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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317743

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) represents a major threat to human health, which impairs the functionality of several organs. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is indeed highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients’access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for a fast and non-invasive specimens’collection, which can be repeated multiple times. Methods: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free-light chains (FLC k and λ) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. Results: We found that each biomarkers differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. The performance ranking of these markers, shows that λFLC level (p=1.4e-8) is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups, with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI) and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). Conclusion: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This is more strengthened in consideration that λFLC half-life (approximately 6 hours) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days): thus λFLC appears displaying the potential to effectively monitor patients fluctuation in real-time.

2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 27: 100553, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interleukin-6 signal blockade showed preliminary beneficial effects in treating inflammatory response against SARS-CoV-2 leading to severe respiratory distress. Herein we describe the outcomes of off-label intravenous use of Sarilumab in severe SARS-CoV-2-related pneumonia. METHODS: 53 patients with SARS-CoV-2 severe pneumonia received intravenous Sarilumab; pulmonary function improvement or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate in medical wards, live discharge rate in ICU treated patients and safety profile were recorded. Sarilumab 400 mg was administered intravenously on day 1, with eventual additional infusion based on clinical judgement, and patients were followed for at least 14 days, unless previously discharged or dead. FINDINGS: Of the 53 SARS-CoV-2pos patients receiving Sarilumab, 39(73·6%) were treated in medical wards [66·7% with a single infusion; median PaO2/FiO2:146(IQR:120-212)] while 14(26·4%) in ICU [92·6% with a second infusion; median PaO2/FiO2: 112(IQR:100-141.5)].Within the medical wards, 7(17·9%) required ICU admission, 4 of whom were re-admitted to the ward within 5-8 days. At 19 days median follow-up, 89·7% of medical inpatients significantly improved (46·1% after 24 h, 61·5% after 3 days), 70·6% were discharged from the hospital and 85·7% no longer needed oxygen therapy. Within patients receiving Sarilumab in ICU, 64·2% were discharged from ICU to the ward and 35·8% were still alive at the last follow-up. Overall mortality rate was 5·7%. INTERPRETATION: IL-6R inhibition appears to be a potential treatment strategy for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and intravenous Sarilumab seems a promising treatment approach showing, in the short term, an important clinical outcome and good safety.

3.
J Pers Med ; 11(5)2021 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1224056

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which impairs the functionality of several organs, represents a major threat to human health. One of the hardest challenges in the fight against COVID-19 is the development of wide-scale, effective, and rapid laboratory tests to control disease severity, progression, and possible sudden worsening. Monitoring patients in real-time is highly demanded in this pandemic era when physicians need reliable and quantitative tools to prioritize patients' access to intensive care departments. In this regard, salivary biomarkers are extremely promising, as they allow for the fast and non-invasive collection of specimens and can be repeated multiple times. METHODS: We compare salivary levels of immunoglobulin A subclasses (IgA1 and IgA2) and free light chains (kFLC and λFLC) in a cohort of 29 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 21 healthy subjects. RESULTS: We found that each biomarker differs significantly between the two groups, with p-values ranging from 10-8 to 10-4. A Receiving Operator Curve analysis shows that λFLC level is the best-suited candidate to discriminate the two groups (AUC = 0.96), with an accuracy of 0.94 (0.87-1.00 95% CI), a precision of 0.91 (0.81-1.00 95% CI), a sensitivity of 1.00 (0.96-1.00 95% CI), and a specificity of 0.86 (0.70-1.00 95% CI). CONCLUSION: These results suggest λFLC as an ideal indicator of patient conditions. This hypothesis is strengthened by the consideration that the λFLC half-life (approximately 6 h) is significantly shorter than the IgA one (21 days), thus confirming the potential of λFLC for effectively monitoring patients' fluctuation in real-time.

4.
Intern Emerg Med ; 17(1): 53-64, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220529

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antibody response plays a fundamental role in the natural history of infectious disease. A better understanding of the immune response in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection could be important for identifying patients at greater risk of developing a more severe form of disease and with a worse prognosis. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis to determine the presence and the levels of both anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA in a cohort of hospitalized patients with confirmed infection at different times in the natural history of the disease. Patients enrolled when admitted at the emergency department were prospectively followed up during hospital stay. RESULTS: Overall, 131 patients were considered with a total of 237 samples processed. Cross-sectional analysis showed that seroconversion for IgA seems to occur between days 6 and 15, while IgG response seems to occur slightly later, peaking at day 20 after symptoms onset. Both IgA and IgG were maintained beyond 2 months. Severe patients showed a higher IgA response compared with mild patients when analyzing optical density (8.3 versus 5.6, p < 0.001). Prospective analysis conducted on 55 patients confirmed that IgA appear slightly earlier than IgG. After stratifying for the severity of disease, both the IgA and IgG responses were more vigorous in severe cases. Moreover, while IgG tended to stabilize, there was a relevant decline after the first month of IgA levels in mild cases. CONCLUSION: IgA and IgG antibody response is closely related, although seroconversion for IgA occurs earlier. Both IgA and IgG are maintained beyond 2 months. Severe patients showed a more vigorous IgA and IgG response. IgA levels seem to decline after 1 month since the onset of symptoms in mild cases. Our results should be interpreted with cautions due to several limitations in our study, mainly the small number of cases, lack of data on viral load and clinical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Clin Med ; 9(12)2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948922

ABSTRACT

Data on the burden of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are scant. We conducted an observational, retrospective, multicenter, 1:3 case (COVID-19 patients with CDI)-control (COVID-19 patients without CDI) study in Italy to assess incidence and outcomes, and to identify risk factors for CDI in COVID-19 patients. From February through July 2020, 8402 COVID-19 patients were admitted to eight Italian hospitals; 38 CDI cases were identified, including 32 hospital-onset-CDI (HO-CDI) and 6 community-onset, healthcare-associated-CDI (CO-HCA-CDI). HO-CDI incidence was 4.4 × 10,000 patient-days. The percentage of cases recovering without complications at discharge (i.e., pressure ulcers, chronic heart decompensation) was lower than among controls (p = 0.01); in-hospital stays was longer among cases, 35.0 versus 19.4 days (p = 0.0007). The presence of a previous hospitalisation (p = 0.001), previous steroid administration (p = 0.008) and the administration of antibiotics during the stay (p = 0.004) were risk factors associated with CDI. In conclusions, CDI complicates COVID-19, mainly in patients with co-morbidities and previous healthcare exposures. Its association with antibiotic usage and hospital acquired bacterial infections should lead to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship programmes and infection prevention and control activities.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238414, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742541

ABSTRACT

In the face of the rapid evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare professionals on the frontline are in urgent need of frequent updates in the accomplishment of their practice. Hence, clinicians started to search for prompt, valid information on sources that are parallel to academic journals. Aim of this work is to investigate the extent of this phenomenon. We administered an anonymous online cross-sectional survey to 645 Italian clinicians. Target of the survey were all medical figures potentially involved in the management of COVID-19 cases. 369 questionnaires were returned. 19.5% (n = 72) of respondents were younger than 30 years-old; 49,3% (n = 182) worked in Infectious Diseases, Internal Medicine or Respiratory Medicine departments, 11.5% (n = 42) in Intensive Care Unit and 7.4% (n = 27) were general practitioner. 70% (n = 261) of respondents reported that their use of social media to seek medical information increased during the pandemic. 39.3% (n = 145) consistently consulted Facebook groups and 53.1% (n = 196) Whatsapp chats. 47% (n = 174) of respondents reported that information shared on social media had a consistent impact on their daily practice. In the present study, we found no difference in social media usage between age groups or medical specialties. Given the urgent need for scientific update during the present pandemic, these findings may help understanding how clinicians access new evidences and implement them in their daily practice.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Information Exchange/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Information Dissemination , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Diffusion of Innovation , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology
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