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2.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 716198, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441103

ABSTRACT

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a novel hyperinflammatory syndrome associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. It predominantly affects children (MIS-C) a few weeks after a usually asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and is only rarely seen in adults above 21 years (MIS-A). Only scarce data on histological findings in both pediatric and adult patients has been published so far. An 18-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital in a febrile state, which progressed to severe cardiogenic shock and multi-organ failure requiring extracorporeal life support. Myocardial biopsy revealed small vessel-associated immune cell infiltrates. Diagnosis of MIS-C was made after ruling out all potential differential diagnosis. Use of immunosuppressive treatment with steroids, interleukin-1 blockade and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins resulted in the patient's full recovery. Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome (MIS) is a new differential diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction in pediatric and adult patients. The lack of myocardial necrosis differentiates the disease from other viral myocarditis and offers an explanation for the fast response to immunomodulatory therapy and the favorable prognosis. The preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection might only have been mildly symptomatic or even asymptomatic.

3.
J Clin Med ; 10(19)2021 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Delirium complicating the course of Intensive care unit (ICU) therapy is a known driver of morbidity and mortality. It has been speculated that infection with the neurotrophic SARS-CoV-2 might promote delirium. METHODS: Retrospective registry analysis including all patients treated at least 48 h on a medical intensive care unit. The primary endpoint was development of delirium as diagnosed by Nursing Delirium screening scale ≥2. Results were confirmed by propensity score matching. RESULTS: 542 patients were included. The primary endpoint was reached in 352/542 (64.9%) patients, without significant differences between COVID-19 patients and non-COVID-19 patients (51.4% and 65.9%, respectively, p = 0.07) and correlated with prolonged ICU stay in both groups. In a subgroup of patients with ICU stay >10 days delirium was significantly lower in COVID-19 patients (p ≤ 0.01). After adjustment for confounders, COVID-19 correlated independently with less ICU delirium (p ≤ 0.01). In the propensity score matched cohort, patients with COVID-19 had significantly lower delirium incidence compared to the matched control patients (p ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSION: Delirium is frequent in critically ill patients with and without COVID-19 treated at an intensive care unit. Data suggests that COVID-19 itself is not a driver of delirium per se.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): e72-e74, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415866
6.
Artif Organs ; 45(10): 1240-1249, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354462

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is frequently used in many centers around the globe for various indications. However, prognosis is often poor even with all supportive therapies, and in many cases, clinical deterioration is associated with inflammation. Hemoadsorption with CytoSorb is a novel approach to limit the inflammatory response, and the device can be safely and easily installed into ECMO circuits. CytoSorb has been used more than 130.000 times to date, but because randomized controlled trials are largely lacking, there is substantial debate on its use. Here, experts from critical care medicine, cardiology, cardiac surgery, and perfusion technology discuss the pros and cons of this novel therapy and outline the future aspects for its clinical application and research.

7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): 755-762, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We sought to clarify the benefit of cytokine adsorption in patients with COVID-19 supported with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHODS: We did a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial to investigate cytokine adsorption in adult patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia requiring ECMO. Patients with COVID-19 selected for ECMO at the Freiburg University Medical Center (Freiburg, Germany) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive cytokine adsorption using the CytoSorb device or not. Randomisation was computer-generated, allocation was concealed by opaque, sequentially numbered sealed envelopes. The CytoSorb device was incorporated into the ECMO circuit before connection to the patient circuit, replaced every 24 h, and removed after 72 h. The primary endpoint was serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration 72 h after initiation of ECMO analysed by intention to treat. Secondary endpoints included 30-day survival. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04324528) and the German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00021300) and is closed. FINDINGS: From March 29, 2020, to Dec 29, 2020, of 34 patients assessed for eligibility, 17 (50%) were treated with cytokine adsorption and 17 (50%) without. Median IL-6 decreased from 357·0 pg/mL to 98·6 pg/mL in patients randomly assigned to cytokine adsorption and from 289·0 pg/mL to 112·0 pg/mL in the control group after 72 h. One patient in each group died before 72 h. Adjusted mean log IL-6 concentrations after 72 h were 0·30 higher in the cytokine adsorption group (95% CI -0·70 to 1·30, p=0·54). Survival after 30 days was three (18%) of 17 with cytokine adsorption and 13 (76%) of 17 without cytokine adsorption (p=0·0016). INTERPRETATION: Early initiation of cytokine adsorption in patients with severe COVID-19 and venovenous ECMO did not reduce serum IL-6 and had a negative effect on survival. Cytokine adsorption should not be used during the first days of ECMO support in COVID-19. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Adsorption , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
8.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 52(1): 76-84, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310591

ABSTRACT

Subpleural consolidations have been found in lung ultrasound in patients with COVID-19, possibly deriving from pulmonary embolism (PE). The diagnostic utility of impact of lung ultrasound in critical-ill patients with COVID-19 for PE diagnostics however is unclear. We retrospectively evaluated all SARS-CoV2-associated ARDS patients admitted to our ICU between March 8th and May 31th 2020. They were enrolled in this study, when a lung ultrasound and a computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) were documented. In addition, wells score was calculated to estimate the probability of PE. The CTPA was used as the gold standard for the detection of PE. Twenty out of 25 patients met the inclusion criteria. In 12/20 patients (60%) (sub-) segmental PE were detected by CT-angiography. Lung ultrasound found subpleural consolidations in 90% of patients. PE-typical large supleural consolidations with a size ≥ 1 cm were detectable in 65% of patients and were significant more frequent in patients with PE compared to those without (p = 0.035). Large consolidations predicted PE with a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 71%. The Wells score was significantly higher in patients with PE compared to those without (2.7 ± 0.8 and 1.7 ± 0.5, respectively, p = 0.042) and predicted PE with an AUC of 0.81. When combining the two modalities, comparing patients with considered/probable PE using LUS plus a Wells score ≥ 2 to patients with possible/unlikely PE in LUS plus a Wells score < 2, PE could be predicted with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 80%. Large consolidations detected in lung ultrasound were found frequently in COVID-19 ARDS patients with pulmonary embolism. In combination with a Wells score > 2, this might indicate a high-risk for PE in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Clinical Decision Rules , Computed Tomography Angiography , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Artery/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multimodal Imaging , Predictive Value of Tests , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Registries , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
9.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(2)2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286808

ABSTRACT

This correspondence argues that data presented previously cannot justify a novel approach for treating hypoxic patients with severe #COVID19 https://bit.ly/3dLaPlk.

10.
Artif Organs ; 45(10): 1168-1172, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285012

ABSTRACT

ECMO support is particularly resource-intensive and should be provided in highly specialized centers. Occasionally, ECMO needs to be initiated in non-ECMO centers by mobile ECMO retrieval teams. Subsequently, patients must be transferred on ECMO to the ECMO center. We report single-center data from out-of-center initiations of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic. From March 2020 through February 2021, nine patients were connected to ECMO before transfer to our center. Median travel distance (IQR) from the referring hospital to our center was 66 km (20-92), median land travel time (IQR) was 51 minutes (26-92). Personal protective equipment was available for all team members and used throughout the missions. No infections of team members with SARS-CoV-2 occurred. Three patients survived until hospital discharge. Median duration of ECMO (IQR) was 18 days (2-78) in survivors and 19 days (9-42) in non-survivors, respectively. Out-of-center initiation of ECMO during the COVID-19 pandemic was feasible and safe for patients and staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Mobile Health Units , Transportation of Patients , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
13.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(2): e00743, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130677

ABSTRACT

Both antiviral treatment with remdesivir and hemoadsorption using a CytoSorb® adsorption device are applied in the treatment of severe COVID-19. The CytoSorb® adsorber consists of porous polymer beads that adsorb a broad range of molecules, including cytokines but also several therapeutic drugs. In this study, we evaluated whether remdesivir and its main active metabolite GS-441524 would be adsorbed by CytoSorb® . Serum containing remdesivir or GS-441524 was circulated in a custom-made system containing a CytoSorb® device. Concentrations of remdesivir and GS-441524 before and after the adsorber were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Measurements of remdesivir in the outgoing tube after the adsorber indicated almost complete removal of remdesivir by the device. In the reservoir, concentration of remdesivir showed an exponential decay and was not longer detectable after 60 mins. GS-441524 showed a similar exponential decay but, unlike remdesivir, it reached an adsorption-desorption equilibrium at ~48 µg/L. Remdesivir and its main active metabolite GS-441524 are rapidly eliminated from the perfusate by the CytoSorb® adsorber device in vitro. This should be considered in patients for whom both therapies are indicated, and simultaneous application should be avoided. In general, plasma levels of therapeutic drugs should be closely monitored under concurrent CytoSorb® therapy.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/therapy , Hemoperfusion/instrumentation , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/blood , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacokinetics , Alanine/blood , Alanine/pharmacokinetics , Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/blood , Chromatography, Liquid , Combined Modality Therapy , Furans/blood , Furans/pharmacokinetics , Hemoperfusion/adverse effects , Humans , Pyrroles/blood , Pyrroles/pharmacokinetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triazines/blood , Triazines/pharmacokinetics
14.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121711

ABSTRACT

The role of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (V-V ECMO) in severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still under debate and conclusive data from large cohorts are scarce. Furthermore, criteria for the selection of patients that benefit most from this highly invasive and resource-demanding therapy are yet to be defined. In this study, we assess survival in an international multicenter cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V-V ECMO and evaluate the performance of several clinical scores to predict 30-day survival. METHODS: This is an investigator-initiated retrospective non-interventional international multicenter registry study (NCT04405973, first registered 28 May 2020). In 127 patients treated with V-V ECMO at 15 centers in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, and the United States, we calculated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) Score, Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) Score, Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V­V ECMO (PRESERVE) Score, and 30-day survival. RESULTS: In our study cohort which enrolled 127 patients, overall 30-day survival was 54%. Median SOFA, SAPS II, APACHE II, RESP, and PRESERVE were 9, 36, 17, 1, and 4, respectively. The prognostic accuracy for all these scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic-AUROC) ranged between 0.548 and 0.605. CONCLUSIONS: The use of scores for the prediction of mortality cannot be recommended for treatment decisions in severe COVID-19 ARDS undergoing V-V ECMO; nevertheless, scoring results below or above a specific cut-off value may be considered as an additional tool in the evaluation of prognosis. Survival rates in this cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V­V ECMO were slightly lower than those reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients treated with V-V ECMO.

16.
Artif Organs ; 45(5): 495-505, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085292

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a means to support patients with acute respiratory failure. Initially, recommendations to treat severe cases of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ECLS have been restrained. In the meantime, ECLS has been shown to produce similar outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 compared to existing data on ARDS mortality. We performed an international email survey to assess how ECLS providers worldwide have previously used ECLS during the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. A questionnaire with 45 questions (covering, e.g., indication, technical aspects, benefit, and reasons for treatment discontinuation), mostly multiple choice, was distributed by email to ECLS centers. The survey was approved by the European branch of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO); 276 ECMO professionals from 98 centers in 30 different countries on four continents reported that they employed ECMO for very severe COVID-19 cases, mostly in veno-venous configuration (87%). The most common reason to establish ECLS was isolated hypoxemic respiratory failure (50%), followed by a combination of hypoxemia and hypercapnia (39%). Only a small fraction of patients required veno-arterial cannulation due to heart failure (3%). Time on ECLS varied between less than 2 and more than 4 weeks. The main reason to discontinue ECLS treatment prior to patient's recovery was lack of clinical improvement (53%), followed by major bleeding, mostly intracranially (13%). Only 4% of respondents reported that triage situations, lack of staff or lack of oxygenators, were responsible for discontinuation of ECLS support. Most ECLS physicians (51%, IQR 30%) agreed that patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS (CARDS) benefitted from ECLS. Overall mortality of COVID-19 patients on ECLS was estimated to be about 55%. ECLS has been utilized successfully during the COVID-19 pandemic to stabilize CARDS patients in hypoxemic or hypercapnic lung failure. Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECLS. Triage situations were rarely a concern. ECLS providers stated that patients with severe COVID-19 benefitted from ECLS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Internationality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043345, 2021 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) is a last resort treatment option in patients with severe COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Mortality in these critically ill patients is high. Elevated interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in these severe courses are associated with poor outcome. Extracorporeal cytokine adsorption is an approach to lower elevated IL-6 levels. However, there is no randomised controlled data on the efficacy of cytokine adsorption and its effect on patient outcome in severe COVID-19 related ARDS requiring V-V ECMO support. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We here report the protocol of a 1:1 randomised, controlled, parallel group, open-label intervention, superiority multicentre trial to evaluate the effect of extracorporeal cytokine adsorption using the CytoSorb device in severe COVID-19 related ARDS treated with V-V ECMO. We hypothesise that extracorporeal cytokine adsorption in these patients is effectively reducing IL-6 levels by 75% or more after 72 hours as compared with the baseline measurement and also reducing time to successful V-V ECMO explantation. We plan to include a total of 80 patients at nine centres in Germany. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol of this study was approved by the ethical committee of the University of Freiburg as the leading institution (EK 285/20). Additional votes will be obtained at all participating centres. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: NCT04385771 and DRKS 00021248.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Interleukin-6/blood , Cytokines/blood , Germany , Humans , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(4): 430-434, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033502

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic strained health-care systems throughout the world. For some, available medical resources could not meet the increased demand and rationing was ultimately required. Hospitals and governments often sought to establish triage committees to assist with allocation decisions. However, for institutions operating under crisis standards of care (during times when standards of care must be substantially lowered in the setting of crisis), relying on these committees for rationing decisions was impractical-circumstances were changing too rapidly, occurring in too many diverse locations within hospitals, and the available information for decision making was notably scarce. Furthermore, a utilitarian approach to decision making based on an analysis of outcomes is problematic due to uncertainty regarding outcomes of different therapeutic options. We propose that triage committees could be involved in providing policies and guidance for clinicians to help ensure equity in the application of rationing under crisis standards of care. An approach guided by egalitarian principles, integrated with utilitarian principles, can support physicians at the bedside when they must ration scarce resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/organization & administration , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Triage/organization & administration , Advisory Committees/organization & administration , Advisory Committees/standards , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/economics , Critical Care/standards , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Decision Making, Organizational , Global Health/economics , Global Health/standards , Health Care Rationing/economics , Health Care Rationing/standards , Health Policy , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Pandemics/economics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Standard of Care/economics , Triage/standards
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