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Molecules ; 27(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071652


The Omicron variant (B.529) of COVID-19 caused disease outbreaks worldwide because of its contagious and diverse mutations. To reduce these outbreaks, therapeutic drugs and adjuvant vaccines have been applied for the treatment of the disease. However, these drugs have not shown high efficacy in reducing COVID-19 severity, and even antiviral drugs have not shown to be effective. Researchers thus continue to search for an effective adjuvant therapy with a combination of drugs or vaccines to treat COVID-19 disease. We were motivated to consider melatonin as a defensive agent against SARS-CoV-2 because of its various unique properties. Over 200 scientific publications have shown the significant effects of melatonin in treating diseases, with strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects. Melatonin has a high safety profile, but it needs further clinical trials and experiments for use as a therapeutic agent against the Omicron variant of COVID-19. It might immediately be able to prevent the development of severe symptoms caused by the coronavirus and can reduce the severity of the infection by improving immunity.

COVID-19 , Melatonin , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antioxidants , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(34): 51384-51397, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864443


COVID-19 has become one of the few leading causes of death and has evolved into a pandemic that disrupts everyone's routine, and balanced way of life worldwide, and will continue to do so. To bring an end to this pandemic, scientists had put their all effort into discovering the vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection. For their dedication, now, we have a handful of COVID-19 vaccines. Worldwide, millions of people are at risk due to the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Despite the lack of clinically authorized antiviral medications and vaccines for COVID-19, clinical trials of many recognized antiviral agents, their combination, and vaccine development in patients with confirmed COVID-19 are still ongoing. This discovery gave us a chance to get immune to this disease worldwide and end the pandemic. However, the unexpected capacity of mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus makes it difficult, like the recent SAS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Therefore, there is a great necessity to spread the vaccination programs and prevent the spread of this dreadful epidemic by identifying and isolating afflicted patients. Furthermore, several COVID-19 tests are thought to be expensive, time-consuming, and require the use of adequately qualified persons to be carried out efficiently. In addition, we also conversed about how the various COVID-19 testing methods can be implemented for the first time in a developing country and their cost-effectiveness, accuracy, human resources requirements, and laboratory facilities.

COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Developing Countries , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(48): 68071-68089, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474079


In the light of thousands of infections and deaths, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a worldwide pandemic. It has spread to about 22 million people worldwide, with a total of 0.45 million expiries, limiting the movement of most people worldwide in the last 6 months. However, COVID-19 became the foremost health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. Measures intended to curb the pandemic of COVID-19 included travel bans, lockdowns, and social distances through shelter orders, which will further stop human activities suddenly and eventually impact the world and the national economy. The viral disease is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After SARS-CoV-2 virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-related CoV, COVID-19 is the third most significant lethal disease to humans. According to WHO, COVID-19 mortality exceeded that of SARS and MERS since COVID-19 was declared an international public health emergency. Genetic sequencing has recently established that COVID-19 is close to SARS-CoV and bat coronavirus which has not yet been recognized as the key cause of this pandemic outbreak, its transmission, and human pathogen mechanism. This review focuses on a brief introduction of novel coronavirus pathogens, including coronavirus in humans and animals, its taxonomic classification, symptoms, pathogenicity, social impact, economic impact, and potential treatment therapy for COVID-19.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Social Change
Biomedicines ; 9(9)2021 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430776


The worldwide transmission of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a deadly or devastating disease is known to affect thousands of people every day, many of them dying all over the planet. The main reason for the massive effect of COVID-19 on society is its unpredictable spread, which does not allow for proper planning or management of this disease. Antibiotics, antivirals, and other prescription drugs, necessary and used in therapy, obviously have side effects (minor or significant) on the affected person, there are still not clear enough studies to elucidate their combined effect in this specific treatment, and existing protocols are sometimes unclear and uncertain. In contrast, it has been found that nutraceuticals, supplements, and various herbs can be effective in reducing the chances of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but also in alleviating COVID-19 symptoms. However, not enough specific details are yet available, and precise scientific studies to validate the approved benefits of natural food additives, probiotics, herbs, and nutraceuticals will need to be standardized according to current regulations. These alternative treatments may not have a direct effect on the virus or reduce the risk of infection with it, but these products certainly stimulate the human immune system so that the body is better prepared to fight the disease. This paper aims at a specialized literary foray precisely in the field of these "cures" that can provide real revelations in the therapy of coronavirus infection.