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BMJ ; 377: e069590, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779333


OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding after covid-19. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series and matched cohort study. SETTING: National registries in Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 1 057 174 people who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 1 February 2020 and 25 May 2021 in Sweden, matched on age, sex, and county of residence to 4 076 342 control participants. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Self-controlled case series and conditional Poisson regression were used to determine the incidence rate ratio and risk ratio with corresponding 95% confidence intervals for a first deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or bleeding event. In the self-controlled case series, the incidence rate ratios for first time outcomes after covid-19 were determined using set time intervals and the spline model. The risk ratios for first time and all events were determined during days 1-30 after covid-19 or index date using the matched cohort study, and adjusting for potential confounders (comorbidities, cancer, surgery, long term anticoagulation treatment, previous venous thromboembolism, or previous bleeding event). RESULTS: Compared with the control period, incidence rate ratios were significantly increased 70 days after covid-19 for deep vein thrombosis, 110 days for pulmonary embolism, and 60 days for bleeding. In particular, incidence rate ratios for a first pulmonary embolism were 36.17 (95% confidence interval 31.55 to 41.47) during the first week after covid-19 and 46.40 (40.61 to 53.02) during the second week. Incidence rate ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 5.90 (5.12 to 6.80) for deep vein thrombosis, 31.59 (27.99 to 35.63) for pulmonary embolism, and 2.48 (2.30 to 2.68) for bleeding. Similarly, the risk ratios during days 1-30 after covid-19 were 4.98 (4.96 to 5.01) for deep vein thrombosis, 33.05 (32.8 to 33.3) for pulmonary embolism, and 1.88 (1.71 to 2.07) for bleeding, after adjusting for the effect of potential confounders. The rate ratios were highest in patients with critical covid-19 and highest during the first pandemic wave in Sweden compared with the second and third waves. In the same period, the absolute risk among patients with covid-19 was 0.039% (401 events) for deep vein thrombosis, 0.17% (1761 events) for pulmonary embolism, and 0.101% (1002 events) for bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that covid-19 is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and bleeding. These results could impact recommendations on diagnostic and prophylactic strategies against venous thromboembolism after covid-19.

COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/chemically induced , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e053032, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685589


OBJECTIVE: Determine whether augmentation of oestrogen in postmenopausal women decreases the risk of death following COVID-19. DESIGN: Nationwide registry-based study in Sweden based on registries from the Swedish Public Health Agency (all individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2); Statistics Sweden (socioeconomical variables) and the National Board of Health and Welfare (causes of death). PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women between 50 and 80 years of age with verified COVID-19. INTERVENTIONS: Pharmaceutical modulation of oestrogen as defined by (1) women with previously diagnosed breast cancer and receiving endocrine therapy (decreased systemic oestrogen levels); (2) women receiving hormone replacement therapy (increased systemic oestrogen levels) and (3) a control group not fulfilling requirements for group 1 or 2 (postmenopausal oestrogen levels). Adjustments were made for potential confounders such as age, annual disposable income (richest group as the reference category), highest level of education (primary, secondary and tertiary (reference)) and the weighted Charlson Comorbidity Index (wCCI). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Death following COVID-19. RESULTS: From a nationwide cohort consisting of 49 853 women diagnosed with COVID-19 between 4 February and 14 September 2020 in Sweden, 16 693 were between 50 and 80 years of age. We included 14 685 women in the study with 11 923 (81%) in the control group, 227 (2%) women in group 1 and 2535 (17%) women in group 2. The unadjusted ORs for death following COVID-19 were 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.65) for group 1 and 0.45 (0.34 to 0.6) for group 2. Only the adjusted OR for death remained significant for group 2 with OR 0.47 (0.34 to 0.63). Absolute risk of death was 4.6% for the control group vs 10.1% and 2.1%, for the decreased and increased oestrogen groups, respectively. The risk of death due to COVID-19 was significantly associated with: age, OR 1.15 (1.14 to 1.17); annual income, poorest 2.79 (1.96 to 3.97), poor 2.43 (91.71 to 3.46) and middle 1.64 (1.11 to 2.41); and education (primary 1.4 (1.07 to 1.81)) and wCCI 1.13 (1.1 to 1.16). CONCLUSIONS: Oestrogen supplementation in postmenopausal women is associated with a decreased risk of dying from COVID-19 in this nationwide cohort study. These findings are limited by the retrospective and non-randomised design. Further randomised intervention trials are warranted.

COVID-19 , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cohort Studies , Estrogens , Female , Humans , Postmenopause , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sweden/epidemiology
J Surg Case Rep ; 2020(5): rjaa131, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-186385


A COVID-19 pandemic was declared on March 11 by the World Health Organization (WHO). The first cases of COVID-19 were confirmed on January 31 in Sweden and on February 26 in Norway. Despite being similar countries with universal healthcare systems, the governmental approaches to mitigation of the epidemic have varied considerably. Norway initiated a societal lockdown effective from March 12, the same day as the first confirmed death. Sweden has initiated a more laxed and gradual strategy based on the appeal for a strong personal sense of responsibility to mitigate the viral spread. In both countries, the first weeks of preparation has seen a strong reduction in elective surgery, with several implemented principles to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 spread and prepare for surgical care for COVID-19 diseases as needed. This invited leading article gives a brief overview of some of the early experiences of the outbreak in two Scandinavian countries.