre-COVID-19 differences. We compared mental health changes from pre-COVID-19 to during COVID-19 by sex or gender. MEDLINE (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), EMBASE (Ovid), Web of Science Core Collection: Citation Indexes, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, medRxiv (preprints), and Open Science Framework Preprints (preprint server aggregator) were searched to August 30, 2021. Eligible studies included mental health symptom change data by sex or gender. 12 studies (10 unique cohorts) were included, all of which reported dichotomized sex or gender data. 9 cohorts reported results from March to June 2020, and 2 of these also reported on September or November to December 2020. One cohort included data pre-November 2020 data but did not provide dates. Continuous symptom change differences were not statistically significant for depression (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.12, 95% CI -0.09-0.33; 4 studies, 4,475 participants; I2 = 69.0%) and stress (SMD = - 0.10, 95% CI -0.21-0.01; 4 studies, 1,533 participants; I2 = 0.0%), but anxiety (SMD = 0.15, 95% CI 0.07-0.22; 4 studies, 4,344 participants; I2 = 3.0%) and general mental health (SMD = 0.15, 95% CI 0.12-0.18; 3 studies, 15,692 participants; I2 = 0.0%) worsened more among females/women than males/men. There were no significant differences in changes in proportions above cut-offs: anxiety (difference = - 0.05, 95% CI - 0.20-0.11; 1 study, 217 participants), depression (difference = 0.12, 95% CI -0.03-0.28; 1 study, 217 participants), general mental health (difference = - 0.03, 95% CI - 0.09-0.04; 3 studies, 18,985 participants; I2 = 94.0%), stress (difference = 0.04, 95% CI - 0.10-0.17; 1 study, 217 participants). Mental health outcomes did not differ or were worse by small amounts among women than men during early COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics
2.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(5):676-678, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1903995

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the buffering effect of positive childhood experiences (PCEs) on mental health risks among adolescents before and after COVID-19 epidemic. Methods In October 2019 (before the outbreak of COVID-19), 1 322 students from grades 4 to 9 were recruited from primary and secondary schools in two counties of Chizhou city, Anhui Province. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect general demographic information, PCEs, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, self-harm behavior, suicidal ideation. Follow-up survey was conducted after school re-opening (May 2020). Mental health status before and after the COVID-19 epidemic was compared among students with different PCEs by multiple logistic regression analyses.

3.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; 43(5):641-643, 2022.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1903994

ABSTRACT

The mental health of children and adolescents are closely linked to social development. The twenty first century has seen dramatic urbanization and globalization. These among several other social changes, such as nature and shift in family systems, newer patterns of relationships, psychosocial stress, social mobility and public health emergency show double-edged sword effects to mental health of children and adolescents. The unpredictibility and uncertainty of COVID-19 pandemic, including school closure, physical distancing, cleaning and disinfection priciples have presented many challenges to the mental health of children and adolescents, as well as to school mental health services.

4.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1870099

ABSTRACT

To estimate effect of COVID-19 control measures taken to mitigate community transmission in many regions, we analyzed data based on influenza surveillance system in Beijing from week 27th, 2014 to week 26th, 2020. We collected weekly number of influenza-like illness (ILI), weekly positive proportion of ILI and weekly ILI proportion in outpatients and the date of COVID-19 measures. We compared influenza activity indicators of season 2019/2020 with preceding five seasons and built two ARIMAX models to estimate the effective of COVID-19 measures which emergency response declared since 24th January 2020. Based on observed data, compared with preceding five influenza seasons, ILIs, positive proportion of ILI, and duration of influenza epidemic period in season 2019/2020 decreased from 13% to 54%, especially, the number of weeks from the peak to the end of influenza epidemic period, decreased from 12 to one. Based ARIMAX model forecasting, after natural decline considered, weekly ILIs decreased by 48.6% and weekly positive proportion dropped 15% in the second week after emergency response declared, and finally COVID-19 measures reduced 83%. We conclude public health emergency response can interrupt the transmission of influenza markedly.

5.
Knowledge-Based Systems ; : 108944, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1821402

ABSTRACT

Anomaly subgraph detection is an important problem that has been well researched in various applications, ranging from cyberattacks in computer networks to malicious activities in social networks. Most existing approaches detect anomaly subgraphs in attributed networks with sufficient features. However, multitudinous industry data with insufficient anomalous attributes are the main challenge for traditional anomaly subgraph detection algorithms. In particular, none of the literature focuses on connected anomaly subgraph detection with insufficient anomalous features. To address this problem, we propose Anomaly Alignment in Attributed Networks (AAAN), which first detects connected anomaly subgraphs by aligning anomalies in two attributed networks (one with insufficient anomalous features and the other with sufficient anomalous features). Extensive experiments on three real-world datasets (the Weibo, Baidu migration network, and COVID-19 pandemic datasets) show the effectiveness and efficiency of our algorithm. We can identify the crime hotspots in terms of city blocks from urban traffic networks, which are aligned with the criminal events reported on social networks. The results also demonstrate how AAAN outperforms competitive approaches in the COVID-19 outbreak anomaly subgraph detection and urban crime hotspot detection tasks.

6.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(5): 1089-1104, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1799706

ABSTRACT

Humanized mouse models and mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 virus are increasingly used to study COVID-19 pathogenesis, so it is important to learn where the SARS-CoV-2 receptor ACE2 is expressed. Here we mapped ACE2 expression during mouse postnatal development and in adulthood. Pericytes in the CNS, heart, and pancreas express ACE2 strongly, as do perineurial and adrenal fibroblasts, whereas endothelial cells do not at any location analyzed. In a number of other organs, pericytes do not express ACE2, including in the lung where ACE2 instead is expressed in bronchial epithelium and alveolar type II cells. The onset of ACE2 expression is organ specific: in bronchial epithelium already at birth, in brain pericytes before, and in heart pericytes after postnatal day 10.5. Establishing the vascular localization of ACE2 expression is central to correctly interpret data from modeling COVID-19 in the mouse and may shed light on the cause of vascular COVID-19 complications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Pericytes , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Endothelial Cells , Mice , Pericytes/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 77: 40-68, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778132

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of mental health interventions among people hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and searched 9 databases (2 Chinese-language) from December 31, 2019 to June 28, 2021. Eligible randomized controlled trials assessed interventions among hospitalized COVID-19 patients that targeted mental health symptoms. Due to the poor quality of trials, we sought to verify accuracy of trial reports including results. RESULTS: We identified 47 randomized controlled trials from China (N = 42), Iran (N = 4) and Turkey (N = 1) of which 21 tested the efficacy of psychological interventions, 5 physical and breathing exercises, and 21 a combination of interventions. Trial information could only be verified for 3 trials of psychological interventions (cognitive behavioral, guided imagery, multicomponent online), and these were the only trials with low risk of bias on at least 4 of 7 domains. Results could not be pooled or interpreted with confidence due to the degree of poor reporting and trial quality, the frequency of what were deemed implausibly large effects, and heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: Trials of interventions to address mental health in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, collectively, are not of sufficient quality to inform practice. Health care providers should refer to existing expert recommendations and standard hospital-based practices. REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42020179703); registered on April 17, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Breathing Exercises/methods , Health Personnel , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
Can J Psychiatry ; 67(5): 336-350, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745558

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to assess the effects of mental health interventions for children, adolescents, and adults not quarantined or undergoing treatment due to COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We searched 9 databases (2 Chinese-language) from December 31, 2019, to March 22, 2021. We included randomised controlled trials of interventions to address COVID-19 mental health challenges among people not hospitalised or quarantined due to COVID-19 infection. We synthesized results descriptively due to substantial heterogeneity of populations and interventions and risk of bias concerns. RESULTS: We identified 9 eligible trials, including 3 well-conducted, well-reported trials that tested interventions designed specifically for COVID-19 mental health challenges, plus 6 other trials with high risk of bias and reporting concerns, all of which tested standard interventions (e.g., individual or group therapy, expressive writing, mindfulness recordings) minimally adapted or not specifically adapted for COVID-19. Among the 3 well-conducted and reported trials, 1 (N = 670) found that a self-guided, internet-based cognitive-behavioural intervention targeting dysfunctional COVID-19 worry significantly reduced COVID-19 anxiety (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.90) and depression symptoms (SMD 0.38, 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.55) in Swedish general population participants. A lay-delivered telephone intervention for homebound older adults in the United States (N = 240) and a peer-moderated education and support intervention for people with a rare autoimmune condition from 12 countries (N = 172) significantly improved anxiety (SMD 0.35, 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.60; SMD 0.31, 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.58) and depressive symptoms (SMD 0.31, 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.56; SMD 0.31, 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.55) 6-week post-intervention, but these were not significant immediately post-intervention. No trials in children or adolescents were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that adapt evidence-based strategies for feasible delivery may be effective to address mental health in COVID-19. More well-conducted trials, including for children and adolescents, are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Depression/etiology , Depression/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Quarantine/psychology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
11.
mBio ; : e0366221, 2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741579

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Understanding the immunological and pathological processes of coronavirus diseases is crucial for the rational design of effective vaccines and therapies for COVID-19. Previous studies showed that 2'-O-methylation of the viral RNA cap structure is required to prevent the recognition of viral RNAs by intracellular innate sensors. Here, we demonstrate that the guanine N7-methylation of the 5' cap mediated by coronavirus nonstructural protein 14 (nsp14) contributes to viral evasion of the type I interferon (IFN-I)-mediated immune response and pathogenesis in mice. A Y414A substitution in nsp14 of the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) significantly decreased N7-methyltransferase activity and reduced guanine N7-methylation of the 5' cap in vitro. Infection of myeloid cells with recombinant MHV harboring the nsp14-Y414A mutation (rMHVnsp14-Y414A) resulted in upregulated expression of IFN-I and ISG15 mainly via MDA5 signaling and in reduced viral replication compared to that of wild-type rMHV. rMHVnsp14-Y414A replicated to lower titers in livers and brains and exhibited an attenuated phenotype in mice. This attenuated phenotype was IFN-I dependent because the virulence of the rMHVnsp14-Y414A mutant was restored in Ifnar-/- mice. We further found that the comparable mutation (Y420A) in SARS-CoV-2 nsp14 (rSARS-CoV-2nsp14-Y420A) also significantly decreased N7-methyltransferase activity in vitro, and the mutant virus was attenuated in K18-human ACE2 transgenic mice. Moreover, infection with rSARS-CoV-2nsp14-Y420A conferred complete protection against subsequent and otherwise lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection in mice, indicating the vaccine potential of this mutant. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs), including SARS-CoV-2, the cause of COVID-19, use several strategies to evade the host innate immune responses. While the cap structure of RNA, including CoV RNA, is important for translation, previous studies indicate that the cap also contributes to viral evasion from the host immune response. In this study, we demonstrate that the N7-methylated cap structure of CoV RNA is pivotal for virus immunoevasion. Using recombinant MHV and SARS-CoV-2 encoding an inactive N7-methyltransferase, we demonstrate that these mutant viruses are highly attenuated in vivo and that attenuation is apparent at very early times after infection. Virulence is restored in mice lacking interferon signaling. Further, we show that infection with virus defective in N7-methylation protects mice from lethal SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that the N7-methylase might be a useful target in drug and vaccine development.

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308234

ABSTRACT

Background: As of July 24 2020, the global reported number of COVID-19 cases was > 15.4 millions, with over 640,000 deaths. The present study aimed to carry out an epidemiological analysis of confirmed cases and asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City to provide scientific reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19. Methods The epidemiological information of the 462 confirmed cases and 45 asymptomatic infections from January 19th to June 30th was collected in Shenzhen City, Southern China, and a descriptive analysis was performed. Results A total of 462 confirmed COVID-19 cases from January 19 to April 30, 2020 were reported in Shenzhen City, including 423 domestic cases (91.56%) and 39 imported cases (8.44%) who came back from other countries. Among domestic cases, the majority were cases imported from Hubei Province (n = 312, 67.53%), followed by local ones (n = 69, 14.94%). During the same period, a total of 45 asymptomatic infections were reported in Shenzhen City, including 31 local ones (68.89%) and 14 imported from abroad (31.11%). The proportion of asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City was increasing over time (Z = 13.1888, P  < 0.0001). The total number of local asymptomatic infections in Shenzhen City exceeded as the same pattern as that in other provinces ( χ 2  = 118.830, P  < 0.0001). The proportion of asymptomatic infections among cases imported from abroad was higher than that of the same in domestic cases ( χ 2  = 22.5121, P  < 0.0001, OR  = 4.8983, 95%: 2.4052, 9.9756). No statistical significance was noted in the proportions of asymptomatic infections among imported cases from different countries ( χ 2  = 7.7202, P  = 0.6561). Conclusions The majority of COVID-19 cases in Shenzhen City were imported cases who came back from Hubei Province in the early stage (before 1st March, 2020) and from abroad in the later stage (after 1st April, 2020). Scientific and effective prevention and control measures have resulted in only a few local infections in Shenzhen City. Asymptomatic infections accounted for an increasing proportion among cases imported from abroad, indicating that the prevention measures carried out in Shenzhen City did avoid the import of infected cases. Improving the detection capability to identify asymptomatic infections as early as possible will be of significance for the control outbreak of COVID-19.

14.
J Anal Test ; 5(4): 314-326, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682468

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of severe pneumonia at the end of 2019 was proved to be caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus spreading out the world. And COVID-19 spread rapidly through a terrible transmission way by human-to-human, which led to many suspected cases waiting to be diagnosed and huge daily samples needed to be tested by an effective and rapid detection method. With an increasing number of COVID-19 infections, medical pressure is severe. Therefore, more efficient and accurate diagnosis methods were keen urgently established. In this review, we summarized several methods that can rapidly and sensitively identify COVID-19; some of them are widely used as the diagnostic techniques for SARS-CoV-2 in various countries, some diagnostic technologies refer to SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) or/and MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) detection, which may provide potential diagnosis ideas.

15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2467, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684106

ABSTRACT

This study aims to develop an assumption-free data-driven model to accurately forecast COVID-19 spread. Towards this end, we firstly employed Bayesian optimization to tune the Gaussian process regression (GPR) hyperparameters to develop an efficient GPR-based model for forecasting the recovered and confirmed COVID-19 cases in two highly impacted countries, India and Brazil. However, machine learning models do not consider the time dependency in the COVID-19 data series. Here, dynamic information has been taken into account to alleviate this limitation by introducing lagged measurements in constructing the investigated machine learning models. Additionally, we assessed the contribution of the incorporated features to the COVID-19 prediction using the Random Forest algorithm. Results reveal that significant improvement can be obtained using the proposed dynamic machine learning models. In addition, the results highlighted the superior performance of the dynamic GPR compared to the other models (i.e., Support vector regression, Boosted trees, Bagged trees, Decision tree, Random Forest, and XGBoost) by achieving an averaged mean absolute percentage error of around 0.1%. Finally, we provided the confidence level of the predicted results based on the dynamic GPR model and showed that the predictions are within the 95% confidence interval. This study presents a promising shallow and simple approach for predicting COVID-19 spread.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , COVID-19/transmission , Forecasting/methods , Machine Learning , Neural Networks, Computer , Bayes Theorem , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
16.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 552-555, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655962

ABSTRACT

We identified an individual who was coinfected with two SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, the Beta and Delta variants. The ratio of the relative abundance between the two variants was maintained at 1:9 (Beta:Delta) in 14 days. Furthermore, possible evidence of recombinations in the Orf1ab and Spike genes was found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 785496, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638923

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has plunged the world into a major crisis. The disease is characterized by strong infectivity, high morbidity, and high mortality. It is still spreading in some countries. Microbiota and their metabolites affect human physiological health and diseases by participating in host digestion and nutrition, promoting metabolic function, and regulating the immune system. Studies have shown that human microecology is associated with many diseases, including COVID-19. In this research, we first reviewed the microbial characteristics of COVID-19 from the aspects of gut microbiome, lung microbime, and oral microbiome. We found that significant changes take place in both the gut microbiome and airway microbiome in patients with COVID-19 and are characterized by an increase in conditional pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in beneficial bacteria. Then, we summarized the possible microecological mechanisms involved in the progression of COVID-19. Intestinal microecological disorders in individuals may be involved in the occurrence and development of COVID-19 in the host through interaction with ACE2, mitochondria, and the lung-gut axis. In addition, fecal bacteria transplantation (FMT), prebiotics, and probiotics may play a positive role in the treatment of COVID-19 and reduce the fatal consequences of the disease.

18.
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 117-123, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605885

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the treatment efficacy and safety of tofacitinib (TOF) versus methotrexate (MTX) in Takayasu arteritis (TAK). METHODS: Fifty-three patients with active disease from an ongoing prospective TAK cohort in China were included in this study. Twenty-seven patients were treated with glucocorticoids (GCs) and TOF, and 26 patients were treated with GCs with MTX. The observation period was 12 months. Complete remission (CR), inflammatory parameter changes, GCs tapering and safety were assessed at the 6th, 9th and 12th month. Vascular lesions were evaluated at the 6th and 12th month, and relapse was analysed during 12 months. RESULTS: The CR rate was higher in the TOF group than in the MTX group (6 months: 85.19% vs 61.54%, p=0.07; 12 months: 88.46% vs 56.52%, p=0.02). During 12 months' treatment, patients in the TOF group achieved a relatively lower relapse rate (11.54% vs 34.78%, p=0.052) and a longer median relapse-free duration (11.65±0.98 vs 10.48±2.31 months, p=0.03). Average GCs dose at the 3rd, 6th and 12th month was lower in the TOF group than that in the MTX group (p<0.05). A difference was not observed in disease improvement or disease progression on imaging between the two groups (p>0.05). Prevalence of side effects was low in both groups (3.70% vs 15.38%, p=0.19). CONCLUSION: TOF was superior to MTX for CR induction, a tendency to prevent relapse and tapering of the GCs dose in TAK treatment. A good safety profile for TOF was also documented in patients with TAK.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Takayasu Arteritis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Disease Progression , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Methotrexate/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Piperidines/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , Pyrimidines/adverse effects , Recurrence , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine ; 41(6):701-710, 2021.
Article in Chinese | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1602743

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the mechanism of Huoxiang Zhengqi Recipe in treating novel coronavirus pneumonia in pregnancy by using network pharmacology and explore the relationship between its multiple components, targets and pathways.

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