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1.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265236, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of the SARS Cov 2 infection among vaccine naive population in a rural district of South India post-second surge. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a cross-sectional study in the five villages of a randomly chosen sub-district in the Bangalore rural district. We did house to house surveys and recruited 831 vaccine naive adults in July 2021. We tested samples for the presence of antibodies (including IgG & IgM) to SARS CoV-2 using the Roche Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 -S assay that quantifies antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein. RESULTS: We estimated an overall prevalence of 62.7% (95% CI: 59.3-66.0) and an age-and gender-adjusted seroprevalence of 44.9% (95% CI: 42.5-47.4). When adjusted for test performance, the seroprevalence was 74.64% (95% CI: 70.66-78.47). The case-to-undetected-infected ratio (CIR) was 1: 8.65 (95% CI 1:8.1-1:9.1), and the Infection Fatality Rate (IFR) was 16.27 per 100,00 infections as of 13 July 2021. A history of at least one symptom suggestive of COVID-19 or a positive COVID-19 test of self or a family member in the past were significantly associated with seropositivity. CONCLUSION: We report a high seroprevalence of COVID-19 infection despite the advantages of low population density and well-ventilated landscapes in rural areas. CIR and IFR were higher than the previous serosurvey conducted in the same population during the first surge. The thought of achieving herd immunity comes with relief. However, it's vital to put efforts into building population health and rural health infrastructure to avert future health catastrophes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , RNA, Viral/immunology , Rural Population , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329777

ABSTRACT

We describe our analyses of data from over 49.7 million people in England, representing near-complete coverage of the relevant population, to assess the risk of myocarditis and pericarditis following BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 COVID-19 vaccination. A self-controlled case series (SCCS) design has previously reported increased risk of myocarditis after first ChAdOx1, BNT162b2, and mRNA-1273 dose and after second doses of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in England. Here, we use a cohort design to estimate hazard ratios for hospitalised or fatal myocarditis/pericarditis after first and second doses of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccinations. SCCS and cohort designs are subject to different assumptions and biases and therefore provide the opportunity for triangulation of evidence. In contrast to the findings from the SCCS approach previously reported for England, we found evidence for lower incidence of hospitalised or fatal myocarditis/pericarditis after first ChAdOx1 and BNT162b2 vaccination, as well as little evidence to suggest higher incidence of these events after second dose of either vaccination.

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