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1.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem ; 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782570

ABSTRACT

Since the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the clinical manifestations of the virus have undergone many changes. Recently, there have been many reports on gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 patients. This study is aimed to perform a detailed phylogenetic study and assessment of different SNVs in the RNA genome of viruses isolated from fecal samples of patients with COVID-19 who have gastrointestinal symptoms, which can help better understand viral pathogenesis. In the present study, 20 fecal samples were collected by written consent from COVID-19 patients. According to the manufacturer's protocol, virus nucleic acid was extracted from stool samples and the SARS-CoV-2 genome presence in stool samples was confirmed by RT-PCR assay. Three viral genes, S, nsp12, and nsp2, were amplified using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method and specific primers. Multiple sequencing alignment (MSA) was performed in the CLC word bench, and a phylogenetic tree was generated by MEGA X based on the neighbor-joining method. Of all cases, 11 (55%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 33.6 years. Diabetes (70%) and blood pressure (55%) were the most prevalent comorbidities. All 20 patients were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection in respiratory samples. Molecular analysis investigation among 20 stool samples revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 genome was found among 10 stool samples; only three samples were used for sequencing. The polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis in SARS-CoV-2 showed great similarity among all of the evaluated genes with the Wuhan reference sequence and all of the current variants of concern (VOCs). The current study represents a great similarity in polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 isolates with the Wuhan reference sequence and all of the current VOC in the particular evaluated partial sequences of S, nsp12, and nsp2.

2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108192, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433412

ABSTRACT

The mounting evidence regarding the pathogenesis of COVID-19 indicated that the cytokine storm has an axial role in the severity of this disease, which may lead to thrombotic complications, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and myocardial damage, among other consequences. It has recently been demonstrated that statins are known to have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, anti-thrombotic, and immunomodulatory features; however, their advantage has not been evaluated in COVID-19. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lovastatin in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19. The case-control study consists of 284 ICU patients, which classified into three groups as follows: 1) the patients who no received lovastatin as a control (92 patients), 2) patients received 20 mg per day lovastatin (99 patients), and 3) patients received 40 mg per day lovastatin (93 patients). Each group's demographic and clinical parameters, along with CRP, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 levels, and mortality rate, were studied in three-time points. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between our study groups in terms of age and sex. (P > 0.05). Besides, in patients, receiving lovastatin the CRP, IL-6, IL-8 levels were significantly decreased from T1 to T3 than to the control group. Our results also showed that the use of lovastatin in COVID-19 patients significantly reduced the length of hospitalization in the ICU compared with the control group. In addition, our results showed that the mortality rate in patients receiving lovastatin was lower when compared to the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Since the cytokine storm is a significant factor in the pathology of SARS-CoV-2, our findings highlighted the potential use of lovastatin to mitigate the inflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lovastatin/pharmacology , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , Case-Control Studies , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/drug effects , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Interleukin-8/metabolism , Lovastatin/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Sex Factors
3.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 100: 108137, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428075

ABSTRACT

A growing body of evidence indicates that neutrophil elastase (NE) is involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory infectious diseases, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This study aimed to analyze the dynamic changes in serum levels of NE associated with inflammation, disease activity, and mortality rate in patients with COVID-19. We measured the serum concentrations of NE, C-Reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)- 4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and vitamin D levels in 83 ICU and 69 non-ICU patients compared with 82 healthy subjects (HS) in three-time points (T1-T3). Serum levels of NE, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP in ICU and non-ICU patients were significantly higher than HS (P < 0.001) in three-time points. Also, serum levels of NE, IL-6, IL-8, and CRP in ICU patients were significantly higher than in non-ICU patients (P < 0.05). On the day of admission (T1), the levels of NE, CRP, IL-6, IL-8 were gradually decreased from T1 to T3. At the same time, IL-4 and IL-10 were gradually increased from T1 to T2 and then reduced to T3. Further analyses demonstrated that the levels of NE, IL-6, and IL-8 in deceased patients were significantly higher than in recovered patients (P < 0.05). The ROC curve analysis demonstrated that markers, including NE, IL-6, and IL-8, were valuable indicators in evaluating the activity of COVID-19. Overall, our results signify the critical role of NE in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and also, further support that NE has a potential therapeutic target for the attenuation of COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , Inflammation/etiology , Leukocyte Elastase/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Leukocyte Elastase/blood , Male , Middle Aged
5.
Adv Biomed Res ; 9: 74, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200191

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the start of coronavirus epidemic in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019, many literatures addressed its epidemiology, virology, and clinical presentation. In this review, we systematically reviewed the published literature in the field of liver function tests profile in COVID-19 patients at the admission time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: systematic literature search were performed in EMBASE, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus using "severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)", "SARS," "SARS-CoV," "coronavirus," "novel coronavirus," "liver," "hepatitis," "Liver function" keywords. The search was limited to range from 2019 to May 19, 2020. RESULTS: From a total 7298 articles, 145 were screened and 18 were eligible for further analysis. The highest rate of liver associated comorbidities was reported 11%. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were the most frequent assessed enzymes. Increase in AST level was seen in 10%-53% of patients while The ALT increase was seen in 5%-28% of COVID-19 patients at the admission time. The prothrombin time was increase in 7%-12% of patients and the D-dimer was reports increase in 14%-36% of COVID-19 patients at the admission time. Furthermore, albumin decrease was seen in 6%-98% of COVID-19 patients at the admission time. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, by using the results of study, it could be suggested that the liver function tests assessment is critical assessment in COVID-19 patients at the admission time. This liver function test could be used as potential prognostic factor in COVID-19 severity in future.

6.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 97: 107684, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188658

ABSTRACT

A cell-surface heparan proteoglycan called Syndecan-1 (SDC-1) has multiple roles in healthy and pathogenic conditions, including respiratory viral infection. In this study, we explore the dynamic alternation in the levels of SDC-1 in cases with COVID-19. A total of 120 cases definitely diagnosed with COVID-19 were admitted to the Firoozgar Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from December 1, 2020, to January 29, 2021, and included in our study. Also, 58 healthy subjects (HS) were chosen as the control group. Patients were classified into two groups: 1) ICU patients and (63 cases) 2) non-ICU patients (57 cases). The dynamic changes of serum SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, and Vit D levels a well as the disease activity were investigated in three-time points (T1-T3). Our results indicated that the COVID-19 patients had significantly increased SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels than in HS, while the Vit D levels in COVID-19 patients were significantly lower than HS. Further analysis demonstrated that the SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels in ICU patients were significantly higher than in non-ICU patients. Tracking dynamic changes in the above markers indicated that on the day of admission, the SCD-1, CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels were gradually increased on day 5 (T2) and then gradually decreased on day 10 (T3). ROC curve analysis suggests that markers mentioned above, SDC-1, IL-6, and IL-18 are valuable indicators in evaluating the activity of COVID-19. All in all, it seems that the serum SDC-1 levels alone or combined with other markers might be a good candidate for disease activity monitoring.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Syndecan-1/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-18/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , ROC Curve , Receptors, Immunologic/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Vitamin D/blood
7.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6670798, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105550

ABSTRACT

Recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to a worldwide pandemic with millions of infected patients. Alteration in humans' microbiota was also reported in COVID-19 patients. The alteration in human microbiota may contribute to bacterial or viral infections and affect the immune system. Moreover, human's microbiota can be altered due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and these microbiota changes can indicate the progression of COVID-19. While current studies focus on the gut microbiota, it seems necessary to pay attention to the lung microbiota in COVID-19. This study is aimed at reviewing respiratory microbiota dysbiosis among COVID-19 patients to encourage further studies on the field for assessment of SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory microbiota interaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysbiosis , Lung , Mycobiome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/microbiology , Dysbiosis/immunology , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Dysbiosis/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/microbiology , Lung/virology
8.
Rev Neurosci ; 32(3): 351-361, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067453

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 27 million confirmed cases and 8,90,000 deaths all around the world. Verity of viral infections can infect the nervous system; these viral infections can present a wide range of manifestation. The aim of the current study was to systematically review the COVID-19 associated central nervous system manifestations, mental and neurological symptoms. For that we conducted a comprehensive systematic literature review of four online databases, including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Embase. All relevant articles that reported psychiatric/psychological symptoms or disorders in COVID-19 without considering time and language restrictions were assessed. All the study procedures were performed based on the PRISMA criteria. Due to the screening, 14 studies were included. The current study result indicated that, the pooled prevalence of CNS or mental associated disorders with 95% CI was 50.68% (6.68-93.88). The most prevalence symptoms were hyposmia/anosmia/olfactory dysfunction (number of study: 10) with 36.20% (14.99-60.51). Only one study reported numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia. Pooled prevalence of numbness/paresthesia and dysphonia was 5.83% (2.17-12.25) and 2.39% (10.75-14.22). The pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety was 3.52% (2.62-4.54) and 13.92% (9.44-19.08). Our findings demonstrate that COVID-19 has a certain relation with neurological symptoms. The hypsomia, anosmia or olfactory dysfunction was most frequent symptom. Other symptoms were headache or dizziness, dysgeusia or ageusia, dysphonia and fatigue. Depression, anxiety, and confusion were less frequent symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Depression/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/physiopathology , Dysphonia/epidemiology , Dysphonia/physiopathology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypesthesia/epidemiology , Hypesthesia/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Paresthesia/epidemiology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Vet Med Sci ; 7(2): 559-571, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-932488

ABSTRACT

Since emerging coronaviruses have always become a human health concern globally especially severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and a novel coronavirus was introduced in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 (called SARS-CoV-2), many researchers focused on its epidemics, virological and clinical features. SARS-CoV-2 is classified as Betacoronaviruses genus and Sarbecovirus subgenus (lineage B). The virus shows a great similarity with SARS-CoV and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. In this study, we evaluate SARS-CoV-2 virus phylogeny and evolution by using current virus and related sequences.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , COVID-19/virology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Viral Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Zoonoses/epidemiology
10.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 88: 106885, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695737

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is an etiological agent of pandemic COVID-19, which spreads rapidly worldwide. No proven effective therapies currently exist for this virus, and efforts to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. The rapidly increasing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 virology provides a notable number of possible immunological procedures and drug targets. However, gaps remain in our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this review, we describe the latest information in the context of immunological approaches and emerging current antiviral strategies for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
11.
Infect Genet Evol ; 84: 104387, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to investigate and track the SARS-CoV-2 in Iranian Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients using molecular and phylogenetic methods. METHODS: We enrolled seven confirmed cases of COVID-19 patients for the phylogenetic assessment of the SARS-CoV-2 in Iran. The nsp-2, nsp-12, and S genes were amplified using one-step RT-PCR and sequenced using Sanger sequencing method. Popular bioinformatics software were used for sequences alignment and analysis as well as phylogenetic construction. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the present study was 60.42 ± 9.94 years and 57.1% (4/7) were male. The results indicated high similarity between Iranian and Chinese strains. We could not find any particular polymorphisms in the assessed regions of the three genes. Phylogenetic trees by neighbor-joining and maximum likelihood method of nsp-2, nsp-12, and S genes showed that there are not any differences between Iranian isolates and those of other countries. CONCLUSION: As a preliminary phylogenetic study in Iranian SARS-CoV-2 isolates, we found that these isolates are closely related to the Chinese and reference sequences. Also, no sensible differences were observed between Iranian isolates and those of other countries. Further investigations are recommended using more comprehensive methods and larger sample sizes.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Aged , Base Sequence , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Female , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment
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