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1.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess differences in the use of analgesics, sedatives and neuromuscular-blocking agents (NMBA) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 or other conditions. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study, single-center tertiary Intensive Care Unit. COVID-19 patients with ARDS (March-May 2020) and non-COVID ARDS patients (2017-2020) on mechanical ventilation and receiving sedation for at least 48 h. RESULTS: A total of 39 patients met the inclusion criteria in each group, with similar demographics at baseline. COVID-19 patients had a longer duration of MV (median 22 (IQRs 16-29) vs. 9 (6-18) days; p < 0.01), of sedatives administration (18 (11-22) vs. 5 (4-9) days; p < 0.01) and NMBA therapy (12 (9-16) vs. 3 (2-7) days; p < 0.01). During the first 7 days of sedation, compared to non-COVID patients, COVID patients received more frequently a combination of multiple sedative drugs (76.9% vs. 28.2%; p < 0.01) and a higher NMBA regimen (cisatracurium: 3.0 (2.1-3.7) vs. 1.3 (0.9-1.9) mg/kg/day; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The duration and consumption of sedatives and NMBA was significantly increased in patients with COVID-19 related ARDS than in non-COVID ARDS. Different sedation strategies and protocols might be needed in COVID-19 patients with ARDS, with potential implications on long-term complications and drugs availability.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480826

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients suffering from severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require mechanical ventilation (MV) for respiratory failure. To achieve these ventilatory goals, it has been observed that COVID-19 patients in particular require high regimens and prolonged use of sedatives, analgesics and neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA). Withdrawal from analgo-sedation may induce a "drug withdrawal syndrome" (DWS), i.e., clinical symptoms of anxiety, tremor, agitation, hallucinations and vomiting, as a result of adrenergic activation and hyperalgesia. We describe the epidemiology, mechanisms leading to this syndrome and our strategies to prevent and treat it.

3.
Cells ; 10(10)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470799

ABSTRACT

The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in a wide series of physiological processes, among which inflammation and blood pressure regulation. One of its key components, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, has been identified as the entry point of the SARS-CoV-2 virus into the host cells, and therefore a lot of research has been devoted to study RAS dysregulation in COVID-19. Here we discuss the alterations of the regulatory RAS axes due to SARS-CoV-2 infection on the basis of a series of recent clinical investigations and experimental analyzes quantifying, e.g., the levels and activity of RAS components. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis of these data in view of disentangling the links between the impaired RAS functioning and the pathophysiological characteristics of COVID-19. We also review the effects of several RAS-targeting drugs and how they could potentially help restore the normal RAS functionality and minimize the COVID-19 severity. Finally, we discuss the conflicting evidence found in the literature and the open questions on RAS dysregulation in SARS-CoV-2 infection whose resolution would improve our understanding of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Blood Pressure/drug effects , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
5.
Front Neurol ; 12: 664599, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370992

ABSTRACT

Background: There is growing evidence that SARS-Cov-2 infection is associated with severe neurological complications. Understanding the nature and prevalence of these neurologic manifestations is essential for identifying higher-risk patients and projecting demand for ongoing resource utilisation. This review and meta-analysis report the neurologic manifestations identified in hospitalised COVID-19 patients and provide a preliminary estimate of disease prevalence. Methods: MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus were searched for studies reporting the occurrence of neurological complications in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Results: A total of 2,207 unique entries were identified and screened, among which 14 cohort studies and 53 case reports were included, reporting on a total of 8,577 patients. Central nervous system manifestations included ischemic stroke (n = 226), delirium (n = 79), intracranial haemorrhage (ICH, n = 57), meningoencephalitis (n = 13), seizures (n = 3), and acute demyelinating encephalitis (n = 2). Peripheral nervous system manifestations included Guillain-Barrè Syndrome (n = 21) and other peripheral neuropathies (n = 3). The pooled period prevalence of ischemic stroke from identified studies was 1.3% [95%CI: 0.9-1.8%, 102/7,715] in all hospitalised COVID-19 patients, and 2.8% [95%CI: 1.0-4.6%, 9/318] among COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. The pooled prevalence of ICH was estimated at 0.4% [95%CI: 0-0.8%, 6/1,006]. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic exerts a substantial neurologic burden which may have residual effects on patients and healthcare systems for years. Low quality evidence impedes the ability to accurately predict the magnitude of this burden. Robust studies with standardised screening and case definitions are required to improve understanding of this disease and optimise treatment of individuals at higher risk for neurologic sequelae.

6.
ERJ Open Res ; 7(3)2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1339115

ABSTRACT

This letter reports an unexpected increase of the ACE2 product angiotensin-(1-7) and a parallel decrease of its substrate angiotensin II, suggesting a dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin system towards angiotensin-(1-7) formation in #COVID19 patients https://bit.ly/3xFXuTU.

7.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Voriconazole is one of the first-line therapies for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Drug concentrations might be significantly influenced by the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We aimed to assess the effect of ECMO on voriconazole exposure in a large patient population. METHODS: Critically ill patients from eight centers in four countries treated with voriconazole during ECMO support were included in this retrospective study. Voriconazole concentrations were collected in a period on ECMO and before/after ECMO treatment. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of ECMO on voriconazole exposure and to assess the impact of possible saturation of the circuit's binding sites over time. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients and 337 samples (190 during and 147 before/after ECMO) were analyzed. Subtherapeutic concentrations (<2 mg/L) were observed in 56% of the samples during ECMO and 39% without ECMO (p = 0.80). The median trough concentration, for a similar daily dose, was 2.4 (1.2-4.7) mg/L under ECMO and 2.5 (1.4-3.9) mg/L without ECMO (p = 0.58). Extensive inter-and intrasubject variability were observed. Neither ECMO nor squared day of ECMO (saturation) were retained as significant covariates on voriconazole exposure. CONCLUSIONS: No significant ECMO-effect was observed on voriconazole exposure. A large proportion of patients had voriconazole subtherapeutic concentrations.

8.
Crit Care Explor ; 3(7): e0494, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been largely used in patients with refractory acute respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus disease 2019. Few data on long-term pulmonary function among venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation survivors are available. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort. SETTING: Two mixed medical-surgical tertiary (30 beds) and secondary (22 beds) ICUs. PATIENTS: All critically ill adult coronavirus disease 2019 survivors treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation between March 10, and April 30, 2020. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The last available lung function and 6-minute walking tests, performed after a median of 178 days (ranges, 72-232 d) from ICU admission, were analyzed. Among the 32 coronavirus disease 2019 patients treated by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation during the study period, 11 (34%; median age 56 yr; median duration of mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy of 26 and 15 d, respectively) were successfully weaned and discharged home. Spirometry was performed in nine patients; the volumetric lung function was preserved, that is, median forced vital capacity was 83% of predicted value (51-99% of predicted value), and median forced expiratory volume in 1 second was 82% of predicted value (60-99% of predicted value). Also, the median residual volume and the lung capacity were 100% of predicted value (50-140% of predicted value) and 90% of predicted value (50-100% of predicted value); only the diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide and 6-minute walking test were decreased (58% of predicted value [37-95% of predicted value] and 468 meters (365-625 meters), corresponding to [63-90% of predicted value], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Among survivors from severe coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia treated with venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, preserved long-term volumetric lung function with decreased diffusion capacity of lung carbon monoxide was observed.

9.
Brain Sci ; 11(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288804

ABSTRACT

Introduction: One of the possible mechanisms by which the new coronavirus (SARS-Cov2) could induce brain damage is the impairment of cerebrovascular hemodynamics (CVH) and intracranial compliance (ICC) due to the elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). The main objective of this study was to assess the presence of CVH and ICC alterations in patients with COVID-19 and evaluate their association with short-term clinical outcomes. Methods: Fifty consecutive critically ill COVID-19 patients were studied with transcranial Doppler (TCD) and non-invasive monitoring of ICC. Subjects were included upon ICU admission; CVH was evaluated using mean flow velocities in the middle cerebral arteries (mCBFV), pulsatility index (PI), and estimated cerebral perfusion pressure (eCPP), while ICC was assessed by using the P2/P1 ratio of the non-invasive ICP curve. A CVH/ICC score was computed using all these variables. The primary composite outcome was unsuccessful in weaning from respiratory support or death on day 7 (defined as UO). Results: At the first assessment (n = 50), only the P2/P1 ratio (median 1.20 [IQRs 1.00-1.28] vs. 1.00 [0.88-1.16]; p = 0.03) and eICP (14 [11-25] vs. 11 [7-15] mmHg; p = 0.01) were significantly higher among patients with an unfavorable outcome (UO) than others. Patients with UO had a significantly higher CVH/ICC score (9 [8-12] vs. 6 [5-7]; p < 0.001) than those with a favorable outcome; the area under the receiver operating curve (AUROC) for CVH/ICC score to predict UO was 0.86 (95% CIs 0.75-0.97); a score > 8.5 had 63 (46-77)% sensitivity and 87 (62-97)% specificity to predict UO. For those patients undergoing a second assessment (n = 29), after a median of 11 (5-31) days, all measured variables were similar between the two time-points. No differences in the measured variables between ICU non-survivors (n = 30) and survivors were observed. Conclusions: ICC impairment and CVH disturbances are often present in COVID-19 severe illness and could accurately predict an early poor outcome.

10.
Obes Sci Pract ; 2021 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242755

ABSTRACT

Objective: Multiple factors have been identified as causes of intracranial compliance impairment (ICCI) among patients with obesity. On the other hand, obesity has been linked with worst outcomes in COVID-19. Thus, the hypothesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) conducing to cerebral hemodynamic disorders (CHD) able to worsen ICCI and play an additional role on prognosis determination for COVID-19 among obese patients becomes suitable. Methods: 50 cases of SARS by COVID-19 were evaluated, for the presence of ICCI and cerebrovascular circulatory disturbances in correspondence with whether unfavorable outcomes (death or impossibility for mechanical ventilation weaning [MVW]) within 7 days after evaluation. The objective was to observe whether obese patients (BMI ≥ 30) disclosed worse outcomes and tests results compared with lean subjects with same clinical background. Results: 23 (46%) patients among 50 had obesity. ICCI was verified in 18 (78%) obese, whereas in 13 (48%) of 27 non-obese (p = 0,029). CHD were not significantly different between groups, despite being high prevalent in both. 69% unfavorable outcomes were observed among obese and 44% for lean subjects (p = 0,075). Conclusion: In the present study, intracranial compliance impairment was significantly more observed among obese subjects and may have contributed for SARS COVID-19 worsen prognosis.

11.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 155, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199922

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critical illness from SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19) is associated with a high burden of pulmonary embolism (PE) and thromboembolic events despite standard thromboprophylaxis. Available guidance is discordant, ranging from standard care to the use of therapeutic anticoagulation for enhanced thromboprophylaxis (ET). Local ET protocols have been empirically determined and are generally intermediate between standard prophylaxis and full anticoagulation. Concerns have been raised in regard to the potential risk of haemorrhage associated with therapeutic anticoagulation. This report describes the prevalence and safety of ET strategies in European Intensive Care Unit (ICUs) and their association with outcomes during the first wave of the COVID pandemic, with particular focus on haemorrhagic complications and ICU mortality. METHODS: Retrospective, observational, multi-centre study including adult critically ill COVID-19 patients. Anonymised data included demographics, clinical characteristics, thromboprophylaxis and/or anticoagulation treatment. Critical haemorrhage was defined as intracranial haemorrhage or bleeding requiring red blood cells transfusion. Survival was collected at ICU discharge. A multivariable mixed effects generalised linear model analysis matched for the propensity for receiving ET was constructed for both ICU mortality and critical haemorrhage. RESULTS: A total of 852 (79% male, age 66 [37-85] years) patients were included from 28 ICUs. Median body mass index and ICU length of stay were 27.7 (25.1-30.7) Kg/m2 and 13 (7-22) days, respectively. Thromboembolic events were reported in 146 patients (17.1%), of those 78 (9.2%) were PE. ICU mortality occurred in 335/852 (39.3%) patients. ET was used in 274 (32.1%) patients, and it was independently associated with significant reduction in ICU mortality (log odds = 0.64 [95% CIs 0.18-1.1; p = 0.0069]) but not an increased risk of critical haemorrhage (log odds = 0.187 [95%CI - 0.591 to - 0.964; p = 0.64]). CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of critically ill patients with a high prevalence of thromboembolic events, ET was associated with reduced ICU mortality without an increased burden of haemorrhagic complications. This study suggests ET strategies are safe and associated with favourable outcomes. Whilst full anticoagulation has been questioned for prophylaxis in these patients, our results suggest that there may nevertheless be a role for enhanced / intermediate levels of prophylaxis. Clinical trials investigating causal relationship between intermediate thromboprophylaxis and clinical outcomes are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Critical Care/methods , Pandemics , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
13.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121711

ABSTRACT

The role of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (V-V ECMO) in severe COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still under debate and conclusive data from large cohorts are scarce. Furthermore, criteria for the selection of patients that benefit most from this highly invasive and resource-demanding therapy are yet to be defined. In this study, we assess survival in an international multicenter cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V-V ECMO and evaluate the performance of several clinical scores to predict 30-day survival. METHODS: This is an investigator-initiated retrospective non-interventional international multicenter registry study (NCT04405973, first registered 28 May 2020). In 127 patients treated with V-V ECMO at 15 centers in Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Belgium, and the United States, we calculated the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II), Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) Score, Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) Score, Predicting Death for Severe ARDS on V­V ECMO (PRESERVE) Score, and 30-day survival. RESULTS: In our study cohort which enrolled 127 patients, overall 30-day survival was 54%. Median SOFA, SAPS II, APACHE II, RESP, and PRESERVE were 9, 36, 17, 1, and 4, respectively. The prognostic accuracy for all these scores (area under the receiver operating characteristic-AUROC) ranged between 0.548 and 0.605. CONCLUSIONS: The use of scores for the prediction of mortality cannot be recommended for treatment decisions in severe COVID-19 ARDS undergoing V-V ECMO; nevertheless, scoring results below or above a specific cut-off value may be considered as an additional tool in the evaluation of prognosis. Survival rates in this cohort of COVID-19 patients treated with V­V ECMO were slightly lower than those reported in non-COVID-19 ARDS patients treated with V-V ECMO.

14.
J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures) ; 7(1): 21-27, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115378

ABSTRACT

Aim: The objective of the study was to assess mortality rates in COVID-19 patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who also requiring mechanical ventilation. The predictors of mortality in this cohort were analysed, and the clinical characteristics recorded. Material and method: A single centre retrospective study was conducted on all COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the Epicura Hospital Center, Province of Hainaut, Belgium, between March 1st and April 30th 2020. Results: Forty-nine patients were included in the study of which thirty-four were male, and fifteen were female. The mean (SD) age was 68.8 (10.6) and 69.5 (12.6) for males and females, respectively. The median time to death after the onset of symptoms was eighteen days. The median time to death, after hospital admission was nine days. By the end of the thirty days follow-up, twenty-seven patients (55%) had died, and twenty-two (45%) had survived. Non-survivors, as compared to those who survived, were similar in gender, prescribed medications, COVID-19 symptoms, with similar laboratory test results. They were significantly older (p = 0.007), with a higher co-morbidity burden (p = 0.026) and underwent significantly less tra-cheostomy (p < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, no parameter significantly predicted mortality. Conclusions: This study reported a mortality rate of 55% in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ARDS who also required mechanical ventilation. The results corroborate previous findings that older and more comorbid patients represent the population at most risk of a poor outcome in this setting.

16.
Neurology ; 95(14): e2016-e2027, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105774

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is considered to have potential neuroinvasiveness that might lead to acute brain disorders or contribute to respiratory distress in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study investigates the occurrence of structural brain abnormalities in non-survivors of COVID-19 in a virtopsy framework. METHODS: In this prospective, monocentric, case series study, consecutive patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria benefited from an early postmortem structural brain MRI: death <24 hours, SARS-CoV-2 detection on nasopharyngeal swab specimen, chest CT scan suggestive of COVID-19, absence of known focal brain lesion, and MRI compatibility. RESULTS: Among the 62 patients who died of COVID-19 from March 31, 2020, to April 24, 2020, at our institution, 19 decedents fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Parenchymal brain abnormalities were observed in 4 decedents: subcortical microbleeds and macrobleeds (2 decedents), cortico-subcortical edematous changes evocative of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES; 1 decedent), and nonspecific deep white matter changes (1 decedent). Asymmetric olfactory bulbs were found in 4 other decedents without downstream olfactory tract abnormalities. No brainstem MRI signal abnormality was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Postmortem brain MRI demonstrates hemorrhagic and PRES-related brain lesions in non-survivors of COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2-related olfactory impairment seems to be limited to olfactory bulbs. Brainstem MRI findings do not support a brain-related contribution to respiratory distress in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema/diagnostic imaging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Olfactory Bulb/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Postmortem Changes , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
17.
Artif Organs ; 45(5): 495-505, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085292

ABSTRACT

Extracorporeal life support (ECLS) is a means to support patients with acute respiratory failure. Initially, recommendations to treat severe cases of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with ECLS have been restrained. In the meantime, ECLS has been shown to produce similar outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 compared to existing data on ARDS mortality. We performed an international email survey to assess how ECLS providers worldwide have previously used ECLS during the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. A questionnaire with 45 questions (covering, e.g., indication, technical aspects, benefit, and reasons for treatment discontinuation), mostly multiple choice, was distributed by email to ECLS centers. The survey was approved by the European branch of the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (ELSO); 276 ECMO professionals from 98 centers in 30 different countries on four continents reported that they employed ECMO for very severe COVID-19 cases, mostly in veno-venous configuration (87%). The most common reason to establish ECLS was isolated hypoxemic respiratory failure (50%), followed by a combination of hypoxemia and hypercapnia (39%). Only a small fraction of patients required veno-arterial cannulation due to heart failure (3%). Time on ECLS varied between less than 2 and more than 4 weeks. The main reason to discontinue ECLS treatment prior to patient's recovery was lack of clinical improvement (53%), followed by major bleeding, mostly intracranially (13%). Only 4% of respondents reported that triage situations, lack of staff or lack of oxygenators, were responsible for discontinuation of ECLS support. Most ECLS physicians (51%, IQR 30%) agreed that patients with COVID-19-induced ARDS (CARDS) benefitted from ECLS. Overall mortality of COVID-19 patients on ECLS was estimated to be about 55%. ECLS has been utilized successfully during the COVID-19 pandemic to stabilize CARDS patients in hypoxemic or hypercapnic lung failure. Age and multimorbidity limited the use of ECLS. Triage situations were rarely a concern. ECLS providers stated that patients with severe COVID-19 benefitted from ECLS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Critical Illness , Humans , Internationality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244628, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059971

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) appeared in China in December 2019 and has spread around the world. High Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in COVID-19 patients suggest that a cytokine storm may play a major role in the pathophysiology and are considered as a relevant parameter in predicting most severe course of disease. The aim of this study was to assess repeated IL-6 levels in critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to our Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and to evaluate their relationship with patient's severity and outcome. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on patients admitted to the ICU with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 10 (i.e. the date of the first admitted patients) and April 30, 2020. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected at admission. On the day of IL-6 blood concentration measurement, we also collected results of D-Dimers, C-Reactive Protein, white blood cells and lymphocytes count, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ferritin as well as microbiological samples, whenever present. RESULTS: Of a total of 65 patients with COVID-19 admitted to our ICU we included 41 patients with repeated measure of IL-6. There was a significant difference in IL-6 levels between survivors and non-survivors over time (p = 0.001); moreover, non survivors had a significantly higher IL-6 maximal value when compared to survivors (720 [349-2116] vs. 336 [195-646] pg/mL, p = 0.01). The IL-6 maximal value had a significant predictive value of ICU mortality (AUROC 0.73 [95% CI 0.57-0.89]; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated measurements of IL-6 can help clinicians in identifying critically ill COVID-19 patients with the highest risk of poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate
19.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(3): 239-250, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, 750 000 patients with COVID-19 worldwide have required mechanical ventilation and thus are at high risk of acute brain dysfunction (coma and delirium). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of delirium and coma, and risk factors for delirium in critically ill patients with COVID-19, to aid the development of strategies to mitigate delirium and associated sequelae. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study included 69 adult intensive care units (ICUs), across 14 countries. We included all patients (aged ≥18 years) admitted to participating ICUs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection before April 28, 2020. Patients who were moribund or had life-support measures withdrawn within 24 h of ICU admission, prisoners, patients with pre-existing mental illness, neurodegenerative disorders, congenital or acquired brain damage, hepatic coma, drug overdose, suicide attempt, or those who were blind or deaf were excluded. We collected de-identified data from electronic health records on patient demographics, delirium and coma assessments, and management strategies for a 21-day period. Additional data on ventilator support, ICU length of stay, and vital status was collected for a 28-day period. The primary outcome was to determine the prevalence of delirium and coma and to investigate any associated risk factors associated with development of delirium the next day. We also investigated predictors of number of days alive without delirium or coma. These outcomes were investigated using multivariable regression. FINDINGS: Between Jan 20 and April 28, 2020, 4530 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to 69 ICUs, of whom 2088 patients were included in the study cohort. The median age of patients was 64 years (IQR 54 to 71) with a median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II of 40·0 (30·0 to 53·0). 1397 (66·9%) of 2088 patients were invasively mechanically ventilated on the day of ICU admission and 1827 (87·5%) were invasively mechanical ventilated at some point during hospitalisation. Infusion with sedatives while on mechanical ventilation was common: 1337 (64·0%) of 2088 patients were given benzodiazepines for a median of 7·0 days (4·0 to 12·0) and 1481 (70·9%) were given propofol for a median of 7·0 days (4·0 to 11·0). Median Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale score while on invasive mechanical ventilation was -4 (-5 to -3). 1704 (81·6%) of 2088 patients were comatose for a median of 10·0 days (6·0 to 15·0) and 1147 (54·9%) were delirious for a median of 3·0 days (2·0 to 6·0). Mechanical ventilation, use of restraints, and benzodiazepine, opioid, and vasopressor infusions, and antipsychotics were each associated with a higher risk of delirium the next day (all p≤0·04), whereas family visitation (in person or virtual) was associated with a lower risk of delirium (p<0·0001). During the 21-day study period, patients were alive without delirium or coma for a median of 5·0 days (0·0 to 14·0). At baseline, older age, higher SAPS II scores, male sex, smoking or alcohol abuse, use of vasopressors on day 1, and invasive mechanical ventilation on day 1 were independently associated with fewer days alive and free of delirium and coma (all p<0·01). 601 (28·8%) of 2088 patients died within 28 days of admission, with most of those deaths occurring in the ICU. INTERPRETATION: Acute brain dysfunction was highly prevalent and prolonged in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Benzodiazepine use and lack of family visitation were identified as modifiable risk factors for delirium, and thus these data present an opportunity to reduce acute brain dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. FUNDING: None. TRANSLATIONS: For the French and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Coma/epidemiology , Delirium/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Coma/virology , Critical Illness/psychology , Delirium/virology , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Respiration, Artificial/psychology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
20.
Microorganisms ; 8(12)2020 Dec 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024609

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic role of eosinophils count in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients admitted to our hospital with suspicion of COVID-19. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected on admission. Eosinopenia was defined as eosinophils < 100 cells/mm3. The outcomes of this study were the association between eosinophils count on admission and positive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) test and with suggestive chest computerized tomography (CT) of COVID-19 pneumonia. Results: A total of 174 patients was studied. Of those, 54% had positive rRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. A chest CT-scan was performed in 145 patients; 71% showed suggestive findings of COVID-19. Eosinophils on admission had a high predictive accuracy for positive rRT-PCR and suggestive chest CT-scan (area under the receiver operating characteristic-ROC curve, 0.84 (95% CIs 0.78-0.90) and 0.84 (95% CIs 0.77-0.91), respectively). Eosinopenia and high LDH were independent predictors of positive rRT-PCR, whereas eosinopenia, high body mass index and hypertension were predictors for suggestive CT-scan findings. Conclusions: Eosinopenia on admission could predict positive rRT-PCR test or suggestive chest CT-scan for COVID-19. This laboratory finding could help to identify patients at high-risk of COVID-19 in the setting where gold standard diagnostic methods are not available.

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