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1.
J Infect Dis ; 224(3): 415-419, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526165

ABSTRACT

Mutagenic ribonucleosides can act as broad-based antiviral agents. They are metabolized to the active ribonucleoside triphosphate form and concentrate in genomes of RNA viruses during viral replication. ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC, initial metabolite of molnupiravir) is >100-fold more active than ribavirin or favipiravir against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with antiviral activity correlated to the level of mutagenesis in virion RNA. However, NHC also displays host mutational activity in an animal cell culture assay, consistent with RNA and DNA precursors sharing a common intermediate of a ribonucleoside diphosphate. These results indicate highly active mutagenic ribonucleosides may hold risk for the host.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Mutagens/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , CHO Cells/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cricetulus , Cytidine/adverse effects , Cytidine/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Mutagens/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
J Infect Dis ; 224(3): 415-419, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221478

ABSTRACT

Mutagenic ribonucleosides can act as broad-based antiviral agents. They are metabolized to the active ribonucleoside triphosphate form and concentrate in genomes of RNA viruses during viral replication. ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC, initial metabolite of molnupiravir) is >100-fold more active than ribavirin or favipiravir against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), with antiviral activity correlated to the level of mutagenesis in virion RNA. However, NHC also displays host mutational activity in an animal cell culture assay, consistent with RNA and DNA precursors sharing a common intermediate of a ribonucleoside diphosphate. These results indicate highly active mutagenic ribonucleosides may hold risk for the host.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Mutagens/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , CHO Cells/drug effects , Cells, Cultured , Cricetulus , Cytidine/adverse effects , Cytidine/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Mutagenesis/drug effects , Mutagens/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/drug effects
3.
Bio Protoc ; 11(5): e3938, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162408

ABSTRACT

Next generations sequencing (NGS) has become an important tool in biomedical research. The Primer ID approach combined with the MiSeq platform overcomes the limitation of PCR errors and reveals the true sampling depth of population sequencing, making it an ideal tool to study mutagenic effects of potential broad-spectrum antivirals on RNA viruses. In this report we describe a protocol using Primer ID sequencing to study the mutations induced by antivirals in a coronavirus genome from an in vitro cell culture model and an in vivo mouse model. Viral RNA or total lung tissue RNA is tagged with Primer ID-containing cDNA primers during the initial reverse transcription step, followed by two rounds of PCR to amplify viral sequences and incorporate sequencing adaptors. Purified and pooled libraries are sequenced using the MiSeq platform. Sequencing data are processed using the template consensus sequence (TCS) web-app. The Primer ID approach provides an accurate sequencing protocol to measure mutation error rates in viral RNA genomes and host mRNA. Sequencing results suggested that ß-D-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC) greatly increased the transition substitution rate but not the transversion substitution rate in the viral RNA genomes, and cytosine (C) to uridine (U) was found as the most frequently seen mutation.

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 12(541)2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-38274

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) traffic frequently between species resulting in novel disease outbreaks, most recently exemplified by the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. Here, we show that the ribonucleoside analog ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine (NHC; EIDD-1931) has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and related zoonotic group 2b or 2c bat-CoVs, as well as increased potency against a CoV bearing resistance mutations to the nucleoside analog inhibitor remdesivir. In mice infected with SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV, both prophylactic and therapeutic administration of EIDD-2801, an orally bioavailable NHC prodrug (ß-d-N4-hydroxycytidine-5'-isopropyl ester), improved pulmonary function and reduced virus titer and body weight loss. Decreased MERS-CoV yields in vitro and in vivo were associated with increased transition mutation frequency in viral, but not host cell RNA, supporting a mechanism of lethal mutagenesis in CoV. The potency of NHC/EIDD-2801 against multiple CoVs and oral bioavailability highlights its potential utility as an effective antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and other future zoonotic CoVs.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Ribonucleosides/administration & dosage , Virus Replication/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Resistance, Viral , Humans , Hydroxylamines , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/physiology , Models, Molecular , Mutation/drug effects , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Primary Cell Culture , RNA, Viral , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/chemistry , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Random Allocation , Respiratory System/cytology , SARS-CoV-2
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