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Neurotrauma Rep ; 4(1): 330-341, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328194


Elevated levels of brain injury biomarkers have been found primarily in middle-aged or older persons experiencing moderate-to-severe COVID-19 symptoms. However, there is little research in young adults, and there is concern that COVID-19 causes brain injury even in the absence of moderate-to-severe symptoms. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to investigate whether neurofilament light (NfL), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), tau, or ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1) are elevated in the plasma of young adults with mild COVID-19 symptoms. Twelve participants diagnosed with COVID-19 had plasma collected 1, 2, 3, and 4 months after diagnosis to determine whether NfL, GFAP, tau, and UCHL1 concentrations increased over time or whether plasma concentrations were elevated compared with COVID-19-naïve participants. We also compared plasma NfL, GFAP, tau, and UCHL1 concentrations between sexes. Our results showed no difference between NfL, GFAP, tau, and UCHL1 concentrations in COVID-19-naïve participants and COVID-19-positive participants at any of the four time points (p = 0.771). Within the COVID-19-positive participants, UCHL1 levels were higher at month 3 after diagnosis compared to month 1 or month 2 (p = 0.027). Between sexes, females were found to have higher UCHL1 (p = 0.003) and NfL (p = 0.037) plasma concentrations compared to males, whereas males had higher plasma tau concentrations than females (p = 0.024). Based on our data, it appears that mild COVID-19 in young adults does not increase plasma NfL, GFAP, tau, or UCHL1.

J Physiol ; 600(16): 3651-3652, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2193309
Physiol Rep ; 11(1): e15560, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204043


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can elicit acute and long-term effects on the myocardium among survivors, yet effects among otherwise healthy young adults remains unclear. Young adults with mild symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 (8M/8F, age: 21 ± 1 years, BMI: 23.5 ± 3.1 kg·m-2 ) underwent monthly transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and testing of circulating cardiac troponin-I for months 1-6 (M1-M6) following a positive polymerase chain reaction test to better understand the acute effects and post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 on cardiac structure and function. Left heart structure and ejection fraction were unaltered from M1-M6 (p > 0.05). While most parameters of septal and lateral wall velocities, mitral and tricuspid valve, and pulmonary vein (PV) were unaltered from M1-M6 (p > 0.05), lateral wall s' wave velocity increased (M1: 0.113 ± 0.019 m·s-1 , M6: 0.135 ± 0.022 m·s-1 , p = 0.013); PV S wave velocity increased (M1: 0.596 ± 0.099 m·s-1 , M6: 0.824 ± 0.118 m·s-1 , p < 0.001); the difference between PV A wave and mitral valve (MV) A wave durations decreased (M1: 39.139 ± 43.715 ms, M6: 18.037 ± 7.227 ms, p = 0.002); the ratio of PV A duration to MV A duration increased (M1: 0.844 ± 0.205, M6: 1.013 ± 0.132, p = 0.013); and cardiac troponin-I levels decreased (M1: 0.38 ± 0.20 ng·ml-1 , M3: 0.28 ± 0.34 ng·ml-1 , M6: 0.29 ± 0.16 ng·ml-1 ; p = 0.002) over time. While young adults with mild symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 lacked changes to cardiac structure, the subclinical improvements to cardiac function and reduced inflammatory marker of cardiac troponin-I over 6 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection provide physiologic guidance to post-acute sequelae and recovery from SARS-CoV-2 and its variants using conventional TTE.

COVID-19 , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I , Echocardiography , Heart
Physiol Rep ; 10(24): e15552, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204042


SARS-CoV-2 infection is known to instigate a range of physiologic perturbations, including vascular dysfunction. However, little work has concluded how long these effects may last, especially among young adults with mild symptoms. To determine potential recovery from acute vascular dysfunction in young adults (8 M/8F, 21 ± 1 yr, 23.5 ± 3.1 kg⋅m-2 ), we longitudinally tracked brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and reactive hyperemia (RH) in the arm and hyperemic response to passive limb movement (PLM) in the leg, with Doppler ultrasound, as well as circulating biomarkers of inflammation (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, protein carbonyl), antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase), and nitric oxide bioavailability (nitrite) monthly for a 6-month period post-SARS-CoV-2 infection. FMD, as a marker of macrovascular function, improved from month 1 (3.06 ± 1.39%) to month 6 (6.60 ± 2.07%; p < 0.001). FMD/Shear improved from month one (0.10 ± 0.06 AU) to month six (0.18 ± 0.70 AU; p = 0.002). RH in the arm and PLM in the leg, as markers of microvascular function, did not change during the 6 months (p > 0.05). Circulating markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and nitric oxide bioavailability did not change during the 6 months (p > 0.05). Together, these results suggest some improvements in macrovascular, but not microvascular function, over 6 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The data also suggest persistent ramifications for cardiovascular health among those recovering from mild illness and among young, otherwise healthy adults with SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Hyperemia , Humans , Young Adult , Antioxidants , Nitric Oxide/metabolism , Vasodilation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Brachial Artery/diagnostic imaging , Brachial Artery/physiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Regional Blood Flow/physiology
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(5): 1226-1227, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108368

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Physiol Rep ; 10(18): e15423, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056504


Cross-sectional data indicate that acute SARS-CoV-2 infection increases resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and alters hemodynamic responses to orthostasis in young adults. However, the longitudinal impact of contracting SARS-CoV-2 on autonomic function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to longitudinally track MSNA, sympathetic transduction to blood pressure (BP), and hemodynamics over 6 months following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Young adults positive with SARS-CoV-2 reported to the laboratory three times over 6 months (V1:41 ± 17, V2:108 ± 21, V3:173 ± 16 days post-infection). MSNA, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, and heart rate (HR) were measured at rest, during a cold pressor test (CPT), and at 30° head-up tilt (HUT). Basal SBP (p = 0.019) and DBP (p < 0.001) decreased throughout the 6 months, whereas basal MSNA and HR were not different. Basal sympathetic transduction to BP and estimates of baroreflex sensitivity did not change over time. SBP and DBP were lower during CPT (SBP: p = 0.016, DBP: p = 0.007) and HUT at V3 compared with V1 (SBP: p = 0.041, DBP: p = 0.017), with largely no changes in MSNA. There was a trend toward a visit-by-time interaction for burst incidence (p = 0.055) during HUT, wherein at baseline immediately prior to tilting, burst incidence was lower at V3 compared with V1 (p = 0.014), but there were no differences between visits in the 30 HUT position. These results support impairments to cardiovascular health, and potentially autonomic function, which may improve over time. However, the improvements in BP over 6 months recovery from mild SARS-CoV-2 infection are likely not a direct result of changes in sympathetic activity.

COVID-19 , Baroreflex/physiology , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heart Rate/physiology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sympathetic Nervous System/physiology , Young Adult
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 133(5): 1220-1221, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962446

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
J Appl Physiol (1985) ; 132(5): 1297-1309, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794427


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can increase arterial stiffness 3-4 wk following infection, even among young, healthy adults. However, the long-term impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection on cardiovascular health and the duration of recovery remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate potential long-lasting effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on markers of arterial stiffness among young adults during the 6 mo following infection. Assessments were performed at months 1, 2, 3, 4, and ∼6 following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Doppler ultrasound was used to measure carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and carotid stiffness, and arterial tonometry was used to measure central blood pressures and aortic augmentation index at a heart rate of 75 beats·min-1 (AIx@HR75). Vascular (VCAM-1) and intracellular (ICAM-1) adhesion molecules were analyzed as circulating markers of arterial stiffness. From months 1-6, a significant reduction in cfPWV was observed (month 1: 5.70 ± 0.73 m·s-1; month 6: 4.88 ± 0.65 m·s-1; P < 0.05) without any change in carotid stiffness measures. Reductions in systolic blood pressure (month 1: 123 ± 8 mmHg; month 6: 112 ± 11 mmHg) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; month 1: 97 ± 6 mmHg; month 6: 86 ± 7 mmHg) were observed (P < 0.05), although AIx@HR75 did not change over time. The month 1-6 change in cfPWV and MAP were correlated (r = 0.894; P < 0.001). A reduction in VCAM-1 was observed at month 3 compared with month 1 (month 1: 5,575 ± 2,242 pg·mL-1; month 3: 4,636 ± 1,621 pg·mL-1; P < 0.05) without a change in ICAM-1. A reduction in cfPWV was related with MAP, and some indicators of arterial stiffness remain elevated for several months following SARS-CoV-2 infection, possibly contributing to prolonged recovery and increased cardiovascular health risks.NEW & NOTEWORTHY We sought to investigate potential long-lasting effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on markers of arterial stiffness among young adults for 6 mo following infection. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity was significantly reduced while carotid stiffness measures remained unaltered over the 6-mo period. These findings suggest several months of recovery from infection may be necessary for young adults to improve various markers of arterial stiffness, possibly contributing to cardiovascular health and recovery among those infected with SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Vascular Stiffness , Blood Pressure/physiology , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Pulse Wave Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Stiffness/physiology , Young Adult
Exp Physiol ; 107(7): 694-707, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201164


NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We sought to investigate whether carotid stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness and the aortic augmentation index are altered in young adults 3-4 weeks after contraction of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) compared with young healthy adults. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that carotid stiffness, Young's modulus and the aortic augmentation index were greater in young adults who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with healthy young adults. These findings provide additional evidence for detrimental effects of SARS-CoV-2 on young adult vasculature, which might have implications for cardiovascular health. ABSTRACT: Contracting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been observed to cause decrements in vascular function of young adults. However, less is known about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on arterial stiffness and structure, which might have additional implications for cardiovascular health. The purpose of this study was to assess the carotid artery stiffness and structure using ultrasound and the aortic augmentation index (AIx) using applanation tonometry in young adults after they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized that carotid artery stiffness, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and aortic AIx would be elevated in young adults with SARS-CoV-2 compared with healthy young adults. We evaluated 15 young adults (six male and nine female; 20 ± 1 years of age; body mass index, 24 ± 3 kg m-2 ) 3-4 weeks after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result compared with young healthy adults (five male and 10 female; 23 ± 1 years of age; body mass index, 22 ± 2 kg m-2 ) who were evaluated before the coronavirus 2019 pandemic. Carotid stiffness, Young's modulus and cIMT were assessed using ultrasound, whereas aortic AIx and aortic AIx standardized to 75 beats min-1 (AIx@HR75) were assessed from carotid pulse wave analysis using SphygmoCor. Group differences were observed for carotid stiffness (control, 5 ± 1 m s-1 ; SARS-CoV-2, 6 ± 1 m s-1 ), Young's modulus (control, 396 ± 120 kPa; SARS-CoV-2, 576 ± 224 kPa), aortic AIx (control, 3 ± 13%; SARS-CoV-2, 13 ± 9%) and aortic AIx@HR75 (control, -3 ± 16%; SARS-CoV-2, 10 ± 7%; P < 0.05). However, cIMT was similar between groups (control, 0.42 ± 0.06 mm; SARS-CoV-2, 0.44 ± 0.08 mm; P > 0.05). This cross-sectional analysis revealed higher carotid artery stiffness and aortic stiffness among young adults with SARS-CoV-2. These results provide further evidence of cardiovascular impairments among young adults recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, which should be considered for cardiovascular complications associated with SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Vascular Stiffness , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult