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Journal Of The Medical Sciences (Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran) ; 52(3), 2020.
Article in English | Indonesian Research | ID: covidwho-1235154


In the current pandemic, the highly contagious nature of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) leads to an enormous burden for the global health care system and creates challenging socioeconomic problems. Respiratory mucosa, the main entrance of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are equipped with an innate immune defense system as the initial response against infection. Activation of the adaptive immune system facilitates viral clearance as well as providing immunological memory for prevention from subsequent exposure. However, despite repeated efforts at implementing appropriate interventions, severe and fatal cases are continuing to occur and reports of recurrent cases need clarification. Host factors may contribute to the severity of the diseases while viral immune evasion is a common phenomenon leading to severe outcomes and recurrent infection. Discussions of immunological-based tests for screening, herd immunity, along with the possible advantages or potentially futile efforts of development of vaccine and alternative immunotherapy have become a part of daily household conversations. In this review, evidence of innate and adaptive immune responses or lack of them, and immunological problems relevant for SARS-CoV-2 will be summarized. Finally, perspectives for future studies especially in the Indonesian population will be sketched.

Rev Neurosci ; 32(4): 427-442, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069660


As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to be a multidimensional threat to humanity, more evidence of neurological involvement associated with it has emerged. Neuroimmune interaction may prove to be important not only in the pathogenesis of neurological manifestations but also to prevent systemic hyperinflammation. In this review, we summarize reports of COVID-19 cases with neurological involvement, followed by discussion of possible routes of entry, immune responses against coronavirus infection in the central nervous system and mechanisms of nerve degeneration due to viral infection and immune responses. Possible mechanisms for neuroprotection and virus-associated neurological consequences are also discussed.

COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System/virology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , Central Nervous System/immunology , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Neuroprotection/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology