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1.
Polish Sociological Review ; JOUR(3):315-330, 219.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091457

ABSTRACT

Our conceptual paper argues that the COVID-19 pandemic has created conditions for the constitution of a new historical generation in Mannheimian terms. Current attempts in the sociology of youth to reconcile structure and agency with the concept of generation provide good starting points for interpreting a historical event such as the COVID-19 pandemic. While generations are not to be understood as homogeneous groups, constituting events can be compared to an asteroid that changes the trajectory of each social group. Thus, the concept of asteroid-effect helps us to overcome oversimplifying generational interpretations and to examine the effects of generation-forming events with an eye on structural inequalities. Our study provides an overview of the classical generational theory of Mannheim in light of some contemporary approaches. Based upon existing information, we illustrate how the generation-forming events can be interpreted and how structural inequalities can be considered. © 2022, Polish Sociological Association. All rights reserved.

2.
ASAIO Journal ; 68:66, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032186

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 (i.e., COVID-19) has brought extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) into the forefront of critical care. Its unique pathophysiology has added a level of complexity to ECMO therapy, particularly, the hematologic manifestations. Here we detail the spectrum and outcomes of bleeding complications in ECMO for COVID-19 and identify potential contributing factors. Methods: All patients who received ECMO for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia severe acute respiratory distress syndrome at our institution between March 1, 2020 and April 12, 2021 were reviewed. Patient characteristics, laboratory results, and overall outcomes were recorded. Bleeding events were reviewed with regard to the type/location and intervention required. Severity was graded according to the degree of intervention for treatment (1 [conservative or minor] - 3 [major, life-threatening, or operative]). Laboratory results and patient characteristics were compared between patients with bleeding events and those without to identify factors associated with bleeding risk. Results: Fifty-four patients (mean age 53.2 years, 61.1% female, 51.9% Caucasian) underwent ECMO cannulation for SARSCoV-2 pneumonia at our institution. Thirty-eight (70.4%) received veno-pulmonary artery ECMO. The mean duration of support was 33.2 days with an in-hospital mortality of 42.6%. 68.5% of patients experienced at least one bleeding event during their ECMO course with 92 bleeding events (n=23 [grade 1], n=31 [grade 2], n=38 [grade 3]) over 1804 cannulation days. The most common types of bleeding types were nasal/oropharyngeal (n=30, 32.6%), pulmonary (n=18, 19.6%), and gastrointestinal (n=11, 12.0%). Eight (16.0%) patients required operative intervention and 11 (20.3%) died as a result of a bleeding event, mainly due to intracranial hemorrhages (n=5, 9.3%). There was no difference in the mean cumulative function for bleeding events between different ECMO support modalities (p=0.85) which demonstrated a linear pattern over time. Factors that increased the risk of bleeding included patient cumulative volume balance (OR 1.22 per 1000 mL increase from admission, p<0.001) while higher platelet count (OR 0.83 per 50x103/uL increase, p=0.03) was protective. Conclusion: ECMO for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is associated with a diverse and unique profile of bleeding complications. The incidence of bleeding complications is linearly related to cannulation duration. Certain patient factors may affect the risk of bleeding while on ECMO.

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005669

ABSTRACT

Background: Bispecific antibodies (bsAb) are a promising class of therapeutics in RRMM. While hypogammaglobinemia (HGG) is anticipated due to plasma cell depletion, there is a lack of information about the degree of secondary immunodeficiency and resultant infectious complications. We investigated the kinetics of HGG in patients with RRMM on bsAb therapy. Methods: We identified and followed 42 patients treated on early clinical trials of bsAb at our institution between 2019 and 2021. Serial immunoglobulin levels and infections were obtained from the start of therapy until last follow up or 3 months after study exit. Results: 49 treatment courses were included from 42 individual patients. All patients were triple class exposed with a median of 5 prior lines of therapy. The median age was 67 (44-85) years, with 49% females. African Americans accounted for 18% of patients. 96% of patients had at least one prior ASCT. 90% of patients received bsAb targeting BCMA including 7 patients who received more than one line of BCMA targeting therapies. At a median follow up 9.5 (0.9-28.6) months, 40.8% of patients remained on bsAb therapy. At the start of therapy, the median IgG, IgA, and IgM levels were 560 (44-9436), 15 (5-3886) and 6 (5-64) mg/dL, respectively and 50% of patients had severe HGG (≤400mg/dl). Serum IgG levels reached a nadir at 3 months while, IgA and IgM at 1 month, from the start of therapy. The median nadir levels of IgG were 159 (40-2996) mg/dL, while it was < 5 mg/dL for both IgA and IgM. IgG levels were below the detectable range (< 40 mg/dl) in 28% of patients at some point during therapy. IgA and IgM were also below the detectable range (< 5 mg/dl) in 50% and 60% of patients, respectively. At last follow-up, the median IgG levels were 444 (40-1860) mg/dL and IgA 5 (5-254) mg/dL and IgM 5 (5-44) mg/dL. Additionally, 38% of patients remained severely hypogammaglobinemic. 57% (24/42) of patients received IVIG supplements in the current series. About 71% of patients had at least one infectious event and the cumulative incidence of infections progressively increased with increasing duration of therapy with risk at 3, 6, 9 12, 15 months being 41%, 57%, 64%, 67% and 70%, respectively. Among these, 54% of infection were bacterial. Viral infection accounted for 41% of infections. A third of patients had new infectious events during the first 90 days following stopping bsAb treatment. 57% (8/14) of patients did not mount a response to the primary COVID19 immunization series. Among the five patients with repeat antibody titers after the booster dose, 50% were still not able to mount an antibody response. Conclusions: bsAb therapy in RRMM can be associated with profound and prolonged HGG. The cumulative risk of infection correlated with the degree of HGG and progressively increases with treatment and persisted months after being off therapy. Additionally, an impaired antibody response to the COVID-19 immunization series was also noted.

4.
Politics in Central Europe ; 18(2):251-269, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1963313

ABSTRACT

As for the mitigation of the negative consequences of the coronavirus pandemic and the related crisis, governments should inter alia facilitate the willingness to vaccinate. However, related discussions became politicised, especially in countries with an extremely high level of partisan polarisation in opinions and media discourses, like in Hungary, which is the selected case of our study. As previous research about the United States shows, general trust in science is also influenced by the ideological alignment of individuals - people with conservative identification are more likely to question scientific results and recommendations, considering global warming, or the characteristics of the pandemic and the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines. In our study we examine two main questions: first, whether the ideological orientation and partisan alignment of Hungarian citizens influence their general trust in science, and second, whether the same factors influence their opinion on scientists' ability to develop effective vaccines against the coronavirus. Furthermore, we also investigate whether media consumption habits might influence these interrelations. According to the results of the representative online survey, the more conservative someone in Hungary identifies, the more likely they will be sceptical in terms of both questions. However, support of government or opposition parties does not determine whether they believe in the ability of scientists to develop effective vaccines, and it is influenced by their media consumption habits. We showed that (1) opposition supporters are much more different along their preferred media source than government supporters, (2) television watchers are of the same opinion independent of their party preference and (3) social media consumers are generally more likely to reject scientific results. The phenomenon that supporters of the conservative government and of the alliance of opposition parties are different in terms of their media consumption is a surprising finding in the polarised Hungarian context. We provide two main explanations for this. First, it is most probably the consequence of the government's intensive campaign that encouraged vaccination. Second, the government used the issue of vaccination as a source of legitimacy regarding the effectiveness of their crisis management. © 2022 Eszter Farkas et al., published by Sciendo.

5.
Cancer Research ; 82(4 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1779489

ABSTRACT

Purpose: In the state of Wisconsin, breast cancer patients from African American (AAs) communities have lower survival rates compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Multiple inequities related to sociodemographic factors, delays in diagnosis, advanced disease stage at presentation and presence of comorbidities including higher body mass index (BMI) contribute to these disparities, many of which have only widened during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined specific factors related to prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS) for breast cancer patients admitted to inpatient units during the pandemic. Methods: This analysis includes initial CY20 LOS medical record data for hospitalized patients 18 years and older with a diagnosis of breast cancer from 1/1/2020-12/31/2020. Supplemental data included disease registry and diagnostic data, and SES data determined by patient zip code. Poisson regression models with robust standard errors were used to compare the LOS index (LOSi) between groups of patients based on race, SES group, primary payer, and BMI. Results: A total of 272 patients with breast cancer that were admitted to inpatient oncology units were identified. Demographics included White (72.4%), Black (22.4%), and others (5.1%). Other characteristics included: low SES (8.8%), medium-low (9.5%), medium (15.4%), medium-high (11.0%), high SES (4.4%), and others (non-SMilwaukee county) (50.7%), Medicaid (8.8%), Medicare (61.3%), Managed care (29.0%), and others (0.73%). Body mass varied among the patients;underweight (0.36%), overweight (30.8%), obese (41.5%). There were significant differences in LOSi: Black (LOSi=1.24, p=0.01), medium-low SES (LOSi=1.46, p=0.02), Medicaid (LOSi=1.40, p=0.00), underweight (LOSi=1.66, p=0.00), and overweight (LOSi=1.23, p = 0.01) patients had slightly longer LOSi, with LOSi ratio above 1. Conclusion: This study shows how patient-specific factors such as race, SES, primary payer, and BMI contribute to inpatient LOS for breast cancer patients. Healthcare systems may benefit by addressing indicators and patients' factors to reduce hospital LOS, and ultimately healthcare costs.

7.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339380

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with cancer have increased risk of developing SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) infection. It is unknown if characteristics related to breast cancer increase the risk of COVID-19 infection. In this retrospective matched case control study, we aim to identify breast cancer related risk factors associated with developing COVID-19 and describe outcomes of patients with breast cancer diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: Women with breast cancer treated at the Medical College of Wisconsin and diagnosed with COVID-19 between March and December 2020 served as cases. Women with breast cancer without COVID-19 diagnosis within the same time frame were identified as potential controls. Controls were chosen by matching for age (≥60 vs <60), obesity (BMI <30 vs ≥30), county (Milwaukee vs suburban), race (white vs non-white) and diabetes mellitus (DM) with 3:1 matching planned. Univariate comparisons between cases and controls were done via RaoScott stratified chi-square test for categorical outcomes and stratified t-test for continuous variables. Conditional logistic regression was done to evaluate the joint effect of multiple characteristics on the odds of being a COVID-19 case. Results: Twenty-five cases and 77 controls were identified. All cases were fully matched by age, obesity, county, and race with 3 cases not able to be matched for DM. Mean age was 54.6 vs 54.9 (p=0.88), BMI 31.0 vs 31.6 (p=0.69), 48% lived in Milwaukee county and 68% were white (cases 24% black & 8% American Indian;controls 32% black). Regarding COVID outcomes, 24.0% (n=6) of cases were hospitalized, median length of stay was 2 days, 8% (n=2) needed oxygen, 4% (n=1) were intubated and 4% (n=1) died due to COVID-19. COVID-19 led to treatment delays in 40% of cases. On univariate analysis of cases vs controls, 64 vs 75% were ER/PR+ (p=0.31), 6.5 vs 5.2% HER2+ (p=0.34), and 9.0 vs 4.2% triple negative (p=0.10). There were no significant differences in breast cancer stage. At time of COVID diagnosis (or last clinic contact if control), 16 vs 14% had active disease (p=0.81), 72 vs 74% were on active treatment (p=0.85), with 21 vs 4% being on chemotherapy (p=0.007), and 44 vs 52% on endocrine therapy (p=0.49). On conditional logistic regression, being on active chemotherapy (OR 5.8, p=0.043) significantly increased the likelihood of developing COVID with a trend seen for triple negative disease (OR 2.8, p=0.12). Conclusions: In this matched case control study of patients with breast cancer, active chemotherapy was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of developing COVID-19 with a trend seen for triple negative disease. Rates of death due to COVID-19 were overall low. Our analysis was limited by small numbers and an inability to fully match patients for DM. These findings support continued strict precautions for those on active chemotherapy and warrants further analysis in those with triple negative disease.

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