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1.
Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) ; : 1-14, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999602

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19, people face conditions of great stress and are susceptible to negative emotions such as worry, fear, and doubt. Therefore, the focus of epidemic prevention should be on mental health as well as physical health. It is important to pay attention to people's mental health while mitigating and controlling the epidemic. As an intervention to improve mental health, exercise behavior has attracted increasing attention from scholars due to its convenience and low cost. Therefore, the goal of this paper was to investigate the differences between characteristics related to linguistic expression and mental health indicators among different groups of Weibo users by constructing a Weibo exercise behavior user lexicon to explore the influence of exercise behavior on mental health. This study developed a user dictionary of exercise behavior, classified Sina Weibo users' exercise behavior, and established relevant systems to uncover the expressive characteristics of psychological vocabulary and behavioral vocabulary to explore the differences in expressive features related to psychological and behavioral vocabulary and mental health indicators among users who engage in different forms of exercise behavior during the period of COVID-19. As a result of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted during the COVID-19 epidemic, (1) based on the constructed user lexicon of motion behavior in Weibo, the classification program exhibited good performance;(2) there were significant differences in the expressions of some lexical features among users who exhibited different motor behaviors;and (3) both nonphysical exercise and physical exercise behavior had positive relationships with some mental health indicators, but the mechanism associated with nonphysical exercise requires further exploration. This study provides a scientific online evaluation methodology and support for research concerning exercise and mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic.

2.
J Integr Med ; 2022 Jul 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966871

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are expected to have a worse prognosis than mild cases. Shenhuang Granule (SHG) has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for severe COVID-19 in a previous randomized clinical trial, but the active chemical constituents and underlying mechanisms of action remain unknown. The goal of this study is to explore the chemical basis and mechanisms of SHG in the treatment of severe COVID-19, using network pharmacology. METHODS: Ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to screen chemical constituents of SHG. Putative therapeutic targets were predicted by searching traditional Chinese medicine system pharmacology database and analysis platform, SwissTargetPrediction, and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases. The target protein-protein interaction network and enrichment analysis were performed to investigate the hub genes and presumptive mechanisms. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to verify the stability and interaction between the key chemical constituents of SHG and COVID-19 protein targets. RESULTS: Forty-five chemical constituents of SHG were identified along with 131 corresponding therapeutic targets, including hub genes such as HSP90AA1, MMP9, CXCL8, PTGS2, IFNG, DNMT1, TYMS, MDM2, HDAC3 and ABCB1. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that SHG mainly acted on the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, calcium signaling pathway and cAMP signaling pathway. Molecular docking showed that the key constituents had a good affinity with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 protein targets. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated that ginsenoside Rg4 formed a stable protein-ligand complex with helicase. CONCLUSION: Multiple components of SHG regulated multiple targets to inhibit virus invasion and cytokine storm through several signaling pathways; this provides a scientific basis for clinical applications and further experiments.

3.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 50(4): 414-420, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894578

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate how international students enrolled on medical and surgical bachelor's degree programs (MBBS) in China perceived online medical education course, compared to native Chinese students during the Covid-19 pandemic. The perceptions of 38 MBBS and 31 Chinese sophomores were surveyed using the Chaoxing platform. The international student group's mean satisfaction with online teaching was 2.737 on a 5-point scale, much lower than the Chinese students' mean score of 4.355 (p < 0.05). Similarly, the international students expressed less satisfaction than the Chinese learners with other aspects of the course, including the teacher's level, at 3.964 ± 0.818 versus 4.445 ± 0.548 (p < 0.05); curriculum organization, at 3.651 ± 0.848 versus 4.333 ± 0.568 (p < 0.05); and self-learning level, at 3.634 ± 0.996 versus 3.686 ± 0.949 (p > 0.05), respectively. There were also noteworthy differences between the progress made by the international students in Chinese language learning, which was positively correlated with satisfaction with teaching on the online medical education (p < 0.05). The results suggest that, while online teaching was a necessary response to the Covid-19 pandemic, satisfaction with this mode of education is lower among international students than their Chinese counterparts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Education, Medical , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Distance/methods , Humans , Pandemics , Students
4.
mLife ; n/a(n/a), 2022.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1885423

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota composition is suggested to associate with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity, but the impact of gut microbiota on health outcomes is largely unclear. We recruited 81 individuals from Wuhan, China, including 13 asymptomatic infection cases (Group A), 24 COVID-19 convalescents with adverse outcomes (Group C), 31 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) re-positive cases (Group D), and 13 non-COVID-19 healthy controls (Group H). The microbial features of Groups A and D were similar and exhibited higher gut microbial diversity and more abundant short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing species than Group C. Group C was enriched with opportunistic pathogens and virulence factors related to adhesion and toxin production. The abundance of SCFA-producing species was negatively correlated, while Escherichia coli was positively correlated with adverse outcomes. All three groups (A, C, and D) were enriched with the mucus-degrading species Akkermansia muciniphila, but decreased with Bacteroides-encoded carbohydrate-active enzymes. The pathways of vitamin B6 metabolic and folate biosynthesis were decreased, while selenocompound metabolism was increased in the three groups. Specifically, the secondary bile acid (BA) metabolic pathway was enriched in Group A. Antibiotic resistance genes were common among the three groups. Conclusively, the gut microbiota was related to the health outcomes of COVID-19. Dietary supplementations (SCFAs, BA, selenium, folate, vitamin B6) may be beneficial to COVID-19 patients.

5.
J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884234

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infections occurred in repeated waves caused by different variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with the number of patients increasing during each wave. A private after-hours house-call (AHHC) service provides hospital-at-home (HaH) services to patients in Japan requiring oxygen when hospital beds are in short supply. This retrospective study aimed to compare the characteristics of COVID-19 patients treated by the AHHC service during the COVID-19 waves caused by the Alpha (March-June 2021) and Delta (July-December 2021) SARS-CoV-2 variants. All patients with COVID-19 treated by the AHHC service from March to December 2021 while awaiting hospitalization were included. The data were collected from medical records and follow-up telephone interviews. The AHHC service treated 55 and 273 COVID-19 patients during the Alpha and Delta waves, respectively. The patients treated during the Delta wave were significantly younger than those treated during the Alpha wave (median: 63 years and 47 years, respectively; p < 0.001). Disease severity did not differ significantly between the two waves, but the crude case-fatality rate was significantly higher during the Alpha wave (10/55, 18.2%) than during the Delta wave (4/273, 1.4%; p < 0.001). The patient characteristics and outcomes differed between the Alpha and Delta waves.

6.
Ocean Coast Manag ; 224: 106190, 2022 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851893

ABSTRACT

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2021.105852.].

7.
iScience ; 25(6): 104415, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851360

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreaks have crushed our healthcare systems, which requires clinical guidance for the healthcare following the outbreaks. We conducted retrospective cohort studies with Pearson's pattern-based analysis of clinical parameters of 248 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. We found that dysregulated neutrophil densities were correlated with hospitalization duration before death (p = 0.000066, r = -0.45 for % neutrophil; p = 0.0001, r = -0.47 for neutrophil count). As such, high neutrophil densities were associated with mortality (p = 4.23 × 10-31 for % neutrophil; p = 4.14 × 10-27 for neutrophil count). These findings were further illustrated by a representative "second week crash" pattern and validated by an independent cohort (p = 5.98 × 10-11 for % neutrophil; p = 1.65 × 10-7 for neutrophil count). By contrast, low aspartate aminotransferase (AST) or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were correlated with quick recovery (p ≤ 0.00005). Collectively, these correlational at-admission findings may provide healthcare guidance for patients with COVID-19 in the absence of targeted therapy.

8.
Policy Internet ; 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1763278

ABSTRACT

Noting the infrastructural turn in platform studies, the article conceives China's health code system, Jian Kang Ma (JKM), deployed to manage the COVID-19 crisis as a new social infrastructure that manifests the symbolic and material power of the Party State. Using the platform walkthrough method and documentary inquiry, we unpack the structures of platform governance and identify actors of the power to appreciate the socio-political dynamics of platform algorithms. JKM's structural power is not monolithic in the name of the Party State but supports a process of structuration that operates across multiple actors, administrative bodies and, governing layers. JKM has centralised data systems through the building of a nationwide algorithmic standard of COVID-19 governance. JKM typified the political dynamics of deterritorialisation, a reference to the state's governing mindset of eradicating local variants of policy implementation and governing autonomy in China. The removal of local power in pandemic administration has led to the production of a unified national subject. Such a comprehensive approach begs for greater nuance and sophisticated knowledge about those indigenous logics that platforms and algorithms operate and are embedded in, thus contributing to de-westernising platform studies.


Al señalar el giro infraestructural en los estudios de plataforma, el artículo concibe el sistema de código de salud de China, Jian Kang Ma (JKM), implementado para gestionar la crisis de COVID­19 como una nueva infraestructura social que manifiesta el poder simbólico y material del Estado Parte. Usando el método de recorrido de la plataforma y la investigación documental, desempaquetamos las estructuras de la gobernanza de la plataforma e identificamos a los actores del poder para apreciar la dinámica sociopolítica de los algoritmos de la plataforma. El poder estructural de JKM no es monolítico en nombre del Estado Parte, sino que respalda un proceso de estructuración que opera a través de múltiples actores, órganos administrativos y capas de gobierno. JKM ha centralizado los sistemas de datos a través de la construcción de un estándar algorítmico nacional de gobernanza COVID­19. JKM tipificó la dinámica política de la desterritorialización, una referencia a la mentalidad de gobierno del estado de erradicar las variantes locales de implementación de políticas y autonomía de gobierno en China. La eliminación del poder local en la administración de la pandemia ha llevado a la producción de un sujeto nacional unificado. Un enfoque tan completo exige mayores matices y un conocimiento más sofisticado sobre las lógicas indígenas en las que operan y están integrados las plataformas y los algoritmos, lo que contribuye a la desoccidentalización de los estudios de plataformas.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 858256, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760238

ABSTRACT

To determine whether aorta becomes immune organ in pathologies, we performed transcriptomic analyses of six types of secretomic genes (SGs) in aorta and vascular cells and made the following findings: 1) 53.7% out of 21,306 human protein genes are classified into six secretomes, namely, canonical, caspase 1, caspase 4, exosome, Weibel-Palade body, and autophagy; 2) Atherosclerosis (AS), chronic kidney disease (CKD) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) modulate six secretomes in aortas; and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV, COVID-19 homologous) infected endothelial cells (ECs) and angiotensin-II (Ang-II) treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) modulate six secretomes; 3) AS aortas upregulate T and B cell immune SGs; CKD aortas upregulate SGs for cardiac hypertrophy, and hepatic fibrosis; and AAA aorta upregulate SGs for neuromuscular signaling and protein catabolism; 4) Ang-II induced AAA, canonical, caspase 4, and exosome SGs have two expression peaks of high (day 7)-low (day 14)-high (day 28) patterns; 5) Elastase induced AAA aortas have more inflammatory/immune pathways than that of Ang-II induced AAA aortas; 6) Most disease-upregulated cytokines in aorta may be secreted via canonical and exosome secretomes; 7) Canonical and caspase 1 SGs play roles at early MERS-CoV infected ECs whereas caspase 4 and exosome SGs play roles in late/chronic phases; and the early upregulated canonical and caspase 1 SGs may function as drivers for trained immunity (innate immune memory); 8) Venous ECs from arteriovenous fistula (AVF) upregulate SGs in five secretomes; and 9) Increased some of 101 trained immunity genes and decreased trained tolerance regulator IRG1 participate in upregulations of SGs in atherosclerotic, Ang-II induced AAA and CKD aortas, and MERS-CoV infected ECs, but less in SGs upregulated in AVF ECs. IL-1 family cytokines, HIF1α, SET7 and mTOR, ROS regulators NRF2 and NOX2 partially regulate trained immunity genes; and NRF2 plays roles in downregulating SGs more than that of NOX2 in upregulating SGs. These results provide novel insights on the roles of aorta as immune organ in upregulating secretomes and driving immune and vascular cell differentiations in COVID-19, cardiovascular diseases, inflammations, transplantations, autoimmune diseases and cancers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Angiotensin II , Aorta , COVID-19/genetics , Caspase 1 , Cell Differentiation , Cell Transdifferentiation , Cytokines , Endothelial Cells , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2
10.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 28: 249-258, 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740077

ABSTRACT

In the past year, the rapid spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the worldwide coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Yet our understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 tropism mechanism is still insufficient. In this study, we examined the chromatin accessibility at the promoters of host factor genes (ACE2, TMPRSS2, NRP1, BSG, CTSL, and FURIN) in 14 tissue types, 23 tumor types, and 189 cell lines. We showed that the promoters of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were accessible in a tissue- and cell-specific pattern, which is accordant with previous clinical research on SARS-CoV-2 tropism. We were able to further verify that type I interferon (IFN) could induce angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression in Caco-2 cells by enhancing the binding of HNF1A, the transcription factor of ACE2, to ACE2 promoter without changing chromatin accessibility. We then performed transcription factor (TF)-gene interactions network and pathway analyses and discovered that the TFs regulating host factor genes are enriched in pathways associated with viral infection. Finally, we established a novel model that suggests that open chromatin at the promoter mediates the host factors' supplementary effect and ensures SARS-CoV-2 entry. Our work uncovers the relationship between epigenetic regulation and SARS-CoV-2 tropism and provides clues for further investigation of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1128, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721520

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus with a single-stranded, positive-sense, 30-kilobase RNA genome responsible for the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Although population average structure models of the genome were recently reported, there is little experimental data on native structural ensembles, and most structures lack functional characterization. Here we report secondary structure heterogeneity of the entire SARS-CoV-2 genome in two lines of infected cells at single nucleotide resolution. Our results reveal alternative RNA conformations across the genome and at the critical frameshifting stimulation element (FSE) that are drastically different from prevailing population average models. Importantly, we find that this structural ensemble promotes frameshifting rates much higher than the canonical minimal FSE and similar to ribosome profiling studies. Our results highlight the value of studying RNA in its full length and cellular context. The genomic structures detailed here lay groundwork for coronavirus RNA biology and will guide the design of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-based therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , RNA, Viral/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Frameshifting, Ribosomal , Genome, Viral , Humans , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329316

ABSTRACT

Background: The need to belong is a fundamental human desire that provides the basis for relationships and community;it provides a sense of security that enables growth and development. This sense of belonging is pivotal to new University students, indeed, without it, students are at greater risk of failing or withdrawing from their studies. Yet developing a sense of belonging within a new cohort is complex and multi-faceted and further complicated by a sudden shift from face-to-face to online learning. Our study explores first year clinical health students’ sense of belonging in the context of the rapid transition to online learning because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods We utilised a current mixed-method approach including a survey incorporating previously validated tools, demographic and open-ended qualitative questions. Data was also gathered from three focus groups: two dedicated student groups and one academic focus group. Qualitative data was subjected to thematic analysis whilst descriptive statistics were used to describe the quantitative data. Results 179 first year students complete the survey and four students, and five academics were involved in the focus groups. All participants were from clinical health science courses at an Australian university. Our qualitative results indicated a global theme of: Navigating belonging during the COVID-19 crisis: a shared responsibility;with four organising themes describing (1) dimensions of belonging, (2) individual experiences and challenges, (3) reconceptualising teaching and learning, and (4) relationships are central to belonging. Conclusion While the rapid transition to online learning did not greatly impact knowledge acquisition of first-year students in this cohort, the lack of sense of belonging highlights the need for further research into development of this essential aspect of learning in the online domain. Although contextualised in the COVID-19 pandemic, it became clear that the findings will remain relevant beyond the current situation, as a student’s need to belong will always be present in the face of challenges or change.

13.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 1433323, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1697599

ABSTRACT

We performed a database mining on 102 transcriptomic datasets for the expressions of 29 m6A-RNA methylation (epitranscriptomic) regulators (m6A-RMRs) in 41 diseases and cancers and made significant findings: (1) a few m6A-RMRs were upregulated; and most m6A-RMRs were downregulated in sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, and trauma; (2) half of 29 m6A-RMRs were downregulated in atherosclerosis; (3) inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis modulated m6A-RMRs more than lupus and psoriasis; (4) some organ failures shared eight upregulated m6A-RMRs; end-stage renal failure (ESRF) downregulated 85% of m6A-RMRs; (5) Middle-East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infections modulated m6A-RMRs the most among viral infections; (6) proinflammatory oxPAPC modulated m6A-RMRs more than DAMP stimulation including LPS and oxLDL; (7) upregulated m6A-RMRs were more than downregulated m6A-RMRs in cancer types; five types of cancers upregulated ≥10 m6A-RMRs; (8) proinflammatory M1 macrophages upregulated seven m6A-RMRs; (9) 86% of m6A-RMRs were differentially expressed in the six clusters of CD4+Foxp3+ immunosuppressive Treg, and 8 out of 12 Treg signatures regulated m6A-RMRs; (10) immune checkpoint receptors TIM3, TIGIT, PD-L2, and CTLA4 modulated m6A-RMRs, and inhibition of CD40 upregulated m6A-RMRs; (11) cytokines and interferons modulated m6A-RMRs; (12) NF-κB and JAK/STAT pathways upregulated more than downregulated m6A-RMRs whereas TP53, PTEN, and APC did the opposite; (13) methionine-homocysteine-methyl cycle enzyme Mthfd1 downregulated more than upregulated m6A-RMRs; (14) m6A writer RBM15 and one m6A eraser FTO, H3K4 methyltransferase MLL1, and DNA methyltransferase, DNMT1, regulated m6A-RMRs; and (15) 40 out of 165 ROS regulators were modulated by m6A eraser FTO and two m6A writers METTL3 and WTAP. Our findings shed new light on the functions of upregulated m6A-RMRs in 41 diseases and cancers, nine cellular and molecular mechanisms, novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory disorders, metabolic cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune diseases, organ failures, and cancers.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Neoplasms/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/metabolism , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Datasets as Topic , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Metabolic Diseases/genetics , Methylation
14.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325100

ABSTRACT

Background: Although COVID-19 pneumonia is spreading internationally, knowledge regarding the factors associated with the illness severity of patients remains limited. We aimed to identify the factors associated with the disease severity of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia induced by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods We prospectively enrolled a single-center case series of adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Infectious Disease Hospital of Jining, Jining City, Shandong Province, China, from January 24 to March 1, 2020. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings were compared to investigate the risk factors related with the disease severity of COVID-19 pneumonia patients. Results We included a total of 78 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, of whom 6 had the severe type. As compared to a moderately ill cohort, our analysis showed that shortness of breath, fatigue, neutrophil percentages > 70%, neutrophil counts > 6.3 × 10 9 /L, lymphocyte percentages < 20%, lymphocyte counts < 1.0 × 10 9 /L, platelet < 100 × 10 9 /L, C-reactive protein (CRP) > 10 mg/L, neutrophil to platelet ratio (NPR) > 2.3, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) > 3.9, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 40 U/L, albumin < 40 g/L, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) > 245 U/L, and glucose > 6.1 mmol/L were predictors of disease severity in COVID-19 pneumonia. In the sex-, age-, and comorbid illness-matched case-control study, neutrophil percentages > 70%, neutrophil counts > 6.3 × 10 9 /L, lymphocyte percentages < 20%, NPR > 2.3, NLR > 3.9, albumin < 40 g/L, and LDH > 245 U/L remained associated with the early detection and identification of severe patients. Conclusion We demonstrated that neutrophil percentages > 70%, neutrophil counts > 6.3×10 9 /L, lymphocyte percentages < 20%, NPR > 2.3, NLR > 3.9, albumin < 40 g/L, and LDH > 245 U/L might predict the severity of illness in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315212

ABSTRACT

Background: Multiorgan damage by SARS-CoV-2 results in alterations of many clinical measures associated with mortality of COVID-19. This research discussed the pioneering pathogenicity factors that lead to the extensive damage elusive. Objectives: A cohort of COVID-19 patients. Methods: : We conducted a correlational analysis of hospital outcomes with an independent cohort of COVID-19 patients and we also presented a death case to illustrate for time course of immune cell density. Results: : The results showed that dysregulated immune cell densities were correlated with hospitalization duration before death, not before discharge. High neutrophil densities allowed sorting out one third of total death cases while a density of less than 70% of the white blood cells allowed sorting out 70% of surviving cases. Conclusion: Collectively surged neutrophil was a top trigger for mortality in patients with COVID-19.

16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315211

ABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide spread of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has made hundreds of thousands people sick and fortunately many of them have been treated and discharged. However, it remains unclear how well the discharged patients were recovering. Chest CT scan, with demonstrated high sensitivity to COVID-19, was used here to examine clinical manifestations in patients at discharge. Methods: This study registered retrospectively single-center case series of 180 discharged patients, all confirmed with COVID-19 at Wuhan Red Cross Hospital in Wuhan, China. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory and treatment data were collected. CT imaging features of absorption vs progressive stage were compared and analyzed. Results: Five pulmonary lobes were affected in 54 (30%) of the 180 patients at the absorption stage, comparing to 66% of them at the progressive stage ( P=1.45×10 -11 ). Forty five (25%) patients had pleural effusion on admission and 13 of them still carried hydrothorax when discharged as per standard discharge criteria( P=4.48×10 -6 ). Besides, compared with those at progressive stage, 97 (54%) discharged patients had interlobular thickening ( P=6.95×10 -3 ) and 43% of them still presented adjacent pleura thickening ( P=5.58×10 -5 ). The median total CT score of discharged patients at absorption stage was lower than progressive stage (3 vs 12.5 ). The median total CT score recovery rate was 67% (range, 0-100%) and 139 (77%) patients showed less than 90% improvement at discharge. Conclusions: A majority (77%) of the discharged patients had not recovered completely. The current discharge criteria may need to include 90% or higher CT score-based recovery rate.Authors Jingwen Li, Xi Long, Fang Fang, and Xuefei Lv contributed equally to this work.Authors Zhicheng Lin and Nian Xiong are joint last coauthors.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309899

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is one of the most challenging healthcare crises during the 21st century. As the virus continues to spread on a global scale, the majority of efforts have been on the development of vaccines and the mass immunization of the public. While the daily case numbers were following a decreasing trend, the emergent of new virus mutations and variants still pose a significant threat. As economies start recovering and societies start opening up with people going back into office buildings, schools, and malls, we still need to have the ability to detect and minimize the spread of COVID-19. Individuals with COVID-19 may show multiple symptoms such as cough, fever, and shortness of breath. Many of the existing detection techniques focus on symptoms having the same equal importance. However, it has been shown that some symptoms are more prevalent than others. In this paper, we present a multimodal method to predict COVID-19 by incorporating existing deep learning classifiers using convolutional neural networks and our novel probability-based weighting function that considers the prevalence of each symptom. The experiments were performed on an existing dataset with respect to the three considered modes of coughs, fever, and shortness of breath. The results show considerable improvements in the detection of COVID-19 using our weighting function when compared to an equal weighting function.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313390

ABSTRACT

Background: : Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has been confirmed to be a receptor for the newly discovered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, cell surface ACE2 expression is reported to be inconsistent with clinical tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2, which complicates understanding of the pathogenesis of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The consumption of ACE2 by internalization and shedding processes may explain this discordance. Results: : To understand the discordance between ACE2 expression and the tissue tropism of SARS-CoV-2, we examined the chromatin accessibility of ACE2 promoter in hundreds of tissues and cell lines using public DNase-seq and assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) data. We find that ACE2 promoter is only accessible in three tissues including lung, large intestine and placenta. Also, we examined tumors tissues and ACE2 promoter is observed accessible in five tumors with reported SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility. We confirmed the susceptibility by performing SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection in several cell lines. Conclusions: : We propose that open chromatin at the promoter mediates the ACE2 supplementary effect and ensures the entry of SARS-CoV-2. This hypothesis provides a new view and potential clues for further investigation of COVID-19 pathogenesis.

19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312740

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization emphasized the importance of goggles and face shields for protection of medical personnel at the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Unsurprisingly, almost all countries suffered from a critical supply shortage of goggles and face shields, as well as many other types of personal protective equipment (PPE), for a long period, owing to the lack of key medical material supplies and the inefficiency of existing fabrication methods arising from the need to avoid crowds during the outbreak of COVID-19. In this context, we propose a novel combined shield design for eye and face protection that can be rapidly fabricated using three-dimensional printing technology. The designed prototype eye–face shield is accessible to the general public , offering more possibilities for yield improvement in PPE during emergent infectious disease events such as COVID-19.

20.
Expert Rev Mol Med ; 24: e4, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641781

ABSTRACT

Viruses completely rely on the energy and metabolic systems of host cells for life activities. Viral infections usually lead to cytopathic effects and host diseases. To date, there are still no specific clinical vaccines or drugs against most viral infections. Therefore, understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of viral infections is of great significance to prevent and treat viral diseases. A variety of viral infections are related to the p38 MAPK signalling pathway, and p38 is an important host factor in virus-infected cells. Here, we introduce the different signalling pathways of p38 activation and then summarise how different viruses induce p38 phosphorylation. Finally, we provide a general summary of the effect of p38 activation on virus replication. Our review provides integrated data on p38 activation and viral infections and describes the potential application of targeting p38 as an antiviral strategy.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , Humans , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphorylation , Virus Replication , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism
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