Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 37
Filter
1.
Eur Respir Rev ; 31(164)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928158

ABSTRACT

The incidental discovery of pre-clinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) has led to the designation of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA), a radiological entity defined as the incidental finding of computed tomography (CT) abnormalities affecting more than 5% of any lung zone. Two recent documents have redefined the borders of this entity and made the recommendation to monitor patients with ILA at risk of progression. In this narrative review, we will focus on some of the limits of the current approach, underlying the potential for progression to full-blown ILD of some patients with ILA and the numerous links between subpleural fibrotic ILA and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Considering the large prevalence of ILA in the general population (7%), restricting monitoring only to cases considered at risk of progression appears a reasonable approach. However, this suggestion should not prevent pulmonary physicians from pursuing an early diagnosis of ILD and timely treatment where appropriate. In cases of suspected ILD, whether found incidentally or not, the pulmonary physician is still required to make a correct ILD diagnosis according to current guidelines, and eventually treat the patient accordingly.


Subject(s)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Disease Progression , Humans , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/diagnostic imaging , Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , Incidental Findings , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Respiration ; 101(3): 272-280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of interstitial pneumonia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, as diagnosed through laboratory, functional, and radiological data, provides potential predicting factors of pulmonary sequelae. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were the creation of a risk assessment score for pulmonary sequelae at high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) through the assessment of laboratory data, lung function, and radiological changes in patients after the onset of COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia and the identification of predictive factors. METHODS: We enrolled 121 subjects hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia in our study. Clinical features, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, HRCT score, and blood chemistry data at hospital admission, as well as HRCT score, pulmonary function testing values, exercise capacity by means of a 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and dyspnea perception by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) at 4-month follow-up, were all recorded. The variables were elaborated in order to create a predictive model to identify patients at high risk of pulmonary sequelae at HRCT. RESULTS: At the time of follow-up visit, 63% of patients had functional abnormality (diffusion lung capacity and/or total lung capacity <80% of predicted). Age, BMI, CCI, D-dimer, 6MWT, and mMRC were included in the COVID-19 Sequelae Score (COSeSco, ranging 0-15), which was able to individuate COVID-19 patients with radiologic sequelae (HRCT score >10%) at follow-up. The most revelatory COSeSco value that was found to intercept the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (77%) was 2. CONCLUSION: The COSeSco - comprising age, BMI, comorbidities, D-dimer, walking distance, and dyspnea perception - makes it possible to identify particularly at-risk COVID-19 patients who are likely to develop pulmonary sequelae assessed by HRCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Tomography ; 8(3): 1184-1195, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792427

ABSTRACT

Prior studies variably reported residual chest CT abnormalities after COVID-19. This study evaluates the CT patterns of residual abnormalities in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. All consecutive COVID-19 survivors who received a CT scan 5-7 months after severe pneumonia in two Italian hospitals (Reggio Emilia and Parma) were enrolled. Individual CT findings were retrospectively collected and follow-up CT scans were categorized as: resolution, residual non-fibrotic abnormalities, or residual fibrotic abnormalities according to CT patterns classified following standard definitions and international guidelines. In 225/405 (55.6%) patients, follow-up CT scans were normal or barely normal, whereas in 152/405 (37.5%) and 18/405 (4.4%) patients, non-fibrotic and fibrotic abnormalities were respectively found, and 10/405 (2.5%) had post-ventilatory changes (cicatricial emphysema and bronchiectasis in the anterior regions of upper lobes). Among non-fibrotic changes, either barely visible (n = 110/152) or overt (n = 20/152) ground-glass opacities (GGO), resembling non-fibrotic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) with or without organizing pneumonia features, represented the most common findings. The most frequent fibrotic abnormalities were subpleural reticulation (15/18), traction bronchiectasis (16/18) and GGO (14/18), resembling a fibrotic NSIP pattern. When multiple timepoints were available until 12 months (n = 65), residual abnormalities extension decreased over time. NSIP, more frequently without fibrotic features, represents the most common CT appearance of post-severe COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Respiratory System Abnormalities , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Survivors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med ; 42(6): 737-746, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1768960

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new infectious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) attributed to the new virus named severe scute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was detected. The gold standard for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is the viral identification in nasopharyngeal swab by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Few data on the role of imaging are available in the pediatric population. Similarly, considering that symptomatic therapy is adequate in most of the pediatric patients with COVID-19, few pediatric pharmacological studies are available. The main aim of this review is to describe and discuss the scientific literature on various imaging approaches and therapeutic management in children and adolescents affected by COVID-19. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are less severe in children than in adults and as a consequence the radiologic findings are less marked. If imaging is needed, chest radiography is the first imaging modality of choice in the presence of moderate-to-severe symptoms. Regarding therapy, acetaminophen or ibuprofen are appropriate for the vast majority of pediatric patients. Other drugs should be prescribed following an appropriate individualized approach. Due to the characteristics of COVID-19 in pediatric age, the importance of strengthening the network between hospital and territorial pediatrics for an appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic management represents a priority.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4270, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740475

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory burden is associated with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Residual computed tomography (CT) lung abnormalities have been reported after COVID-19. The aim was to evaluate the association between inflammatory burden during COVID-19 and residual lung CT abnormalities collected on follow-up CT scans performed 2-3 and 6-7 months after COVID-19, in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. C-reactive protein (CRP) curves describing inflammatory burden during the clinical course were built, and CRP peaks, velocities of increase, and integrals were calculated. Other putative determinants were age, sex, mechanical ventilation, lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio, D-dimer peak, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Of the 259 included patients (median age 65 years; 30.5% females), 202 (78%) and 100 (38.6%) had residual, predominantly non-fibrotic, abnormalities at 2-3 and 6-7 months, respectively. In age- and sex-adjusted models, best CRP predictors for residual abnormalities were CRP peak (odds ratio [OR] for one standard deviation [SD] increase = 1.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23-2.62) at 2-3 months and CRP integral (OR for one SD increase = 2.24; 95%CI = 1.53-3.28) at 6-7 months. Hence, inflammation is associated with short- and medium-term lung damage in COVID-19. Other severity measures, including mechanical ventilation and LOS, but not D-dimer, were mediators of the relationship between CRP and residual abnormalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/pathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Eur Respir J ; 2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685992

ABSTRACT

Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection frequently experience symptom burden post-acute infection or post-hospitalisation. We aim to identify optimal strategies for follow-up care that may positively impact the patient's quality-of-life (QOL).A European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force (TF) convened and prioritised eight clinical questions. A targeted search of the literature defined the time line of long COVID-19 as one to six months post infection and identified clinical evidence in the follow-up of patients. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria report an association of characteristics of acute infection with persistent symptoms, thromboembolic events in the follow-up period and evaluations of pulmonary physiology and imaging. Importantly, this statement reviews QOL consequences, symptom burden, disability and home care follow-up. Overall, the evidence for follow-up care for patients with long COVID-19 is limited.

7.
Intensive Care Med ; 48(1): 56-66, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536292

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed at investigating the mechanisms underlying the oxygenation response to proning and recruitment maneuvers in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, at variable times since admission (from 1 to 3 weeks), underwent computed tomography (CT) lung scans, gas-exchange and lung-mechanics measurement in supine and prone positions at 5 cmH2O and during recruiting maneuver (supine, 35 cmH2O). Within the non-aerated tissue, we differentiated the atelectatic and consolidated tissue (recruitable and non-recruitable at 35 cmH2O of airway pressure). Positive/negative response to proning/recruitment was defined as increase/decrease of PaO2/FiO2. Apparent perfusion ratio was computed as venous admixture/non aerated tissue fraction. RESULTS: The average values of venous admixture and PaO2/FiO2 ratio were similar in supine-5 and prone-5. However, the PaO2/FiO2 changes (increasing in 65% of the patients and decreasing in 35%, from supine to prone) correlated with the balance between resolution of dorsal atelectasis and formation of ventral atelectasis (p = 0.002). Dorsal consolidated tissue determined this balance, being inversely related with dorsal recruitment (p = 0.012). From supine-5 to supine-35, the apparent perfusion ratio increased from 1.38 ± 0.71 to 2.15 ± 1.15 (p = 0.004) while PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased in 52% and decreased in 48% of patients. Non-responders had consolidated tissue fraction of 0.27 ± 0.1 vs. 0.18 ± 0.1 in the responding cohort (p = 0.04). Consolidated tissue, PaCO2 and respiratory system elastance were higher in patients assessed late (all p < 0.05), suggesting, all together, "fibrotic-like" changes of the lung over time. CONCLUSION: The amount of consolidated tissue was higher in patients assessed during the third week and determined the oxygenation responses following pronation and recruitment maneuvers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prone Position , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Gas Exchange , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Nov 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502382

ABSTRACT

Most patients who had COVID-19 are still symptomatic after many months post infection, but the long-term outcomes are not yet well defined. The aim of our prospective/retrospective study was to define the cardiac sequelae of COVID-19 infection. This monocentric cohort study included 160 consecutive patients who had been discharged from the ward or from the outpatient clinic after a diagnosis of COVID-19 and subsequently referred for a follow-up visit. Clinical features' data about the acute phase along with information about the follow-up visit, including ECG and Echocardiographic parameters, were recorded. At an average follow-up of 5 months, echocardiography showed morpho-functional characteristics of both right (RV) and left (LV) ventricles, such as RV dilation, increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation, and bi-ventricular systolic-diastolic dysfunction. When examined using multivariate analysis, independent of age, sex, and co-morbidities, RV and LV changes were significantly associated with chest High-Resolution computed tomography score and hemodynamic Instability (HI), and with C-reactive protein, respectively. Our results suggest that COVID-19 may impact RV and LV differently. Notably, the extent of the pneumonia and HI may affect RV, whereas the inflammatory status may influence LV. A long-term follow-up is warranted to refine and customize the most appropriate therapeutic strategies.

9.
Respiration ; 101(3): 272-280, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of interstitial pneumonia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, as diagnosed through laboratory, functional, and radiological data, provides potential predicting factors of pulmonary sequelae. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were the creation of a risk assessment score for pulmonary sequelae at high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) through the assessment of laboratory data, lung function, and radiological changes in patients after the onset of COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia and the identification of predictive factors. METHODS: We enrolled 121 subjects hospitalized due to COVID-19 pneumonia in our study. Clinical features, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, HRCT score, and blood chemistry data at hospital admission, as well as HRCT score, pulmonary function testing values, exercise capacity by means of a 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), and dyspnea perception by the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) at 4-month follow-up, were all recorded. The variables were elaborated in order to create a predictive model to identify patients at high risk of pulmonary sequelae at HRCT. RESULTS: At the time of follow-up visit, 63% of patients had functional abnormality (diffusion lung capacity and/or total lung capacity <80% of predicted). Age, BMI, CCI, D-dimer, 6MWT, and mMRC were included in the COVID-19 Sequelae Score (COSeSco, ranging 0-15), which was able to individuate COVID-19 patients with radiologic sequelae (HRCT score >10%) at follow-up. The most revelatory COSeSco value that was found to intercept the highest sensitivity (100%) and specificity (77%) was 2. CONCLUSION: The COSeSco - comprising age, BMI, comorbidities, D-dimer, walking distance, and dyspnea perception - makes it possible to identify particularly at-risk COVID-19 patients who are likely to develop pulmonary sequelae assessed by HRCT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291332

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory burden is associated with COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Residual computed tomography (CT) lung abnormalities have been reported after COVID-19. The aim was to evaluate the association between inflammatory burden during COVID-19 and residual lung CT abnormalities collected on follow-up CT scans performed 2–3 and 6–7 months after COVID-19, in severe COVID-19 pneumonia survivors. C-reactive protein (CRP) curves describing inflammatory burden during the clinical course were built, and CRP peaks, velocities of increase, and integrals were calculated. Other putative determinants were age, sex, mechanical ventilation, lowest PaO2/FiO2 ratio, D-dimer peak, and length of hospital stay (LOS). Of the 259 included patients (median age 65 years;30.5% females), 202 (78%) and 100 (38.6%) had residual, predominantly non-fibrotic, abnormalities at 2-3 and 6-7 months, respectively. In age- and sex-adjusted models, best CRP predictors for residual abnormalities were CRP peak (odds ratio [OR] for one standard deviation [SD] increase=1.79;95% confidence interval [CI]=1.23-2.62) at 2-3 months and CRP integral (OR for one SD increase=2.24;95%CI=1.53-3.28) at 6-7 months. Hence, inflammation is associated with short- and medium-term lung damage in COVID-19. Other severity measures, including mechanical ventilation and LOS, but not D-dimer, were mediators of the relationship between CRP and residual abnormalities.

11.
World J Radiol ; 13(9): 294-306, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is the main manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Chest computed tomography is recommended for the initial evaluation of the disease; this technique can also be helpful to monitor the disease progression and evaluate the therapeutic efficacy. AIM: To review the currently available literature regarding the radiological follow-up of COVID-19-related lung alterations using the computed tomography scan, to describe the evidence about the dynamic evolution of COVID-19 pneumonia and verify the potential usefulness of the radiological follow-up. METHODS: We used pertinent keywords on PubMed to select relevant studies; the articles we considered were published until October 30, 2020. Through this selection, 69 studies were identified, and 16 were finally included in the review. RESULTS: Summarizing the included works' findings, we identified well-defined stages in the short follow-up time frame. A radiographic deterioration reaching a peak roughly within the first 2 wk; after the peak, an absorption process and repairing signs are observed. At later radiological follow-up, with the limitation of little evidence available, the lesions usually did not recover completely. CONCLUSION: Following computed tomography scan evolution over time could help physicians better understand the clinical impact of COVID-19 pneumonia and manage the possible sequelae; a longer follow-up is advisable to verify the complete resolution or the presence of long-term damage.

12.
World J Radiol ; 13(8): 243-257, 2021 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the several radiological features shared by coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and other infective or non-infective diseases with lung involvement, the differential diagnosis is often tricky, and no unequivocal tool exists to help the radiologist in the proper diagnosis. Computed tomography is considered the gold standard in detecting pulmonary illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. AIM: To conduct a systematic review including the available studies evaluating computed tomography similarities and discrepancies between coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and other pulmonary illness, then providing a discussion focus on cancer patients. METHODS: Using pertinent keywords, we performed a systematic review using PubMed to select relevant studies published until October 30, 2020. RESULTS: Of the identified 133 studies, 18 were eligible and included in this review. CONCLUSION: Ground-glass opacity and consolidations are the most common computed tomography lesions in coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and other respiratory diseases. Only two studies included cancer patients, and the differential diagnosis with early lung cancer and radiation pneumonitis was performed. A single lesion associated with pleural effusion and lymphadenopathies in lung cancer and the onset of the lesions in the radiation field in the case of radiation pneumonitis allowed the differential diagnosis. Nevertheless, the studies were heterogeneous, and the type and prevalence of lesions, distributions, morphology, evolution, and additional signs, together with epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory findings, are crucial to help in the differential diagnosis.

13.
Eur Respir J ; 58(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403207

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: For the management of patients referred to respiratory triage during the early stages of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, either chest radiography or computed tomography (CT) were used as first-line diagnostic tools. The aim of this study was to compare the impact on the triage, diagnosis and prognosis of patients with suspected COVID-19 when clinical decisions are derived from reconstructed chest radiography or from CT. METHODS: We reconstructed chest radiographs from high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans. Five clinical observers independently reviewed clinical charts of 300 subjects with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia, integrated with either a reconstructed chest radiography or HRCT report in two consecutive blinded and randomised sessions: clinical decisions were recorded for each session. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and prognostic value were compared between reconstructed chest radiography and HRCT. The best radiological integration was also examined to develop an optimised respiratory triage algorithm. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was fair (Kendall's W=0.365, p<0.001) by the reconstructed chest radiography-based protocol and good (Kendall's W=0.654, p<0.001) by the CT-based protocol. NPV assisted by reconstructed chest radiography (31.4%) was lower than that of HRCT (77.9%). In case of indeterminate or typical radiological appearance for COVID-19 pneumonia, extent of disease on reconstructed chest radiography or HRCT were the only two imaging variables that were similarly linked to mortality by adjusted multivariable models CONCLUSIONS: The present findings suggest that clinical triage is safely assisted by chest radiography. An integrated algorithm using first-line chest radiography and contingent use of HRCT can help optimise management and prognostication of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Triage , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiography , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2215-2229, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309072

ABSTRACT

Recent clinical and demographical studies on COVID-19 patients have demonstrated that men experience worse outcomes than women. However, in most cases, the data were not stratified according to gender, limiting the understanding of the real impact of gender on outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the disaggregated in-hospital outcomes and explore the possible interactions between gender and cardiovascular calcifications. Data was derived from the sCORE-COVID-19 registry, an Italian multicentre registry that enrolled COVID-19 patients who had undergone a chest computer tomography scan on admission. A total of 1683 hospitalized patients (mean age 67±14 years) were included. Men had a higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidities, a higher pneumonia extension, more coronary calcifications (63% vs.50.9%, p<0.001), and a higher coronary calcium score (391±847 vs. 171±479 mm3, p<0.001). Men experienced a significantly higher mortality rate (24.4% vs. 17%, p=0.001), but the death event tended to occur earlier in women (15±7 vs. 8±7 days, p= 0.07). Non-survivors had a higher coronary, thoracic aorta, and aortic valve calcium score. Female sex, a known independent predictor of a favorable outcome in SARS-CoV2 infection, was not protective in women with a coronary calcification volume greater than 100 mm3. There were significant differences in cardiovascular comorbidities and vascular calcifications between men and women with SARS-CoV2 pneumonia. The differences in outcomes can be at least partially explained by the different cardiovascular profiles. However, women with poor outcomes had the same coronary calcific burden as men. The presumed favorable female sex bias in COVID-19 must therefore be reviewed in the context of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular ones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Calcification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
15.
Radiol Med ; 126(10): 1258-1272, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290023

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Chest imaging modalities play a key role for the management of patient with coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Unfortunately, there is no consensus on the optimal chest imaging approach in the evaluation of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, and radiology departments tend to use different approaches. Thus, the main objective of this survey was to assess how chest imaging modalities have been used during the different phases of the first COVID-19 wave in Italy, and which diagnostic technique and reporting system would have been preferred based on the experience gained during the pandemic. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The questionnaire of the survey consisted of 26 questions. The link to participate in the survey was sent to all members of the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (SIRM). RESULTS: The survey gathered responses from 716 SIRM members. The most notable result was that the most used and preferred chest imaging modality to assess/exclude/monitor COVID-19 pneumonia during the different phases of the first COVID-19 wave was computed tomography (51.8% to 77.1% of participants). Additionally, while the narrative report was the most used reporting system (55.6% of respondents), one-third of participants would have preferred to utilize structured reporting systems. CONCLUSION: This survey shows that the participants' responses did not properly align with the imaging guidelines for managing COVID-19 that have been made by several scientific, including SIRM. Therefore, there is a need for continuing education to keep radiologists up to date and aware of the advantages and limitations of the chest imaging modalities and reporting systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Health Care Surveys , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Radiologists/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography , COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiography, Thoracic , Radiology Department, Hospital , Radiology, Interventional , Sensitivity and Specificity , Societies, Medical , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Ultrasonography/statistics & numerical data
16.
J Thorac Imaging ; 35(6): 344-345, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219915

ABSTRACT

In this hypothesis paper, we suggest that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may induce intravascular pulmonary thrombosis, which may result in the rapid worsening of clinical conditions and, eventually, exitus. Previously published papers have demonstrated that increased levels of D-dimer at hospital admission correlate with a more severe disease (0.5 mg/L) or occurrence of death (1 mg/L). The potential prothrombotic action of the SARS-CoV-2 is supported by the topographical involvement of the lung regions with a predilection for the lower lobe with peripheral involvement. If this hypothesis is demonstrated, this could suggest the benefit of using antithrombotic/coagulation regimens for SARS-CoV-2 and, at the same time, the urgency to identify drugs that could alter the inflammatory storm, thus protecting the vessel wall.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology , COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 572485, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186815

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly evolving, highly transmissible, and potentially lethal pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As of June 11 2020, more than 7,000,000 COVID-19 cases have been reported worldwide, and more than 400,000 patients have died, affecting at least 188 countries. While literature on the disease is rapidly accumulating, an integrated, multinational perspective on clinical manifestations, immunological effects, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of COVID-19 can be of global benefit. We aimed to synthesize the most relevant literature and experiences in different parts of the world through our global consortium of experts to provide a consensus-based document at this early stage of the pandemic.

19.
J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr ; 15(5): 421-430, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141959

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide determining dramatic impacts on healthcare systems. Early identification of high-risk parameters is required in order to provide the best therapeutic approach. Coronary, thoracic aorta and aortic valve calcium can be measured from a non-gated chest computer tomography (CT) and are validated predictors of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, their prognostic role in acute systemic inflammatory diseases, such as COVID-19, has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the association of coronary artery calcium and total thoracic calcium on in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: 1093 consecutive patients from 16 Italian hospitals with a positive swab for COVID-19 and an admission chest CT for pneumonia severity assessment were included. At CT, coronary, aortic valve and thoracic aorta calcium were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated separately and combined together (total thoracic calcium) by a central Core-lab blinded to patients' outcomes. RESULTS: Non-survivors compared to survivors had higher coronary artery [Agatston (467.76 â€‹± â€‹570.92 vs 206.80 â€‹± â€‹424.13 â€‹mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001); Volume (487.79 â€‹± â€‹565.34 vs 207.77 â€‹± â€‹406.81, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)], aortic valve [Volume (322.45 â€‹± â€‹390.90 vs 98.27 â€‹± â€‹250.74 mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001; Agatston 337.38 â€‹± â€‹414.97 vs 111.70 â€‹± â€‹282.15, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)] and thoracic aorta [Volume (3786.71 â€‹± â€‹4225.57 vs 1487.63 â€‹± â€‹2973.19 mm2, p â€‹< â€‹0.001); Agatston (4688.82 â€‹± â€‹5363.72 vs 1834.90 â€‹± â€‹3761.25, p â€‹< â€‹0.001)] calcium values. Coronary artery calcium (HR 1.308; 95% CI, 1.046-1.637, p â€‹= â€‹0.019) and total thoracic calcium (HR 1.975; 95% CI, 1.200-3.251, p â€‹= â€‹0.007) resulted to be independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Coronary, aortic valve and thoracic aortic calcium assessment on admission non-gated CT permits to stratify the COVID-19 patients in-hospital mortality risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Vascular Calcification/mortality , Vascular Calcification/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aorta, Thoracic/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/mortality , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , Aortic Valve/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Vessels/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Vascular Calcification/diagnostic imaging
20.
J Clin Med ; 10(4)2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concern is growing about the negative consequences that response measures to the COVID-19 epidemic may have on the management of other medical conditions. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive case-series study conducted at a large University-hospital in northern Italy, an area severely hit by the epidemic. RESULTS: Between 23 February and 14 May 2020, 4160 (52%) COVID-19 and 3778 (48%) non-COVID-19 patients were hospitalized. COVID-19 admissions peaked in the second half of March, a period characterized by an extremely high mortality rate (27.4%). The number of admissions in 2020 was similar to 2019, but COVID-19 patients gradually occupied all available beds. Comparison between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 admissions in 2020 revealed significant differences concerning all age classes and gender. Specifically, COVID-19 patients were older, predominantly male, and exhibited more comorbidities. Overall, admissions for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in 2020 vs. 2019 dropped by approximately one third. Statistically significant reductions were observed for acute myocardial infarction (-78, -33.9%), cerebrovascular disease (-235, -41.5%), and cancer (-368, -31.9%). While the first two appeared equally distributed between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients, chronic NCDs were statistically significantly more frequent in the former, except cancer, which was less frequent in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of collateral damage to patients with other diseases should be an integral part of epidemic response plans. Prospective cohort studies are needed to understand the long-term impact.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL