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1.
China Finance Review International ; 12(2):201-202, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1779025

ABSTRACT

Improving energy efficiency through new investments requires focused and aggressive policies that support green innovation through more stringent energy efficiency regulations, fiscal incentives for new technologies, investment incentives for the private sector and pricing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Since 2015, global improvements in energy intensity, a key measure of the economy’s energy efficiency, have been declining. In the fourth paper, Ngo et al. analyze the impact of green finance (i.e. green investment, green security and green credit) along with capital formation and government educational expenditures on the economic development of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member countries. In the fifth paper, Tran examines the relationship between green finance, economic growth, renewable energy consumption and CO2 emission in Vietnam using multivariate time series analysis.

2.
Global Finance Journal ; : 100717, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1734406
3.
Economic Analysis and Policy ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1734339

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this paper is to identify the determining factors of the optimal credit guarantee ratio in four members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), namely Indonesia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Malaysia, by employing statistical techniques and the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) approach. The empirical findings prove that the loan default ratio is the optimal credit guarantee ratio’s main determining factor. The empirical findings confirm that the credit guarantee ratio needs to be increased in the ASEAN region to help SMEs survive in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic and for the post-COVID-19 economic recovery. The results show that the credit guarantee ratio should vary for different countries based on the macroeconomic climate and for each bank or, in other words, for groups of banks with similar financial soundness. The practical policy recommendations are establishing a regional credit guarantee scheme (RCGS) and evaluating banks’ soundness for setting the optimal credit guarantee ratio.

4.
Economic Change and Restructuring ; : 1-20, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1711016

ABSTRACT

This paper proposes a multidimensional dependent variable, namely the Green Power Index, as an appropriate proxy for a sustainable power market and assesses its determinants. For this purpose, we apply the product lifecycle management estimator with the panel Autoregressive Distributive Lag framework for the annual data of 2000–2019 of nine Southeast Asian countries. The findings revealed that Southeast Asian nations consider the following as appropriate accelerators to a sustainable power market in the short and long run: economic growth, improved foreign direct investment inflow, increased share of research and development, governance, and privatisation. Conversely, an increase in the price of electricity may slow it down. Empirical findings show that major policy implications include implementing electricity tariff classifications, accelerating economic recovery in the post-COVID-19, boosting bilateral trade and investments and partnerships among Southeast Asian countries and other economic powers in Asia and others.

5.
Eur J Dev Res ; : 1-29, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692464

ABSTRACT

Focusing on the financing barriers to firm productivity improvement under the influence of external shocks, we empirically analyze the data of A-share listed companies from 2007-2018 to determine the impact of financing constraints on total factor productivity (TFP) in the context of COVID-19 pandemic and the paths of factor use efficiency and R&D innovation efficiency on this impact using ordinary least-squares (OLS) method. We find that financing constraints are an important factor inhibiting the TFP of firms. This inhibitory effect is more serious in small-scale firms, non-state firms, and non-energy firms. Further investigation shows that the inhibitory effect of financing constraints on firms' TFP is more pronounced when firms are located in the Yangtze River Delta city cluster, the Pearl River Delta city cluster, non-port cities, and provincial capitals. The mechanism test finds that improving the efficiency of capital use and labor use can alleviate the suppressive effect of financing constraints on TFP. The alleviating impact is more significant when capital use efficiency is improved. However, increasing the efficiency of R&D innovation further strengthens the inhibitory effect of financing constraints, and this effect is more pronounced under positive external shocks.


Nous nous concentrons sur les obstacles liés au financement qui entravent l'amélioration de la productivité des entreprises lorsqu'il y a des chocs externes, et nous analysons de façon empirique l'impact des contraintes de financement sur la productivité globale des facteurs des entreprises dans le contexte de la COVID-19, ainsi que les voies permettant l'efficacité d'utilisation des facteurs et l'efficacité de l'innovation en R&D sur cet impact. Pour ce faire, nous utilisons la méthode des moindres carrés ordinaires en nous basant sur les données de sociétés cotées en bourse de 2007 à 2018. Nous constatons que les contraintes de financement représentent un facteur important qui inhibe la productivité globale des facteurs des entreprises. Cet effet inhibiteur est plus prononcé au sein des petites entreprises, des entreprises non gouvernementales et des entreprises non énergétiques. Une autre étude révèle que l'effet inhibiteur des contraintes de financement sur la productivité globale des facteurs des entreprises est plus prononcé lorsque les entreprises sont situées dans le groupe de villes du delta du fleuve Yangtze, dans le groupe de villes du delta de la rivière des Perles, dans les villes non portuaires et dans les capitales provinciales. Le test du mécanisme révèle que l'amélioration de l'efficacité de l'utilisation du capital et de la main-d'œuvre des entreprises peut atténuer l'effet suppressif des contraintes de financement sur la productivité globale des facteurs. L'impact d'atténuation est plus important lorsque l'efficacité d'utilisation du capital est améliorée. Cependant, l'augmentation de l'efficacité de l'innovation en R&D renforce encore l'effet inhibiteur des contraintes de financement, et il est plus prononcé en cas de chocs externes positifs.

6.
Eur J Dev Res ; : 1-19, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642077

ABSTRACT

The research aims to prioritize the pandemic's impact on the financial markets of developed and developing economies using a multi-criteria decision-making approach. The results revealed that COVID-19's pandemic effects on financial markets differ between developed and developing nations. COVID-19 pandemic affects developed countries' financial markets more through supply reduction, demand reduction, and economic instability. Regarding developing nations, confidence and expectations, changes in consumption patterns, and the bandwagon effect are the three most significant impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on financial markets. The best decisions to lower the effect of COVID-19 pandemic on developed nations' financial markets are the declaration of the stimulus package and support of small-and-medium-sized enterprises. Contrastingly, in developing countries, support for vulnerable households and declaration of the stimulus package are the best decisions to combat COVID-19's negative impact on their financial markets. As practical policy implications for lowering COVID-19's negative impact on financial markets, the promotion of new financing instruments, reconstruction of the relationship between public and private sectors, and support of vulnerable households and enterprises are highly recommended.


La recherche vise à hiérarchiser l'impact de la pandémie sur les marchés financiers des économies développées et en développement en utilisant une approche décisionnelle à plusieurs critères. Les résultats ont révélé que les effets du COVID-19 sur les marchés financiers diffèrent entre les nations développées et en développement. Le COVID-19 affecte davantage les marchés financiers des pays développés par la réduction de l'offre, la réduction de la demande et l'instabilité économique. En ce qui concerne les pays en développement, la confiance et les attentes, les changements dans les habitudes de consommation et l'effet boule de neige sont les trois impacts les plus significatifs causé par le COVID-19 sur les marchés financiers. Les meilleures décisions pour réduire l'effet du COVID-19 sur les marchés financiers des pays développés ont été la déclaration de plans de relance et le soutien aux petites et moyennes entreprises. En revanche, dans les pays en développement, le soutien aux ménages vulnérables et la déclaration de plans de relance apparaissent comme les meilleures décisions pour combattre l'impact négatif du COVID-19 sur leurs marchés financiers. En ce qui concerne les implications politiques pratiques pour réduire l'impact négatif du COVID-19 sur les marchés financiers, la promotion de nouveaux instruments de financement, la reconstruction de la relation entre les secteurs public et privé, et le soutien des ménages et des entreprises les plus vulnérables sont fortement recommandés.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296868

ABSTRACT

Transmission via virus-carrying aerosols inside enclosed spaces is an important transmission mode for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as supported by growing evidence. The urban subway is one of the most commonly used enclosed spaces. The subway is a utilitarian and low-cost transit system in today’s society. However, studies are yet to demonstrate patterns of viral transmission in subway heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. To fill this gap, we performed a computational investigation of the airflow (and the associated aerosol transmission) in an urban subway cabin equipped with an HVAC system. We employed a transport equation for aerosol concentration, which was added to the basic buoyant solver to resolve aerosol transmission inside the subway cabin. This was achieved by considering the thermal, turbulence, and induced ventilation flow effects. Using the aerosol encounter probability over sampling lines crossing the passenger breathing zones, we can detect the highest infection risk zones inside the urban subway under different settings. We proposed a novel HVAC system that can impede aerosol spread, both vertically and horizontally, inside the cabin. In the conventional model, the maximum aerosol encounter probability from an infected individual breathing near the fresh-air ducts was equal to 15%. This decreased to 0.36% in the proposed HVAC model. Overall, using the proposed HVAC system for urban subways decreased the mean value of the aerosol encounter probability by approximately 79% compared to that for the conventional system.

8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(4): 1563-1601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468319

ABSTRACT

Neurological disorders significantly impact the world's economy due to their often chronic and life-threatening nature afflicting individuals which, in turn, creates a global disease burden. The Group of Twenty (G20) member nations, which represent the largest economies globally, should come together to formulate a plan on how to overcome this burden. The Neuroscience-20 (N20) initiative of the Society for Brain Mapping and Therapeutics (SBMT) is at the vanguard of this global collaboration to comprehensively raise awareness about brain, spine, and mental disorders worldwide. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the various brain initiatives worldwide and highlight the need for cooperation and recommend ways to bring down costs associated with the discovery and treatment of neurological disorders. Our systematic search revealed that the cost of neurological and psychiatric disorders to the world economy by 2030 is roughly $16T. The cost to the economy of the United States is $1.5T annually and growing given the impact of COVID-19. We also discovered there is a shortfall of effective collaboration between nations and a lack of resources in developing countries. Current statistical analyses on the cost of neurological disorders to the world economy strongly suggest that there is a great need for investment in neurotechnology and innovation or fast-tracking therapeutics and diagnostics to curb these costs. During the current COVID-19 pandemic, SBMT, through this paper, intends to showcase the importance of worldwide collaborations to reduce the population's economic and health burden, specifically regarding neurological/brain, spine, and mental disorders.


Subject(s)
Global Burden of Disease , International Cooperation , Mental Disorders , Nervous System Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Burden of Disease/organization & administration , Global Burden of Disease/trends , Global Health/economics , Global Health/trends , Humans , Mental Disorders/economics , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Nervous System Diseases/economics , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Neurosciences/methods , Neurosciences/trends , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Sustainability ; 13(10):5719, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1234822

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the global recessions have reduced the investments in green projects globally that would endanger the achievement of the climate-related goals. Therefore, the post-COVID-19 world needs to adopt the green financial system by introducing new financial instruments. In this regard, green bonds—a type of debt instrument aiming to finance sustainable infrastructure projects—are growing in popularity. While the literature does not contest their effectiveness in fighting climate change, research highlights the high level of risks and low returns associated with this instrument. This study analyzes the green bond markets in different regions with a focus on Asia and the Pacific. It aims to fill the gap in the literature by conducting a comparative study of the characteristics, risks, and returns of green bonds based on the region. The study is based on theoretical background and empirical analysis using the data retrieved from Bloomberg New Energy Finance and the Climate Bonds Initiative. The empirical results are based on several econometrics tests using panel data analysis estimation methods, namely pooled ordinary least squares and generalized least squares random effects estimator. Our findings prove that green bonds in Asia tend to show higher returns but higher risks and higher heterogeneity. Generally, the Asian green bonds market is dominated by the banking sector, representing 60% of all issuance. Given that bonds issued by this sector tend to show lower returns than average, we recommend policies that could increase the rate of return of bonds issued by the banking sector through the use of tax spillover. In the era of post-COVID-19, diversification of issuers, with higher participation from the public sector and de-risking policies, could also be considered.

11.
Phys Fluids (1994) ; 33(1): 013603, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039670

ABSTRACT

Jet fans are increasingly preferred over traditional ducted systems as a means of ventilating pollutants in large environments such as underground car parks. The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-which causes the novel coronavirus disease-through the jet fans in underground car parks has been considered a matter of key concern. A quantitative understanding of the propagation of respiratory droplets/particles/aerosols containing the virus is important. However, to date, studies have yet to demonstrate viral (e.g., SARS-CoV-2) transmission in underground car parks equipped with jet fans. In this paper, numerical simulation has been performed to assess the effects of jet fans on the spreading of viruses inside underground car parks.

12.
Entropy (Basel) ; 22(7)2020 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963023

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has brought about a heavy impact on the world economy, which arouses growing concerns about potential systemic risk, taking place in countries and regions. At this critical moment, it makes sense to interpret the systemic risk from the perspective of the financial crisis framework. By combing the latest research on systemic risks, we may arrive at some precautions relating to the current events. This literature review verifies the origin of systemic risk research. By comparing the retrieved and screened systemic literature with the relevant research on the financial crisis, more focus on the micro-foundations of systemic risk has been discovered. Besides, the measurement methods of systemic risks and the introduction of interdisciplinary methods have made the research in this field particularly active. This paper synthesizes the previous research conclusions to find the appropriate definition of systemic risk and combs the research literature of systemic risk from two lines: Firstly, conducting the division according to the sub-branch fields within the financial discipline and the relevant interdisciplinary research methods, which is helpful for scholars within and outside the discipline to have a more systematic understanding of the research in this field. Secondly predicting the research direction that can be expanded in this field.

13.
Financ Res Lett ; 38: 101695, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638759

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic and global economic recession has shrunk global energy demand and collapsed fossil fuel prices. Therefore, renewable energy projects are losing their competitiveness. This endangers the achievement of several Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement on Climate Change. Various consulting companies define the SDGs differently. Institutional investors hire consulting companies and allocate their investment based on the consultants' suggestions. This paper theoretically shows that the current allocation of investors by considering SDG based on various consulting companies will lead to distortion in the investment portfolio. The desired portfolio allocation can be achieved by taxing pollution and waste such as CO2, NOx, and plastics, globally with the same tax rate. Global taxation on pollution will lead to the desired portfolio allocation of assets.

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