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1.
Journal of family medicine and primary care ; 11(6):3100-3103, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2034335

ABSTRACT

Background: SARSCoV-2, a coronavirus that causes COVID-19, is spreading rapidly. By the middle of August-2021, it has affected over 3 million confirmed cases in India. The main aim of this study was to examine the clinical profile of COVID-19 patients and their length of stay during treatment in a hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a hospital-based retrospective study conducted by using a total enumeration technique in July–August 2021 at Nehru Hospital, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) in India. The present study was conducted on 72 COVID-19 patients who took treatment in 4C and 5C wards. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data, which included bio-demographic factors and questions about their treatment and length of stay. Results: The majority of the 72 COVID-19 positive patients were men (62%), belonged to the age group of 41–60 years (35%), had SpO2 levels ranging from 91%–95% (45%), and received room air O2 therapy (63%) during their treatment in the hospital. Female patients had a longer length of stay (7.33 days), patients under the age of 20 years had the longest hospital stay (11.5 days), patients with SpO2 less than 70% had the longest hospital stay (8 days), and patients who received oxygen using a non-rebreathing mask had the longest hospital stay (11 days). Conclusion: To avoid panic situations, regular admission and discharge of patients was essential due to the considerable increase in cases during the second wave. Patient length of stay was reduced as a consequence of collaboration and cooperation among all physicians, residents, staff nurses, and paramedics, with the goal of discharging the patient after a room air trial and follow up if needed.

2.
Virusdisease ; : 1-8, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982384

ABSTRACT

Environmental surfaces are potential source of SARS-CoV2 transmission. The study assessed the efficacy of hospital disinfection policy and contamination of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) RNA in COVID management Hospital. Inanimate surfaces from both patient areas (n = 70) and non-patient areas (n = 39) were sampled through surface swabbing and subjected to Reverse transcriptase PCR. Out of the 70 samples collected from the COVID hospital, SARS-CoV2 RNA positivity of 17.5% (7/40) and 6.7% (2/30) was seen in high risk and moderate risk area respectively. Samples from Non COVID related patient area such as CD ward and administrative block were assessed and the SARS CoV-2 RNA positivity was 0% and 10% respectively. Among the total 8 environmental surface samples positive for SARS-CoV2 RNA detected from the area surrounding the SARS-CoV2 infected patients, maximum positivity of 31.8% (7/22) was found among the environmental samples collected around the patients with < 20 Ct value in nasopharyngeal swab samples followed by 3.3% positivity (1/30) around patients with Ct value ranging from 20 to 25 whereas no SARS-CoV2 RNA (0/5) was detected around the patient with > 25 Ct value. Nearly 50% (2/4) of the surface samples came positive from the resident PPE and mobile of the treating doctors which largely elaborates the need for stringent doffing measurement and hand hygiene policy post doffing. The study emphasizes the necessity of frequent and aggressive disinfection policy to prevent nosocomial infection in such high risk areas within close vicinity of the patients.

3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937913

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), an autoimmune neurological disease of peripheral nerves, has been causally associated with COVID-19 vaccination in adults. However, no such report has been published so far in children. We describe a 13-year-old female child who presented to the emergency department with complaints of bilateral upper limb, lower limb and truncal weakness over 3 days following first dose of recombinant protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine (Corbevax). Clinical examination and nerve conduction studies showed pure motor axonal polyneuropathy with absent compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in all sampled nerves of upper and lower limbs which was consistent with the diagnosis of GBS after ruling out possible alternative aetiologies. A temporal association between first dose of protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine administered a day prior and symptom onset was noted. The causality assessment using the World Health Organization (WHO) tool for adverse event following immunization (AEFI) assessment indicated vaccine product-related reaction categorized as A1. The patient's clinical condition improved after seven sessions of plasmapheresis. The purpose of this report is to create awareness among health care professionals about COVID-19 vaccine-induced GBS in children as early diagnosis and management can be critical in avoiding complications and improving patient outcomes.

4.
Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care ; 11(6):3100-3103, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1934401

ABSTRACT

Background: SARSCoV-2, a coronavirus that causes COVID-19, is spreading rapidly. By the middle of August-2021, it has affected over 3 million confirmed cases in India. The main aim of this study was to examine the clinical profile of COVID-19 patients and their length of stay during treatment in a hospital. Materials and Methods: It was a hospital-based retrospective study conducted by using a total enumeration technique in July-August 2021 at Nehru Hospital, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER) in India. The present study was conducted on 72 COVID-19 patients who took treatment in 4C and 5C wards. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data, which included bio-demographic factors and questions about their treatment and length of stay.

5.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 8(4): 988-1001, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1925901

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to validate an active matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-8) point-of-care diagnostic tool in COVID-19 patients with periodontal disease. SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS: Seventy-two COVID-19-positive and 30 COVID-19-negative subjects were enrolled in the study. Demographic data were recorded, periodontal examination carried out, and chairside tests run for evaluating the expression of active MMP-8 (aMMP-8) in the site with maximum periodontal breakdown via gingival crevicular fluid sampling as well as via a mouth rinse-based kit for general disease activity. In COVID-19-positive patients, the kits were run again once the patients turned COVID-19 negative. RESULTS: The overall (n = 102) sensitivity/specificity of the mouthrinse-based kits to detect periodontal disease was 79.41%/36.76% and that of site-specific kits was 64.71%/55.88% while adjusting for age, gender, and smoking status increased the sensitivity and specificity (82.35%/76.47% and 73.53%/88.24, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis for the adjusted model revealed very good area under the ROC curve 0.746-0.869 (p < .001) and 0.740-0.872 (p < .001) (the aMMP-8 mouth rinse and site-specific kits, respectively). No statistically significant difference was observed in the distribution of results of aMMP-8 mouth rinse test (p = .302) and aMMP-8 site-specific test (p = .189) once the subjects recovered from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study support the aMMP-8 point-of-care testing (PoCT) kits as screening tools for periodontitis in COVID-19 patients. The overall screening accuracy can be further increased by utilizing adjunctively risk factors of periodontitis. The reported noninvasive, user-friendly, and objective PoCT diagnostic methodology may provide a way of stratifying risk groups, deciding upon referrals, and in the institution of diligent oral hygiene regimens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Periodontal Diseases , Periodontitis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Matrix Metalloproteinase 8/metabolism , Mouthwashes , Periodontal Diseases/diagnosis , Periodontitis/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing
7.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; : 100626, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914544

ABSTRACT

Background: Medications studied for therapeutic benefits in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have produced inconclusive efficacy results except for steroids. Aim: A prospective randomized open-label, parallel-arm Phase I/II clinical trial was planned to compare essential oil (EO) blend versus placebo nebulization in mild COVID-19. Methods: A Phase I safety evaluation was carried out in a single ascending and multiple ascending dose study designs. We assessed Phase II therapeutic efficacy on COVID-19 and general respiratory symptoms on days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 on the predesigned case record form. Viremia was evaluated on day 0, day 5, and day 10. Results: Dose-limiting toxicities were not reached with the doses, frequencies, and duration studied, thus confirming the formulation's preliminary safety. General respiratory symptoms (p < 0.001), anosmia (p < 0.05), and dysgeusia (p < 0.001) benefited significantly with the use of EO blend nebulization compared to placebo. Symptomatic COVID-19 participants with mild disease did not show treatment benefits in terms of symptomatic relief (p = 1.0) and viremia clearance (p = 0.74) compared to the placebo. EO blend was found to be associated with the reduced evolution of symptoms in previously asymptomatic reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive study participants (p = 0.034). Conclusion: EO nebulization appears to be a safer add-on symptomatic relief approach for mild COVID-19. However, the direct antiviral action of the EO blend needs to be assessed with different concentrations of combinations of individual phytochemicals in the EO blend.

8.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e051971, 2022 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832439

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coagulation changes associated with COVID-19 suggest the presence of a hypercoagulable state with pulmonary microthrombosis and thromboembolic complications. We assessed the dynamic association of COVID-19-related coagulation abnormalities with respiratory failure and mortality. DESIGN: Single-centre, prospective cohort study with descriptive analysis and logistic regression. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital, North India. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission between August 2020 and November 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We compared the coagulation abnormalities using standard coagulation tests like prothrombin time, D-dimer, platelet count, etc and point-of-care global coagulation test, Sonoclot (glass beaded(gb) and heparinase-treated(h)). Incidence of thromboembolic or bleeding events and presence of endogenous heparinoids were assessed. Cox proportional Hazards test was used to assess the predictors of 28-day mortality. MEASUREMENT: All patients underwent Sonoclot (glass beaded) test at admission apart from the routine investigations. In patients at risk of thromboembolic or bleeding phenomena, paired tests were performed at day 1 and 3 with Sonoclot. Activated clotting time (ACT) <110 s and peak amplitude >75 units were used as the cut-off for hypercoagulable state. Presence of heparin-like effect (HLE) was defined by a correction of ACT ≥40 s in h-Sonoclot. RESULTS: Of 215 patients admitted to ICU, we included 74 treatment naive subjects. A procoagulant profile was seen in 45.5% (n=5), 32.4% (n=11) and 20.7% (n=6) in low-flow, high-flow and invasive ventilation groups. Paired Sonoclot assays in a subgroup of 33 patients demonstrated the presence of HLE in 17 (51.5%) and 20 (62.5%) at day 1 and 3, respectively. HLE (day 1) was noted in 59% of those who bled during the disease course. Mortality was observed only in the invasive ventilation group (16, 55.2%) with overall mortality of 21.6%. HLE predicted the need for mechanical ventilation (HR 1.2 CI 1.04 to 1.4 p=0.00). On multivariate analysis, the presence of HLE (HR 1.01; CI 1.006 to 1.030; p=0.025), increased C reactive protein (HR 1.040; CI 1.020 to 1.090; p=0.014), decreased platelet function (HR 0.901; CI 0.702 to 1.100 p=0.045) predicted mortality at 28days. CONCLUSION: HLE contributed to hypocoagulable effect and associated with the need for invasive ventilation and mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04668404; ClinicalTrials.gov.in. Available from https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04668404.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Hemorrhage , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Prospective Studies
9.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(3): 404-408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804276

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations have been well documented in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its clinical impact on the course of the disease is debatable. Majority of the available data is retrospective, and hence this prospective study was planned to study the impact of GI symptoms on COVID-19 outcome. METHODS: All COVID-19 patients admitted in a tertiary care centre from August-October 2020 were screened and patients without pre-existing GI diseases were included. A detailed history of the various symptoms including duration was documented. Various baseline laboratory investigations and inflammatory markers were conducted as per the protocol. Patients with and without diarrhea were compared for the various disease outcome parameters. RESULTS: Of the 244 patients screened, 203 patients (128 males; 63.1%) were included. Respiratory symptoms alone were present in 49 (24.1%), GI symptoms alone in 20 (9.9%) and 117 (57.6%) had both. Overall GI symptoms was noted in 137 (67.5%) cases with the commonest being diarrhea (61; 30.0%). Patients with both respiratory and any GI symptoms showed a lower trend towards need for mechanical ventilation (12.2% vs 7.7%; p â€‹= â€‹0.35) and mortality (10.2% vs 4.3%; p â€‹= â€‹0.14) compared to respiratory symptoms alone, although not statistically significant. Patients with diarrhea (n â€‹= â€‹61) had no mortality (0% vs 7.7%; p â€‹= â€‹0.036) or need for mechanical ventilation and shorter hospital stay compared to those who did not have diarrhea. CONCLUSION: GI symptoms are frequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the commonest is diarrhea. Diarrhea is a harbinger of better outcome with lower mortality among COVID-19 positive patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Diseases , COVID-19/complications , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319337

ABSTRACT

Background & Aims: A procoagulant state with pulmonary micro-thrombosis has been described in COVID-19, which contributes to pathophysiology of respiratory failure along with diffuse alveolar damage. Cytokine storm and systemic inflammation in COVID-19 generates endogenous heparinoids from the endothelium which leads to secondary organ failures. We prospectively studied the dynamic association of the coagulation abnormalities with respiratory failure and mortality in patients with COVID-19.Methods: We did a prospective observational study in adults aged between 18-80 years with COVID 19 pneumonia requiring intensive care (ICU) admissions in a tertiary care hospital in North India. All patients received standard medical therapy based on best available evidence. Patients were categorized based on the oxygen support therapy into low flow, high flow and invasive ventilation groups. In patients considered to be at risk of thromboembolic or bleeding phenomena, paired coagulation tests were performed at days 1 and 3 with, Sonoclot ® (glass beaded and heparinase-treated). All patients were consecutively followed for inflammatory markers, ventilator requirements and survival. Activated clotting time (ACT) <110s and peak amplitude > 75 units were used as the cut-off for hypercoagulable state. The heparin like effect (HLE) was considered by a correction of ≥ 40 s in hACT (heparinized treated ACT). The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04668404).Results: A total of 2324 patients with COVID-19 were screened from August 2020 to November 2020. Two hundred and fifteen patients requiring ICU admission were assessed and 74 patients with a median age of 54(42-67) years were enrolled. A procoagulant profile was seen in 45.5%, 32.4% and 20.7% in low-flow, high-flow, and invasive ventilation. Paired Sonoclot ® assays in 33 patients demonstrated HLE in 17 (51.5%) and 20 (62.5%) at days 1 and 3 respectively. In multivariate analysis, the presence of HLE (HR 1.02;CI 1.08-1.6;p < 0.05), C-reactive protein (HR 1.2;CI 1.1-1.4;p=0.014)] and platelet function (HR 0.9;CI 0.7-1.1 p < 0.05) predicted mortality. The presence of HLE at day 1 predicted the need for invasive ventilation (HR 1.4;CI 1.01-1.5;p <0.05). An ACT > 131 s, clot rate < 27.5 units/min and CRP > 96.7 mg/l at admission predicted mortality.Conclusions: HLE contributes to hypocoagulable effect, need for invasive ventilation and mortality in patients with COVID-19.Trial Registration: The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04668404).Funding Statement: NoneDeclaration of Interests: NoneEthics Approval Statement: Ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Review Board (PGI/IEC/2020/000997 dated 24 August 2020)

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309836

ABSTRACT

Background: Health care personnel (HCP) are at an increased risk of acquiring COVID infection during this pandemic especially in developing countries like India, where they work in resource restricted healthcare settings and return to homes, unfit for safe self-isolation. Thus, many HCP were reluctant to accept COVID-19 duty as they were apprehensive about their safety and concerned about carrying the infection home to their families.Methods: We describe a novel multidimensional HCP-centric evidence-based, dynamic policy to address the expressed concerns of HCPs. The hospital was divided into three zones: high, medium, and low risk zones. In the high risk and medium risk zones, we organized pre-duty holistic training, provided on-duty support, ensured post duty HCP welfare, and send them all home after they tested negative for COVID-19. To minimize transmission, we provided appropriate PPE, ensured its proper use, kept all communication paperless. To reduce morbidity, we recruited only willing low risk HCP, aged <50 years, with no co-morbidities to perform duty in high risk zones. Social distancing, hand hygiene and universal masking were advocated in the low risk zone.Findings: Between 31st March-20th July 2020, we clinically screened 5553 outpatients, of whom 3012 (54.2%) were COVID suspects and they were kept in the medium risk zone. Among them, 346(11.4%) were COVID+ve (57.2% male) and managed in the high-risk zone of whom 19(5.4%) died. One ( 0.08%) of the 1224 HCP in high-risk zone tested positive;6(0.62%) of the 960 HCP in medium risk zone and 23(0.18%) of the 12600 HCP in the low risk zone. All the 30 COVID +ve HCP have since recovered and none were critically ill.This multidimensional HCP centric policy resulted in very low transmission rates <1%, low morbidity, high satisfaction rates with training (92%), the PPE provided(90.8%), medical and psychosocial support received (79%) and with improved acceptance of COVID duty with over 54.7% now volunteering for re-deployment.Interpretation: A multidimensional HCP centric policy was effective in ensuring safety, satisfaction, and welfare of HCP in a resource poor setting and resulted in a willing workforce to fight the pandemic.Funding Statement: None.Declaration of Interests: None of the authors has any conflict of interest to declare.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical clearance for reporting the results of our HCP protocol and feedback was taken from the Institutional Ethics Committee (Letter No INT/IEC/2020/SPL997;Dated 25.07.2020) and the need for individual informed consent was waived. This retrospective study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and ICMR guidelines.

14.
Cureus ; 13(12): e20353, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579850

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Recent randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have indicated potential therapeutic benefits with high-dose dexamethasone (HDD) or tocilizumab (TCZ) plus standard care in moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). No study has compared these two against each other. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of HDD against TCZ in moderate to severe COVID-ARDS. Methods Patients admitted with moderate to severe COVID-19 ARDS with clinical worsening within 48 hours of standard care were randomly assigned to receive either HDD or TCZ plus standard care. The primary outcome was ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days. The main secondary outcomes were 28-day all-cause mortality and the incidence of adverse events. Our initial plan was to perform an interim analysis of the first 42 patients. Results VFDs were significantly lower in the HDD arm (median difference: 28 days; 95% confidence interval (CI): 19.35-36.65; Cohen's d = 1.14;p < 0.001). We stopped the trial at the first interim analysis due to high 28-day mortality in the HDD arm (relative risk (RR) of death: 6.5; p = 0.007; NNT (harm) = 1.91). The incidence of secondary infections was also significantly high in the HDD arm (RR: 5.5; p = 0.015; NNT (harm) = 2.33). Conclusions In our study population, HDD was associated with a very high rate of mortality and adverse events. We would not recommend HDD to mitigate the cytokine storm in moderate to severe COVID-19 ARDS. TCZ appears to be a much better and safer alternative.

16.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19690, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538814

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) have mortality rates between 30%-50%. Identifying patient factors associated with mortality can help identify critical patients early and treat them accordingly. Patients and methods In this retrospective study, the records of patients admitted to the COVID-19 ICU in a single tertiary care hospital from April 2020 to September 2020 were analysed. The clinical and laboratory parameters between patients who were discharged from the hospital (survival cohort) and those who died in the hospital (mortality cohort) were compared. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify parameters associated with mortality.  Results A total of 147 patients were included in the study. The age of the patients was 55 (45, 64), median (IQR), years. At admission, 23 (16%) patients were on mechanical ventilation and 73 (50%) were on non-invasive ventilation. Sixty patients (40%, 95% CI: 32.8 to 49.2%) had died. Patients who died had a higher Charlson comorbidity index (CCI): 3 (2, 4) vs. 2 (1, 3), p = 0.0019, and a higher admission sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score: 5 (4, 7) vs. 4 (3, 4), p < 0.001. Serum urea, serum creatinine, neutrophils on differential leukocyte count, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio), D-dimer, serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein were higher in the mortality cohort. The ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen, platelet count, lymphocytes on differential leukocyte count, and absolute lymphocyte count was lower in the mortality cohort. The parameters and cut-off values used for the multivariate logistic regression model included CCI > 2, SOFA score > 4, D-dimer > 1346 ng/mL, LDH > 514 U/L and N/L ratio > 27. The final model had an area under the curve of 0.876 (95% CI: 0.812 to 0.925), p < 0.001 with an accuracy of 78%. All five parameters were found to be independently associated with mortality.  Conclusions CCI, SOFA score, D-dimer, LDH, and N/L ratio are independently associated with mortality. A model incorporating the combination of these clinical and laboratory parameters at admission can predict COVID-19 ICU mortality with good accuracy.

17.
Qatar Med J ; 2021(3): 62, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506804

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Bacterial co-pathogens are common in various viral respiratory tract infections, leading to increased disease severity and mortality. Still, they are understudied during large outbreaks and pandemics. This study was conducted to highlight the overall burden of these infections in COVID-19 patients admitted to our tertiary care hospital, along with their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the six-month study period, clinical samples (blood samples, respiratory samples, and sterile body fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid [CSF]) of COVID-19 patients with suspected bacterial coinfections (at presentation) or secondary infections (after 48 hours of hospitalization) were received and processed for the same. RESULTS: Clinical samples of 814 COVID-19 patients were received for bacterial culture and susceptibility. Out of the total patient sample, 75% had already received empirical antibiotics before the samples were sent for analysis. Overall, 17.9% of cultures were positive for bacterial infections. Out of the total patients with bacterial infection, 74% (108/146) of patients had secondary bacterial infections (after 48 hours of hospitalization) and 26% (38/146) had bacterial coinfections (at the time of admission). Out of the 143 total isolates obtained, the majority (86%) were gram-negative organisms, of which Acinetobacter species was the commonest organism (35.6%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (18.1%). The majority (50.7%) of the pathogenic organisms reported were multidrug resistant. CONCLUSION: The overall rate of secondary bacterial infections (SBIs) in our study was lower (7.9%) than reported by other studies. A rational approach would be to adhere to the practice of initiating culture-based guidance for antibiotics and to restrict unnecessary empirical antimicrobial therapy.

19.
Indian J Clin Biochem ; 36(4): 485-491, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432645

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global health problem, India being the second most affected country. The kinetics of antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 in Indian population is not studied yet. To understand serological response in relation to age, gender, time period and severity of disease, Roche Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 test was used which analysed both IgM and IgG. One hundred and three COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Seropositivity was seen in 64% of patients, with 33% at ≤ 7 days, 62% between 8 and 15 days and 81% at ≥ 16 days from the time of admission. Men (65%) showed higher antibody response than women (59%), whereas no difference was observed in seropositivity with respect to age of the patients. Dynamics of antibody responses revealed individual variations. Patients in ICU had higher antibody reactivity with 67% positivity as compared to 60% positivity in non-ICU patients. Kinetics of antibody response during COVID-19 disease varied in relation to gender, age, time period and severity and these factors might play an important role in treatment and control of COVID-19.

20.
International Journal of Epidemiology ; 50:1-1, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1429229

ABSTRACT

Background WHO has declared the COVID-19 as Pandemic on 11th March, 2020. It is important to break the chain of transmission by quarantining the persons with high-risk exposure. Understanding the reasons for quarantine will help in reducing the exposures and thus reducing the chances of quarantine. Methods A validated risk assessment tool based on National Centre for Disease Control guidelines was used for the risk assessment of HCWs. The forms of HCWs who underwent risk assessment between April-November, 2020 were analyzed for reasons of quarantine. The positivity rates among high-risk and low-risk groups were compared. Results Out of 1414 HCWs who were assessed, 345 were categorized as high-risk exposure and were quarantined. The most common reasons for quarantine were performance of aerosol generating procedure without recommended personal protection equipment (PPE) (34%), exposure to COVID-19 positive patient without mask for more than 20 minutes at the distance less than 1 m (30%) and having food/tea together (27%). The positivity rate was 8.4% among high-risk and 1.9% among low-risk exposure group (p-value: <0.001). The positivity among low risk category was more in the second half (19/466;4.1%) as compared to first half (1/603;0.2%) of the study period. This might be due to exposure from non-hospital sources as second half coincides with first wave of the pandemic. Conclusion Not using recommended PPE and having tea/food breaks together were the most common reasons for quarantine. Key messages Strict enforcement of recommended PPE and scattered tea and food breaks can reduce high-risk exposures. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of International Journal of Epidemiology is the property of Oxford University Press / USA and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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