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Viruses ; 14(7)2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939012


Pre-existing antibodies that bind endemic human coronaviruses (eHCoVs) can cross-react with SARS-CoV-2, which is the betacoronavirus that causes COVID-19, but whether these responses influence SARS-CoV-2 infection is still under investigation and is particularly understudied in infants. In this study, we measured eHCoV and SARS-CoV-1 IgG antibody titers before and after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in a cohort of Kenyan women and their infants. Pre-existing eHCoV antibody binding titers were not consistently associated with SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in infants or mothers; however, we observed a very modest association between pre-existing HCoV-229E antibody levels and a lack of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants. After seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2, antibody binding titers to the endemic betacoronaviruses HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1, and the highly pathogenic betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-1, but not the endemic alphacoronaviruses HCoV-229E and HCoV-NL63, increased in the mothers. However, eHCoV antibody levels did not increase following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the infants, suggesting the increase seen in the mothers was not simply due to cross-reactivity to naively generated SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. In contrast, the levels of antibodies that could bind SARS-CoV-1 increased after SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in both the mothers and infants, both of whom were unlikely to have had a prior SARS-CoV-1 infection, supporting prior findings that SARS-CoV-2 responses cross-react with SARS-CoV-1. In summary, we found evidence of increased eHCoV antibody levels following SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in the mothers but not the infants, suggesting eHCoV responses can be boosted by SARS-CoV-2 infection when a prior memory response has been established, and that pre-existing cross-reactive antibodies are not strongly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in mothers or infants.

Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Infant , Kenya/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
Cell Rep ; 35(8): 109164, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227990


A major goal of current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine efforts is to elicit antibody responses that confer protection. Mapping the epitope targets of the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response is critical for vaccine design, diagnostics, and development of therapeutics. Here, we develop a pan-coronavirus phage display library to map antibody binding sites at high resolution within the complete viral proteomes of all known human-infecting coronaviruses in patients with mild or moderate/severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We find that the majority of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are targeted to the spike protein, nucleocapsid, and ORF1ab and include sites of mutation in current variants of concern. Some epitopes are identified in the majority of samples, while others are rare, and we find variation in the number of epitopes targeted between individuals. We find low levels of SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactivity in individuals with no exposure to the virus and significant cross-reactivity with endemic human coronaviruses (CoVs) in convalescent sera from patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , COVID-19/virology , Cell Surface Display Techniques , Coronavirus/immunology , Cross Reactions , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Polyproteins/immunology , Serology , Young Adult