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1.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; : 1-11, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated the need to rapidly make public health decisions. We systematically evaluated SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity to understand local COVID-19 epidemiology and support evidence-based public health decision making. METHODS: Residual blood samples were collected for SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG testing over a 1-5 day period monthly from 26 February 2021-9 July 2021 from six clinical laboratories across the province of Alberta, Canada. Monthly crude and adjusted (for age and gender) seropositivity were calculated. Results were linked to provincial administrative, laboratory, and vaccine databases. RESULTS: 60,632 individual blood samples were tested. Vaccination data were available for 98.8% of samples. Adjusted RBD IgG positivity rose from 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.9-12.0%) in March 2021 to 70.2% (95% CI 70.2-70.3%) in July 2021 (p < .0001). Seropositivity rose from 9.4% (95% CI 9.3-9.4%) in March 2021 to 20.2% (95% CI 20.1-20.2%) in July 2021 in unvaccinated Albertans. Unvaccinated seropositive individuals were from geographic areas with significantly (p < .001) lower median household income, lower proportion of married/common-law relationships, larger average household size and higher proportions of visible minorities compared to seronegative unvaccinated individuals. In July 2021, the age groups with the lowest and highest seropositivity in unvaccinated Albertans were those ≥80 years (12.0%, 95% CI 5.3-18.6%) and 20-29 years (24.2%, 95% CI 19.6-28.8%), respectively. Of seropositive unvaccinated individuals, 50.2% (95% CI 45.9-54.5%) had no record of prior SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity with data linkage is valuable for decision-making during the pandemic.

2.
J Rheumatol ; 49(5): 531-536, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625905

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine uptake among individuals with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs) and the Ontario general population. METHODS: We studied all residents aged ≥ 16 years who were alive and enrolled in the Ontario Health Insurance Plan as of December 14, 2020, when vaccination commenced (n = 12,435,914). Individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), psoriasis (PsO), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were identified using established disease-specific case definitions applied to health administrative data. Vaccination status was extracted from the provincial COVaxON registry. Weekly cumulative proportions of first and second doses up until October 3, 2021, were expressed as the vaccinated percentage of each disease group, compared to the general Ontario population, and stratified by age. RESULTS: By October 3, 2021, the cumulative percentage with at least 1 dose was 82.1% for the general population, 88.9% for those with RA, 87.4% for AS, 90.6% for PsA, 87.3% for PsO, and 87.0% for IBD. There was also a higher total cumulative percentage with 2 doses among IMIDs (83.8-88.2%) vs the general population (77.9%). The difference was also evident when stratifying by age. Individuals with IMIDs in the youngest age group initially had earlier uptake than the general population but remain the lowest age group with 2 doses (70.6% in the general population vs. 73.7-79.2% across IMID groups). CONCLUSION: While implementation of COVID-19 vaccination programs has differed globally, these Canadian estimates are the first to reassuringly show higher COVID-19 vaccine uptake among individuals with IMIDs.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Psoriatic , Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Psoriasis , Spondylitis, Ankylosing , Arthritis, Psoriatic/epidemiology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/epidemiology , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Prostate-Specific Antigen , Psoriasis/epidemiology , Spondylitis, Ankylosing/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(1): 2007707, 2022 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585259

ABSTRACT

Response measures to mitigate the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic impacted access to routine vaccination services. We evaluate the impact of the pandemic on routine infant vaccination uptake by comparing vaccination coverage, vaccine delays and doses administered in 2019 and 2020, in Quebec, Canada. Using a population-based vaccination registry, we compared vaccination coverage at 3, 5, 13 and 19 months of age between 2019 and 2020 cohorts each month from January to November. For vaccine delays, we measured the cumulative proportion vaccinated in each targeted cohort monthly. We also compared the measles-containing vaccines administered before 24 months of age between the same period in 2019 and 2020. A decline in vaccination coverage and children vaccinated on time was observed in all cohorts during the first months of the pandemic. The greatest impact was observed for the 18-month vaccination visit with a difference in vaccination coverage between both cohorts of 30.9% in May. Measles-containing doses administered during the first months of the pandemic were lower in 2020 compared with 2019: -21.1% in March (95%CI-21.6;-20.4), and -39.2% in April (95%CI-40.0;-38.2). After May, the coverage increased for all cohorts to reach pre-pandemic levels after a few months for most target ages. Routine childhood vaccinations were affected during the first months of the pandemic, but catch-up occurred thereafter and vaccination coverage in affected cohorts were very close to levels of 2019 after a few months of follow-up. Real-time monitoring of childhood vaccination is essential but also for other vaccination programs, severely affected by the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Immunization Programs , Infant , Measles Vaccine , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
4.
BMJ ; 374: n1943, 2021 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367424

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effectiveness of mRNA covid-19 vaccines against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes (hospital admission or death). DESIGN: Test negative design study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada between 14 December 2020 and 19 April 2021. PARTICIPANTS: 324 033 community dwelling people aged ≥16 years who had symptoms of covid-19 and were tested for SARS-CoV-2. INTERVENTIONS: BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and hospital admissions and deaths associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariable logistic regression was adjusted for personal and clinical characteristics associated with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccine receipt to estimate vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. RESULTS: Of 324 033 people with symptoms, 53 270 (16.4%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 21 272 (6.6%) received at least one dose of vaccine. Among participants who tested positive, 2479 (4.7%) were admitted to hospital or died. Vaccine effectiveness against symptomatic infection observed ≥14 days after one dose was 60% (95% confidence interval 57% to 64%), increasing from 48% (41% to 54%) at 14-20 days after one dose to 71% (63% to 78%) at 35-41 days. Vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 91% (89% to 93%). Vaccine effectiveness against hospital admission or death observed ≥14 days after one dose was 70% (60% to 77%), increasing from 62% (44% to 75%) at 14-20 days to 91% (73% to 97%) at ≥35 days, whereas vaccine effectiveness observed ≥7 days after two doses was 98% (88% to 100%). For adults aged ≥70 years, vaccine effectiveness estimates were observed to be lower for intervals shortly after one dose but were comparable to those for younger people for all intervals after 28 days. After two doses, high vaccine effectiveness was observed against variants with the E484K mutation. CONCLUSIONS: Two doses of mRNA covid-19 vaccines were observed to be highly effective against symptomatic infection and severe outcomes. Vaccine effectiveness of one dose was observed to be lower, particularly for older adults shortly after the first dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e050667, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282102

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This report estimates the risk of COVID-19 importation and secondary transmission associated with a modified quarantine programme in Canada. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective analysis of international asymptomatic travellers entering Alberta, Canada. INTERVENTIONS: All participants were required to receive a PCR COVID-19 test on arrival. If negative, participants could leave quarantine but were required to have a second test 6 or 7 days after arrival. If the arrival test was positive, participants were required to remain in quarantine for 14 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion and rate of participants testing positive for COVID-19; number of cases of secondary transmission. RESULTS: The analysis included 9535 international travellers entering Alberta by air (N=8398) or land (N=1137) that voluntarily enrolled in the Alberta Border Testing Pilot Programme (a subset of all travellers); most (83.1%) were Canadian citizens. Among the 9310 participants who received at least one test, 200 (21.5 per 1000, 95% CI 18.6 to 24.6) tested positive. Sixty-nine per cent (138/200) of positive tests were detected on arrival (14.8 per 1000 travellers, 95% CI 12.5 to 17.5). 62 cases (6.7 per 1000 travellers, 95% CI 5.1 to 8.5; 31.0% of positive cases) were identified among participants that had been released from quarantine following a negative test result on arrival. Of 192 participants who developed symptoms, 51 (26.6%) tested positive after arrival. Among participants with positive tests, four (2.0%) were hospitalised for COVID-19; none required critical care or died. Contact tracing among participants who tested positive identified 200 contacts; of 88 contacts tested, 22 were cases of secondary transmission (14 from those testing positive on arrival and 8 from those testing positive thereafter). SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 lineage was not detected in any of the 200 positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: 21.5 per 1000 international travellers tested positive for COVID-19. Most (69%) tested positive on arrival and 31% tested positive during follow-up. These findings suggest the need for ongoing vigilance in travellers testing negative on arrival and highlight the value of follow-up testing and contact tracing to monitor and limit secondary transmission where possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Travel , Alberta/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Internationality , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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