Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 71
Filter
1.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100603, 2022 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2004611

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic highlights the importance of determining the breadth and durability of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Herein, we characterize the humoral response in 27 naive and 40 recovered vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses are durable up to 6 months, although antibody half-lives are shorter for naive recipients. The magnitude of the humoral responses to vaccination strongly correlates with responses to initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralization titers are lower against SARS-CoV-2 variants in both recovered and naive vaccinees, with titers more reduced in naive recipients. While the receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the main neutralizing target of circulating antibodies, Moderna-vaccinated naives show a lesser reliance on RBDs, with >25% neutralization remaining after depletion of RBD-binding antibodies. Overall, we observe that vaccination induces higher peak titers and improves durability in recovered compared with naive vaccinees. These findings have broad implications for current vaccine strategies deployed against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
2.
J Virol ; : e0058222, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992936

ABSTRACT

Emerging variants, especially the recent Omicron variant, and gaps in vaccine coverage threaten mRNA vaccine mediated protection against SARS-CoV-2. While children have been relatively spared by the ongoing pandemic, increasing case numbers and hospitalizations are now evident among children. Thus, it is essential to better understand the magnitude and breadth of vaccine-induced immunity in children against circulating viral variant of concerns (VOCs). Here, we compared the magnitude and breadth of humoral immune responses in adolescents and adults 1 month after the two-dose Pfizer (BNT162b2) vaccination. We found that adolescents (aged 11 to 16) demonstrated more robust binding antibody and neutralization responses against the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein contained in the vaccine compared to adults (aged 27 to 55). The quality of the antibody responses against VOCs in adolescents were very similar to adults, with modest changes in binding and neutralization of Beta, Gamma, and Delta variants. In comparison, a significant reduction of binding titers and a striking lack of neutralization was observed against the newly emerging Omicron variant for both adolescents and adults. Overall, our data show that a two-dose BNT162b2 vaccine series may be insufficient to protect against the Omicron variant. IMPORTANCE While plasma binding and neutralizing antibody responses have been reported for cohorts of infected and vaccinated adults, much less is known about the vaccine-induced antibody responses to variants including Omicron in children. This illustrates the need to characterize vaccine efficacy in key vulnerable populations. A third (booster) dose of BNTb162b was approved for children 12 to 15 years of age by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 1, 2022, and pediatric clinical trials are under way to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness of a third dose in younger children. Similarly, variant-specific booster doses and pan-coronavirus vaccines are areas of active research. Our data show adolescents mounted stronger humoral immune responses after vaccination than adults. It also highlights the need for future studies of antibody durability in adolescents and children as well as the need for future studies of booster vaccination and their efficacy against the Omicron variant.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(658): eabq4130, 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992934

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Omicron represents a global health challenge. Here, we present data from a study in nonhuman primates demonstrating durable protection against the Omicron BA.1 variant induced by a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine comprising the receptor binding domain of the ancestral strain (RBD-Wu) on the I53-50 nanoparticle adjuvanted with AS03, which was recently authorized for use in individuals 18 years or older. Vaccination induced neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers that were maintained at high concentrations for at least 1 year after two doses, with a pseudovirus nAb geometric mean titer (GMT) of 1978 and a live virus nAb GMT of 1331 against the ancestral strain but not against the Omicron BA.1 variant. However, a booster dose at 6 to 12 months with RBD-Wu or RBD-ß (RBD from the Beta variant) displayed on I53-50 elicited high neutralizing titers against the ancestral and Omicron variants. In addition, we observed persistent neutralization titers against a panel of sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV. Furthermore, there were substantial and persistent memory T and B cell responses reactive to Beta and Omicron variants. Vaccination resulted in protection against Omicron infection in the lung and suppression of viral burden in the nares at 6 weeks after the final booster immunization. Even at 6 months after vaccination, we observed protection in the lung and rapid control of virus in the nares. These results highlight the durable and cross-protective immunity elicited by the AS03-adjuvanted RBD-I53-50 nanoparticle vaccine.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911693

ABSTRACT

Several approaches have produced an effective vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Since millions of people are exposed to influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2, it is of great interest to develop a two-in-one vaccine that will be able to protect against infection of both viruses. We have developed a hybrid vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses using influenza virus-like particles (VLP) incorporated by protein transfer with glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored SARS-CoV-2 RBD fused to GM-CSF as an adjuvant. GPI-RBD-GM-CSF fusion protein was expressed in CHO-S cells, purified and incorporated onto influenza VLPs to develop the hybrid vaccine. Our results show that the hybrid vaccine induced a strong antibody response and protected mice from both influenza virus and mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 challenges, with vaccinated mice having significantly lower lung viral titers compared to naive mice. These results suggest that a hybrid vaccine strategy is a promising approach for developing multivalent vaccines to prevent influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 infections.

5.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2102986, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910387

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody responses in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to SARS-CoV-2 614D (wild type [WT]) strain and variants of concern after the primary 2-dose and booster vaccination. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with NSCLC and 53 healthy volunteers who received SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were included in the study. Blood was collected longitudinally, and SARS-CoV-2-specific binding and neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated by Meso Scale Discovery assay and live virus Focus Reduction Neutralization Assay, respectively. RESULTS: A majority of patients with NSCLC generated binding and neutralizing antibody titers comparable with the healthy vaccinees after mRNA vaccination, but a subset of patients with NSCLC (25%) made poor responses, resulting in overall lower (six- to seven-fold) titers compared with the healthy cohort (P = < .0001). Although patients age > 70 years had lower immunoglobulin G titers (P = < .01), patients receiving programmed death-1 monotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both did not have a significant impact on the antibody response. Neutralizing antibody titers to the B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.351 (Beta), and in particular, B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants were significantly lower (P = < .0001) compared with the 614D (WT) strain. Booster vaccination led to a significant increase (P = .0001) in the binding and neutralizing antibody titers to the WT and Omicron variant. However, 2-4 months after the booster, we observed a five- to seven-fold decrease in neutralizing titers to WT and Omicron viruses. CONCLUSION: A subset of patients with NSCLC responded poorly to the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and had low neutralizing antibodies to the B.1.1.529 Omicron variant. Booster vaccination increased binding and neutralizing antibody titers to Omicron, but antibody titers declined after 3 months. These data highlight the concern for patients with cancer given the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.

6.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100679, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895507

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) exhibits reduced susceptibility to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, requiring a boost to generate protective immunity. We assess the magnitude and short-term durability of neutralizing antibodies after homologous and heterologous boosting with mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines. All prime-boost combinations substantially increase the neutralization titers to Omicron, although the boosted titers decline rapidly within 2 months from the peak response compared with boosted titers against the prototypic D614G variant. Boosted Omicron neutralization titers are substantially higher for homologous mRNA vaccine boosting, and for heterologous mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccine boosting, compared with homologous Ad26.COV2.S boosting. Homologous mRNA vaccine boosting generates nearly equivalent neutralizing activity against Omicron sublineages BA.1, BA.2, and BA.3 but modestly reduced neutralizing activity against BA.2.12.1 and BA.4/BA.5 compared with BA.1. These results have implications for boosting requirements to protect against Omicron and future variants of SARS-CoV-2. This trial was conducted under ClincalTrials.gov: NCT04889209.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
7.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2200088, 2022 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879289

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (NHL/CLL) are at higher risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. We investigated vaccine-induced antibody responses in patients with NHL/CLL against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants of concern including B.1.167.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from 121 patients with NHL/CLL receiving two doses of vaccine were collected longitudinally. Antibody binding against the full-length spike protein, the receptor-binding, and N-terminal domains of the original strain and of variants was measured using a multiplex assay. Live-virus neutralization against Delta, Omicron, and the early WA1/2020 strains was measured using a focus reduction neutralization test. B cells were measured by flow cytometry. Correlation between vaccine response and clinical factors was determined. RESULTS: Mean anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike immunoglobulin G-binding titers were 85-fold lower in patients with NHL/CLL compared with healthy controls, with seroconversion occurring in only 67% of patients. Neutralization titers were also lower and correlated with binding titers (P < .0001). Treatment with anti-CD20-directed therapies within 1 year resulted in 136-fold lower binding titers. Peripheral blood B-cell count also correlated with vaccine response. At 3 months from last anti-CD20-directed therapy, B-cell count ≥ 4.31/µL blood around the time of vaccination predicted response (OR 7.46, P = .04). Antibody responses also correlated with age. Importantly, neutralization titers against Delta and Omicron were reduced six- and 42-fold, respectively, with 67% of patients seropositive for WA1/2020 exhibiting seronegativity for Omicron. CONCLUSION: Antibody binding and live-virus neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants of concern including Delta and Omicron were substantially lower in patients with NHL/CLL compared with healthy vaccinees. Anti-CD20-directed therapy < 1 year before vaccination and number of circulating B cells strongly predict vaccine response.

8.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338413

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Importance: COVID-19 vaccination is recommended during pregnancy for the protection of the mother. Little is known about the immune response to booster vaccinations during pregnancy. Objective: To measure immune responses to COVID-19 primary and booster mRNA vaccination during pregnancy and transplacental antibody transfer to the newborn. Design: Prospective cohort study of pregnant participants enrolled from July 2021 to January 2022, with follow up through and up to 12 months after delivery. Setting: Multicenter study conducted at 9 academic sites. Participants: Pregnant participants who received COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy and their newborns. Exposure(s): Primary or booster COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during pregnancy. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s): SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers after primary or booster COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during pregnancy and antibody transfer to the newborn. Immune responses were compared between primary and booster vaccine recipients in maternal sera at delivery and in cord blood, after adjusting for days since last vaccination. Results: In this interim analysis, 167 participants received a primary 2-dose series and 73 received a booster dose of mRNA vaccine during pregnancy. Booster vaccination resulted in significantly higher binding and nAb titers, including to the Omicron BA.1 variant, in maternal serum at delivery and cord blood compared to a primary 2-dose series (range 0.55 to 0.88 log10 higher, p<0.0001 for all comparisons). Although levels were significantly lower than to the prototypical D614G variant, nAb to Omicron were present at delivery in 9% (GMT ID50 12.7) of Pfizer and 22% (GMT ID50 14.7) of Moderna recipients, and in 73% (GMT ID50 60.2) of boosted participants (p<0.0001). Transplacental antibody transfer was efficient regardless of vaccination regimen (median transfer ratio range: 1.55-1.77 for binding IgG and 1.00-1.78 for nAb). Conclusions and Relevance: COVID-19 mRNA vaccination during pregnancy elicited robust immune responses in mothers and efficient transplacental antibody transfer to the newborn. A booster dose during pregnancy significantly increased maternal and cord blood antibody levels, including against Omicron. Findings support continued use of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy, including booster doses. Trial Registration: clinical trials.gov;Registration Number: NCT05031468 ;https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/ NCT05031468

9.
NPJ Vaccines ; 7(1): 55, 2022 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860374

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants enhance the magnitude and the durability of the immune response to vaccines. However, there is a paucity of comparative studies on the nature of the immune responses stimulated by leading adjuvant candidates. In this study, we compared five clinically relevant adjuvants in mice-alum, AS03 (a squalene-based adjuvant supplemented with α-tocopherol), AS37 (a TLR7 ligand emulsified in alum), CpG1018 (a TLR9 ligand emulsified in alum), O/W 1849101 (a squalene-based adjuvant)-for their capacity to stimulate immune responses when combined with a subunit vaccine under clinical development. We found that all four of the adjuvant candidates surpassed alum with respect to their capacity to induce enhanced and durable antigen-specific antibody responses. The TLR-agonist-based adjuvants CpG1018 (TLR9) and AS37 (TLR7) induced Th1-skewed CD4+ T cell responses, while alum, O/W, and AS03 induced a balanced Th1/Th2 response. Consistent with this, adjuvants induced distinct patterns of early innate responses. Finally, vaccines adjuvanted with AS03, AS37, and CpG1018/alum-induced durable neutralizing-antibody responses and significant protection against the B.1.351 variant 7 months following immunization. These results, together with our recent results from an identical study in non-human primates (NHPs), provide a comparative benchmarking of five clinically relevant vaccine adjuvants for their capacity to stimulate immunity to a subunit vaccine, demonstrating the capacity of adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 subunit vaccines to provide durable protection against the B.1.351 variant. Furthermore, these results reveal differences between the widely-used C57BL/6 mouse strain and NHP animal models, highlighting the importance of species selection for future vaccine and adjuvant studies.

10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2202012119, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852638

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS­CoV-2) is a worldwide health concern, and new treatment strategies are needed. Targeting inflammatory innate immunity pathways holds therapeutic promise, but effective molecular targets remain elusive. Here, we show that human caspase-4 (CASP4) and its mouse homolog, caspase-11 (CASP11), are up-regulated in SARS­CoV-2 infections and that CASP4 expression correlates with severity of SARS­CoV-2 infection in humans. SARS­CoV-2­infected Casp11−/− mice were protected from severe weight loss and lung pathology, including blood vessel damage, compared to wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking the caspase downstream effector gasdermin-D (Gsdmd−/−). Notably, viral titers were similar regardless of CASP11 knockout. Global transcriptomics of SARS­CoV-2­infected WT, Casp11−/−, and Gsdmd−/− lungs identified restrained expression of inflammatory molecules and altered neutrophil gene signatures in Casp11−/− mice. We confirmed that protein levels of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and CXCL1, as well as neutrophil functions, were reduced in Casp11−/− lungs. Additionally, Casp11−/− lungs accumulated less von Willebrand factor, a marker for endothelial damage, but expressed more Kruppel-Like Factor 2, a transcription factor that maintains vascular integrity. Overall, our results demonstrate that CASP4/11 promotes detrimental SARS­CoV-2­induced inflammation and coagulopathy, largely independently of GSDMD, identifying CASP4/11 as a promising drug target for treatment and prevention of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caspases, Initiator/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboinflammation , Animals , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19/pathology , Caspases, Initiator/genetics , Disease Progression , Humans , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboinflammation/enzymology , Thromboinflammation/genetics
11.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-336925

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 BA.1 and BA.2 (Omicron) variants contain more than 30 mutations within the spike protein and evade therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Here, we report a receptor-binding domain (RBD) targeting human antibody (002-S21F2) that effectively neutralizes live viral isolates of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron (BA.1 and BA.2) with IC50 ranging from 0.02 – 0.05 μg/ml. This near germline antibody 002-S21F2 has unique genetic features that are distinct from any reported SARS-CoV-2 mAbs. Structural studies of the full-length IgG in complex with spike trimers (Omicron and WA.1) reveal that 002-S21F2 recognizes an epitope on the outer face of RBD (class-3 surface), outside the ACE2 binding motif and its unique molecular features enable it to overcome mutations found in the Omicron variants. The discovery and comprehensive structural analysis of 002-S21F2 provide valuable insight for broad and potent neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants BA.1 and BA.2.

12.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334439

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for a third dose of vaccine. We evaluated early safety and immunogenicity after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, and Delta variants that were similar or greater than peak responses after the second dose. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells increased to similar levels as after the second dose. A third mRNA vaccination was well tolerated and generated robust humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1)

13.
Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 262-268.e4, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1829236

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has proven to be highly transmissible and has outcompeted the Delta variant in many regions of the world. Early reports have also suggested that Omicron may result in less severe clinical disease in humans. Here, we show that Omicron is less pathogenic than prior SARS-CoV-2 variants in Syrian golden hamsters. Methods: Hamsters were inoculated with either SARS-CoV-2 Omicron or other SARS-CoV-2 variants. Animals were followed for weight loss, and upper and lower respiratory tract tissues were assessed for viral loads and histopathology. Findings: Infection of hamsters with the SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020, Alpha, Beta, or Delta strains led to 4%-10% weight loss by day 4 and 10%-17% weight loss by day 6. In contrast, infection of hamsters with two different Omicron challenge stocks did not result in any detectable weight loss, even at high challenge doses. Omicron infection led to substantial viral replication in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts but demonstrated lower viral loads in lung parenchyma and reduced pulmonary pathology compared with WA1/2020 infection. Conclusions: These data suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant may result in robust upper respiratory tract infection, but less severe lower respiratory tract clinical disease, compared with prior SARS-CoV-2 variants. Funding: Funding for this study was provided by NIH grant CA260476, the Massachusetts Consortium for Pathogen Readiness, the Ragon Institute, and the Musk Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virulence , Weight Loss
14.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334405

ABSTRACT

Waning immunity after two SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccinations and the emergence of variants precipitated the need for booster doses. We evaluated safety and serological and cellular immunogenicity through 6 months after a third mRNA vaccination in adults who received the mRNA-1273 primary series in the Phase 1 trial approximately 9 to 10 months earlier. The booster vaccine formulations included 100 mcg of mRNA-1273, 50 mcg of mRNA-1273.351 that encodes Beta variant spike protein, and bivalent vaccine of 25 mcg each of mRNA-1273 and mRNA-1273.351. A third dose of mRNA vaccine appeared safe with acceptable reactogenicity. Vaccination induced rapid increases in binding and neutralizing antibody titers to D614G, Beta, Delta and Omicron variants that persisted through 6 months post-boost, particularly after administration of Beta-containing vaccines. Spike-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells increased to levels similar to those following the second dose. Boost vaccination induced broad and durable humoral and T cell responses. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers NCT04283461 (mRNA-1273 Phase 1) and NCT04785144 (mRNA-1273.351 Phase 1)

16.
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-333335

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 exhibits reduced susceptibility to vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, requiring a boost to generate protective immunity. Little is known about the durability of vaccine-boosted omicron neutralizing antibodies and the potential impact of boosting with heterologous vaccine modalities. We assessed the magnitude and short-term durability of neutralizing antibodies after homologous and heterologous boosting with mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines. Using pseudovirus and live virus neutralization assays, all prime-boost combinations substantially increased the neutralization titers to Omicron although the boosted titers declined rapidly within 2 months from the peak response compared to boosted titers against the prototypic D614G variant. Boosted Omicron neutralization titers were substantially higher for homologous mRNA vaccine boosting, and for heterologous mRNA and Ad26.COV2.S vaccine boosting, compared to homologous Ad26.COV2.S boosting. Homologous mRNA vaccine boosting generated nearly equivalent neutralizing activity against Omicron subvariants BA.1, BA.2 and BA.3. These results have implications for boosting requirements to protect against Omicron and future variants of SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Sci Immunol ; 7(72): eabo0226, 2022 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769818

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines should induce broadly cross-reactive humoral and T cell responses to protect against emerging variants of concern (VOCs). Here, we inactivated the furin cleavage site (FCS) of spike expressed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) virus vaccine (MVA/SdFCS) and found that FCS inactivation markedly increased spike binding to human ACE2. After vaccination of mice, the MVA/SdFCS vaccine induced eightfold higher neutralizing antibodies compared with MVA/S, which expressed spike without FCS inactivation, and protected against the Beta variant. We next added nucleocapsid to the MVA/SdFCS vaccine (MVA/SdFCS-N) and tested its immunogenicity and efficacy via intramuscular (IM), buccal (BU), or sublingual (SL) routes in rhesus macaques. IM vaccination induced spike-specific IgG in serum and mucosae (nose, throat, lung, and rectum) that neutralized the homologous (WA-1/2020) and heterologous VOCs, including Delta, with minimal loss (<2-fold) of activity. IM vaccination also induced both spike- and nucleocapsid-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses in the blood. In contrast, the SL and BU vaccinations induced less spike-specific IgG in secretions and lower levels of polyfunctional IgG in serum compared with IM vaccination. After challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant, the IM route induced robust protection, the BU route induced moderate protection, and the SL route induced no protection. Vaccine-induced neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibody effector functions positively correlated with protection, but only the effector functions correlated with early protection. Thus, IM vaccination with MVA/SdFCS-N vaccine elicited cross-reactive antibody and T cell responses, protecting against heterologous SARS-CoV-2 VOC more effectively than other routes of vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Vaccinia , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Nucleocapsid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccinia virus/metabolism
18.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(3): e1010181, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765546

ABSTRACT

Transmission efficiency is a critical factor determining the size of an outbreak of infectious disease. Indeed, the propensity of SARS-CoV-2 to transmit among humans precipitated and continues to sustain the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, the number of new cases among contacts is highly variable and underlying reasons for wide-ranging transmission outcomes remain unclear. Here, we evaluated viral spread in golden Syrian hamsters to define the impact of temporal and environmental conditions on the efficiency of SARS-CoV-2 transmission through the air. Our data show that exposure periods as brief as one hour are sufficient to support robust transmission. However, the timing after infection is critical for transmission success, with the highest frequency of transmission to contacts occurring at times of peak viral load in the donor animals. Relative humidity and temperature had no detectable impact on transmission when exposures were carried out with optimal timing and high inoculation dose. However, contrary to expectation, trends observed with sub-optimal exposure timing and lower inoculation dose suggest improved transmission at high relative humidity or high temperature. In sum, among the conditions tested, our data reveal the timing of exposure to be the strongest determinant of SARS-CoV-2 transmission success and implicate viral load as an important driver of transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Humans , Mesocricetus , Pandemics , Viral Load
19.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330741

ABSTRACT

Despite the remarkable efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines, waning immunity, and the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants such as Omicron represents a major global health challenge. Here we present data from a study in non-human primates demonstrating durable protection against the Omicron BA.1 variant induced by a subunit SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, consisting of RBD (receptor binding domain) on the I53-50 nanoparticle, adjuvanted with AS03, currently in Phase 3 clinical trial ( NCT05007951 ). Vaccination induced robust neutralizing antibody (nAb) titers that were maintained at high levels for at least one year after two doses (Pseudovirus nAb GMT: 2207, Live-virus nAb GMT: 1964) against the ancestral strain, but not against Omicron. However, a booster dose at 6-12 months with RBD-Wu or RBD-B (RBD from the Beta variant) displayed on I53-50 elicited equivalent and remarkably high neutralizing titers against the ancestral as well as the Omicron variant. Furthermore, there were substantial and persistent memory T and B cell responses reactive to Beta and Omicron variants. Importantly, vaccination resulted in protection against Omicron infection in the lung (no detectable virus in any animal) and profound suppression of viral burden in the nares (median peak viral load of 7567 as opposed to 1.3x107 copies in unvaccinated animals) at 6 weeks post final booster. Even at 6 months post vaccination, there was significant protection in the lung (with 7 out of 11 animals showing no viral load, 3 out of 11 animals showing ~20-fold lower viral load than unvaccinated controls) and rapid control of virus in the nares. These results highlight the durable cross-protective immunity elicited by the AS03-adjuvanted RBD-I53-50 nanoparticle vaccine platform.

20.
Cell ; 185(9): 1549-1555.e11, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748149

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant, including in highly vaccinated populations, has raised important questions about the efficacy of current vaccines. In this study, we show that the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine and the adenovirus-vector-based Ad26.COV2.S vaccine provide robust protection against high-dose challenge with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant in cynomolgus macaques. We vaccinated 30 macaques with homologous and heterologous prime-boost regimens with BNT162b2 and Ad26.COV2.S. Following Omicron challenge, vaccinated macaques demonstrated rapid control of virus in bronchoalveolar lavage, and most vaccinated animals also controlled virus in nasal swabs. However, 4 vaccinated animals that had moderate Omicron-neutralizing antibody titers and undetectable Omicron CD8+ T cell responses failed to control virus in the upper respiratory tract. Moreover, virologic control correlated with both antibody and T cell responses. These data suggest that both humoral and cellular immune responses contribute to vaccine protection against a highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 variant.


Subject(s)
Ad26COVS1/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19 , Macaca , SARS-CoV-2 , Ad26COVS1/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL