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1.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2225690

ABSTRACT

Early COVID-19 treatments can prevent progression to severe disease. However, real-life data are still limited, and studies are warranted to monitor the efficacy and tolerability of these drugs. We retrospectively enrolled outpatients receiving early treatment for COVID-19 in 11 infectious diseases units in the Tuscany region of Italy between 1 January and 31 March 2022, when Omicron sublineages BA.1 and BA.2 were circulating. Eligible COVID-19 patients were treated with sotrovimab (SOT), remdesivir (RMD), nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NRM/r), or molnupiravir (MOL). We gathered demographic and clinical features, 28-day outcomes (hospitalization or death), and drugs tolerability. A total of 781 patients (median age 69.9, 66% boosted for SARS-CoV-2) met the inclusion criteria, of whom 314 were treated with SOT (40.2%), 205 with MOL (26.3%), 142 with RMD (18.2%), and 120 with NRM/r (15.4%). Overall, 28-day hospitalization and death occurred in 18/781 (2.3%) and 3/781 (0.3%), respectively. Multivariable Cox regression showed that patients receiving SOT had a reduced risk of meeting the composite outcome (28-day hospitalization and/or death) in comparison to the RMD cohort, while no significant differences were evidenced for the MOL and NRM/r groups in comparison to the RMD group. Other predictors of negative outcomes included cancer, chronic kidney disease, and a time between symptoms onset and treatment administration > 3 days. All treatments showed good safety and tolerability, with only eight patients (1%) whose treatment was interrupted due to intolerance. In the first Italian multicenter study presenting real-life data on COVID-19 early treatments, all regimens demonstrated good safety and efficacy. SOT showed a reduced risk of progression versus RMD. No significant differences of outcome were observed in preventing 28-day hospitalization and death among patients treated with RMD, MOL, and NRM/r.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Outpatients , Humans , Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Italy/epidemiology
2.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869825

ABSTRACT

Thrombosis of small and large vessels is reported as a key player in COVID-19 severity. However, host genetic determinants of this susceptibility are still unclear. Congenital Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by uncleaved ultra-large vWF and thrombotic microangiopathy, frequently triggered by infections. Carriers are reported to be asymptomatic. Exome analysis of about 3000 SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects of different severities, belonging to the GEN-COVID cohort, revealed the specific role of vWF cleaving enzyme ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We report here that ultra-rare variants in a heterozygous state lead to a rare form of COVID-19 characterized by hyper-inflammation signs, which segregates in families as an autosomal dominant disorder conditioned by SARS-CoV-2 infection, sex, and age. This has clinical relevance due to the availability of drugs such as Caplacizumab, which inhibits vWF-platelet interaction, and Crizanlizumab, which, by inhibiting P-selectin binding to its ligands, prevents leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation at the site of vascular damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAM Proteins/genetics , ADAM Proteins/metabolism , ADAMTS13 Protein/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/diagnosis , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , von Willebrand Factor/chemistry , von Willebrand Factor/genetics , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
3.
Clin Biochem ; 103: 29-31, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693791

ABSTRACT

The new parameter derived from the standard deviation of the monocyte distribution width (MDW) has shown a good diagnostic efficacy in COVID-19 patients. In this study, we propose MDW as a prognostic and monitoring parameter in patients with severe forms of COVID-19. Sixty SARS-CoV-2-positive patients admitted to the San Donato Hospital in Arezzo were enrolled. A blood sample taken to measure the complete blood count was used for the determination of MDW using a UniCel DxH 900 instrument (Beckman Coulter). For each patient, a mean of 6 ± 2 measurements of MDW were taken. The difference between the last and first MDW results was reported as the ΔMDW variable. The ΔMDW and age were significantly correlated to the outcome. In non-survivors patients, the difference in the mean of the MDW between the first and other points was not significant, while in survivors, the first point was higher than the other points (p < 0.005), with the exception of the mean of the second point (p-value = NS). The ΔMDW area under the curve (AUC) was 0.84, and with a cut-off lower than 0.00 the sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 81%, respectively. The most important result of this study is the ΔMDW calculated on the basis of the difference between the first and third measurement, after approximately the 5-7th day of hospitalisation. A ΔMDW less than one was indicative of an unfavourable prognosis. The data reported suggest that MDW could be used to support monitoring and surveillance, alongside other tests such as procalcitonin, in critically ill patients in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Biomarkers , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Monocytes , Prognosis , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(4): 2479-2488, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505925

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of hospitalization or death in patients infected by SARS-CoV2 variants of concern (VOCs) receiving combinations of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), bamlanivimab/etesevimab or casirivimab/imdevimab. METHODS: Observational prospective study conducted in two Italian hospitals (University Hospital of Pisa and San Donato Hospital, Arezzo) including consecutive outpatients with COVID-19 who received bamlanivimab/etesevimab or casirivimab/imdevimab from March 20th to May 10th 2021. All patients were at high risk of COVID-19 progression according to FDA/AIFA recommendations. Patients were divided into two study groups according to the infecting viral strain (VOCs): Alpha and Gamma group. The primary endpoint was a composite of hospitalization or death within 30 days from mAbs infusion. A Cox regression multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the primary outcome in the overall population. RESULTS: The study included 165 patients: 105 were infected by the VOC Alpha and 43 by the VOC Gamma. In the Alpha group, no differences in the primary endpoint were observed between patients treated with bamlanivimab/etesevimab or casirivimab/imdevimab. Conversely, in the Gamma group, a higher proportion of patients treated with bamlanivimab/etesevimab met the primary endpoint compared to those receiving casirivimab/imdevimab (55% vs. 17.4%, p = 0.013). On multivariate Cox-regression analysis, the Gamma variant and days from symptoms onset to mAbs infusion were factors independently associated with higher risk of hospitalization or death, while casirivimab/imdevimab was protective (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.83, p = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: In patients infected by the SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant, bamlanivimab/etesevimab should be used with caution because of the high risk of disease progression.

5.
Clin Biochem ; 84: 87-92, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since February 2020, Italian hospitals registered COVID-19 (COronaVIrus Disease 19) cases more often than the rest of the Europe. During this epidemic, health authorities requested swab tests, while seeking new patient paths. METHODS: A dual laboratory approach was evaluated, consisting of patient care reports for viral RNA detection on swabs and rapid serological tests in 516 patients (192 symptomatic or paucisymptomatic and 324 asymptomatic). RESULTS: We found the molecular positive fraction equal to 12% (23/192) among symptomatic/paucisymptomatic (S/P) and 15.4% (50/324) in asymptomatic (As) sets. Among subsets, we observed serologically positive results, corresponding to 35% (8/23) for S/P and 38% (19/50) for As. Among molecular negative cases, we detected specific Immunoglobulin G or M (Ig G or Ig M) positivity in the S/P cohort equal to 6.6% (11/167) and 6% (15/246) in As cases. For indeterminate molecular results, we found S/P serological positivity equal to 100% (1/1) and 54% (13/24) in As patients. We found higher (p < 0.05) seropositivity in older patients (n = 8) among symptomatic and positives for viral RNA (n.23). CONCLUSIONS: It has been observed that a dual approach of serological and molecular tests detects a higher absolute number of disease cases in a pandemic context,which could improve monitoring and health surveillance efficacy. The age-related seropositivity frequency in this study, if confirmed, could enhance the validity of serological tests, especially in older patients.In these subjects, molecular positivity accompanied by serological positivity (distinct for M and G immunoglobulins) should help determine disease status and support decisions related to patient management.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Serologic Tests/methods , Serologic Tests/standards , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Clin Chim Acta ; 509: 22-24, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505967

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Interesting results regarding the contribution of MDW (Monocyte Distribution Width) in the Infectious Disease Unit have been reported. An observational study is ongoing at San Donato Hospital with the aim to evaluate the contribution of MDW in the diagnostic pathway in adult patients entering in the ED setting and tested for SARS-CoV-2. MATERIAL AND METHOD: COVID-19 symptomatic and paucisymptomatic patients presenting to ED (Emergency Department), have been enrolled consecutively. Whole blood venous samples have been collected on K2 EDTA for MDW determination, at the same time a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection have been collected. RESULTS: One hundred six patients were negative for SARS-CoV-2 with MDW mean value of 20.3 ± 3.3, while forty-one were positive for SARS-CoV-2 with higher MDW mean value of 27.3 ± 4.9 (P < 0.005). The ROC curve analysis has been evaluated showing MDW AUC of 0.91. Finally twenty-three patients hospitalized in high-intensity care unit showed an MDW value higher than the eighteen patients presenting few symptoms [28.8 ± 5.3 vs 25.4 ± 3.6 respectively, P < 0.05]. DISCUSSION: Monocytic population, in Covid19 disease, are the first elements of innate immunity to be involved, these changes are the basis of the modification of the MDW, with evident efficacy in term of sensitivity, particularly in the studied Covid19 patients. Moreover the patients hospitalized in high-intensity care unit showed significantly elevated MDW respects to middle or low symptomatic one, suggest including this parameter as prognostic marker or of therapy efficacy, integrated with other laboratory findings.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Cell Size , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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