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1.
HemaSphere ; 6:373-375, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032169

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with red blood cell disorders (RBCD), are likely to be at increased risk of complications from SARS-Co-2 (Coid-19), but eidence in this population is scarce due to its low frequency and heterogeneous distribution. Aims: ERN-EuroBloodNet, the European Reference Network in rare hematological disorders, established a European registry to determine the impact of COVID-19 on RBCD patients and identify risk factors predicting seere outcomes. Methods: The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry was established in March 2020 by VHIR based on Redcap software in accordance with the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on personal data. The local Research Ethics Committee confirmed that the exceptional case of the pandemic justifies the waier of informed consent. Eligible patients had confirmed RBCD and COVID-19. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatments, and COVID-19 symptoms and management. For analysis of COVID-19 seerity, two groups were established 1) Mild: asymptomatic or mild symptoms without clinical pneumonia and 2) Seere: pneumonia requiring oxygen/respiratory support and/or admission to intensie care unit. Continuous ariables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskall Wallis test, while categorical ariables were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test. Releant factors influencing disease or seerity were examined by the logistic regression adjusted for age. Results: As of February 25, 2022, 42 medical centers from 10 EU countries had registered 428 patients: 212 Sickle cell disease (SCD), 186 Thalassemia major and intermedia (THAL). The mean age of SCD was lower (22y) than of THAL (39.4y). Splenectomy and comorbidities were higher in THAL (51.4% and 61,3%) than in SCD (16,3% and 46,8%) (p<0.001, p=0.004). Age and BMI correlated with COVID-19 seerity, as described in the general population (p=0.003, p<0.001). Fig 1 shows age distribution and COVID-19 seerity by disease seerity groups. The mean age for seere COVID-19 was lower in patients with seere SCD (SS/SB0 s SC/SB+: 23y s 67.5y) and THAL (major s intermedia: 43.5 s 51.3y) (p<0.001). Potential risk factors such as eleated ferritin, current chelation or history of splenectomy did not confer additional risk for deeloping seere COVID-19 in any patient group. Only diabetes as a comorbidity correlated with seerity grade in SCD (p=0.01) and hypertension in THAL (p=0.009). While seere COVID-19 infection in SCD was associated with both ACS (p<0.001) and kidney failure requiring treatment (p<0.001), this was not predicted by a history of preious ACS or kidney disease in steady state. Oerall, 14,6% RBC patients needed oxygen/respiratory support, 4% were admitted to ICU with an oerall mortality rate of 1%, much lower than reported in other similar cohorts. Hospital Son Espases, Palma de Mallorca, Spain;54 Clinical Pharmacology Serice, Hospital Uniersitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain;55 Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Barcelona, Spain;56 Diision of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, American Uniersity of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon;57 UOC Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Uniersity of Padoa, Padoa, Italy;58 Department of Haematology, Oxford Uniersity Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom;59 Translational Research in Child and Adolescent Cancer, Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, Barcelona, Spain Background: Patients with red blood cell disorders (RBCD), are likely to be at increased risk of complications from SARS-Co-2 (Coid-19), but eidence in this population is scarce due to its low frequency and heterogeneous distribution. Aims: ERN-EuroBloodNet, the European Reference Network in rare hematological disorders, established a European registry to determine the impact of COVID-19 on RBCD patients and identify risk factors predicting seere outcomes. Methods: The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry was established in March 2020 by VHIR based on Redcap software in accordance with the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on personal data. The local Research Ethics Committee confirm d that the exceptional case of the pandemic justifies the waier of informed consent. Eligible patients had confirmed RBCD and COVID-19. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatments, and COVID-19 symptoms and management. For analysis of COVID-19 seerity, two groups were established 1) Mild: asymptomatic or mild symptoms without clinical pneumonia and 2) Seere: pneumonia requiring oxygen/respiratory support and/or admission to intensie care unit. Continuous ariables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskall Wallis test, while categorical ariables were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test. Releant factors influencing disease or seerity were examined by the logistic regression adjusted for age. Results: As of February 25, 2022, 42 medical centers from 10 EU countries had registered 428 patients: 212 Sickle cell disease (SCD), 186 Thalassemia major and intermedia (THAL). The mean age of SCD was lower (22y) than of THAL (39.4y). Splenectomy and comorbidities were higher in THAL (51.4% and 61,3%) than in SCD (16,3% and 46,8%) (p<0.001, p=0.004). Age and BMI correlated with COVID-19 seerity, as described in the general population (p=0.003, p<0.001). Fig 1 shows age distribution and COVID-19 seerity by disease seerity groups. The mean age for seere COVID-19 was lower in patients with seere SCD (SS/SB0 s SC/SB+: 23y s 67.5y) and THAL (major s intermedia: 43.5 s 51.3y) (p<0.001). Potential risk factors such as eleated ferritin, current chelation or history of splenectomy did not confer additional risk for deeloping seere COVID-19 in any patient group. Only diabetes as a comorbidity correlated with seerity grade in SCD (p=0.01) and hypertension in THAL (p=0.009). While seere COVID-19 infection in SCD was associated with both ACS (p<0.001) and kidney failure requiring treatment (p<0.001), this was not predicted by a history of preious ACS or kidney disease in steady state. Oerall, 14,6% RBC patients needed oxygen/respiratory support, 4% were admitted to ICU with an oerall mortality rate of 1%, much lower than reported in other similar cohorts. Summary/Conclusion: Results obtained so far show that seere COVID-19 occurs at younger ages in more aggressie forms of SCD and THAL. Current preentie approaches focus on age oer disease seerity. Our data highlights the risk of seere COVID-19 infection in some young patients, particularly those with SS/SB0 SCD, suggesting that immunization should be considered in this pediatric group as well. Results between similar sized cohorts of RBCD patients ary between each other and those presented here, highlighting the importance of collecting all of these small cohorts together to ensure adequate statistical power so that definitie risk factors can be reliably identified and used to guide management of patients with these rare disorders in the light of the ongoing pandemic. (Figure Presented).

2.
Journal of Henan Normal University Natural Science Edition ; 49(6):199-208, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2026899

ABSTRACT

As the major source of information, social media has outpaced mainstream news channels. In these information overloaded days, differentiating rumors from facts is crucial and difficult. This study aims to explore the respondents' perception of the reasons for spreading rumors related to the Coronavirus on social media. Furthermore, it seeks to look at the respondents' perception of the ways of combating fake news related to the Coronavirus on social media. Lastly, the study attempts to know to what extent the respondents are satisfied with the performance of the media institutions in dealing with the Coronavirus. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a non-probability sample to explore the respondents' perceptions of the above-mentioned aims. A total of 1274 self-selected cases from Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and the United Arab Emirates were investigated. The study finds that all respondents agree with the reasons listed in the survey about spreading rumors related to the Coronavirus on social media, except for the reasons of lacking transparency on behalf of the Ministry of Health and other official bodies and lacking accurate information about the Coronavirus. Moreover, the study confirms the respondents' beliefs that all listed ways effectively combat fake news related to the Coronavirus on social media. Furthermore, the study finds that the respondents are satisfied with the performance of the media institutions in dealing with the Coronavirus in their countries. With these findings, the study significantly contributes to the literature. It may assist various parties, such as the government and media organizations, in making the proper decision to combat the spread of rumors via social media.

3.
Results Phys ; 39: 105774, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931096

ABSTRACT

To explore the crossover linkage of the bacterial infections resulting from the viral infection, within the host body, a computational framework is developed. It analyzes the additional pathogenic effect of Streptococcus pneumonia, one of the bacteria that can trigger the super-infection mechanism in the COVID-19 syndrome and the physiological effects of innate immunity for the control or eradication of this bacterial infection. The computational framework, in a novel manner, takes into account the action of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to the function of macrophages. A hypothetical model is created and is transformed to a system of non-dimensional mathematical equations. The dynamics of three main parameters (macrophages sensitivity κ , sensitivity to cytokines η and bacterial sensitivity ϵ ), analyzes a "threshold value" termed as the basic reproduction number R 0 which is based on a sub-model of the inflammatory state. Piece-wise differentiation approach is used and dynamical analysis for the inflammatory response of macrophages is studied in detail. The results shows that the inflamatory response, with high probability in bacterial super-infection, is concomitant with the COVID-19 infection. The mechanism of action of the anti-inflammatory cytokines is discussed during this research and it is observed that these cytokines do not prevent inflammation chronic, but only reduce its level while increasing the activation threshold of macrophages. The results of the model quantifies the probable deficit of the biological mechanisms linked with the anti-inflammatory cytokines. The numerical results shows that for such mechanisms, a minimal action of the pathogens is strongly amplified, resulting in the "chronicity" of the inflammatory process.

4.
Complexity ; 2022, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1923333

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of a new strain of SARS-CoV-2 cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the possible effects of a hypothetical imperfect anti-COVID-19 vaccine on the control of not only the first variant of SARS-CoV-2 but also the second (new) variant of SARS-CoV-2. We further examine the rates r and a, escape of quarantined infectious individuals from isolation centers. The control Rc and basic reproduction numbers R0 are computed which gives assess to obtain asymptotic stability of disease-free equilibrium point globally and the existence of a unique persistent equilibrium solution. Numerical results reveal that people infected with the second strain who are vaccinated with an imperfect vaccine are under control but the prevalence of the second variant enhances the prevalence of the first variant. Thus, discovering a vaccine that is effective (to a good extent) for the prevention of variant 2 (new variant) is necessary for the control of COVID-19. Numerical results also reveal that increase in the rate at which individuals infected with the first variant escape the isolation center gives rise to the population infected with the first variant and lowers the peak of the population infected with the second variant. This is probably because individuals infected with the second variant appear to be more careful with their lives and get vaccinated more than individuals infected with the first variant.

7.
Medical Journal of Indonesia ; 31(1):4, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1856362
8.
Fractals ; : 1, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1840611

ABSTRACT

Among other hospitalization causes and cases, the clinical emergency is a critical case and the data of the reporting patients are biased as well as poorly managed due to the chaotic situation. The world has faced chaos over the past year due to the frequent waves of COVID-19 and the resulting emergencies. The data banks, linked with the clinical emergencies require serious quantitative and qualitative analysis to drive interpretable conclusions for necessary future emergency measures and to develop explainable artificial intelligence tools. This important procedure involves the clear understanding of the data patterns and topologies, which is a great challenge for the multidimensional data sets. Mathematically, the topological mapping can resolve this problem by mapping higher-dimensional data to two-dimensional representation, based on the overall association. Proper data mining and pattern recognition can help in improving the rapid patients admission, in providing the medical resources timely and in proper patient administration. In this paper, the importance of self-organizing maps, to interpret the hospital data, particularly for the COVID-19 epidemic is discussed in detail. Important variables are identified with the aid of networks and mappings. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Fractals is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

9.
New Journal of Chemistry ; : 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1721606

ABSTRACT

In this study, a series of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles carrying the isatin moiety (IVa-g) as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents were designed and synthesized. Molecular docking of the compounds (IVa-g) into the SARS-CoV-2 M-pro active site showed promising binding affinities. The docking results were supported using molecular dynamics simulations and MM-GBSA calculations as well. To validate the in silico predictions, all compounds were evaluated for their half-maximal cytotoxicity (CC50) and virus-inhibitory (IC50) concentrations. The CC50 concentrations were remarkably high for most of the tested compounds. However, compounds IVe and IVg showed high activity against SARS-CoV-2 at IC50 values of 13.84 mu M and 4.63 mu M, with selectivity indices of 4.1 and 5.9, respectively. The most potent antiviral agent IVg demonstrated an IC50 of 16.6 mu M against SARS-CoV-2 M-pro, which is considered a moderate activity. However, the represented cellular antiviral activity of IVg could justify further optimization to develop this series of compounds as broad-spectrum anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents.

10.
Results Phys ; 35: 105300, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702895

ABSTRACT

On November 26, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a new variant of concern of SARS-CoV2 called Omicron. This variant has biological-functional characteristics such as to make it much faster in the infectious process so as to show an even more intense spread. Although many data are currently incomplete, it is possible to identify, based on the viral biochemical characteristics, a possible therapy consisting of a monoclonal antibody called Sotrovimab. The model proposed here is based on the mathematical analysis of the dynamics of action of this monoclonal antibody and two cell populations: the immune memory cells and the infected cells. Indeed, a delay exists during the physiological immune response and the response induced by administration of Sotrovimab. This manuscript presents that delay in a novel manner. The model is developed with the aid of information based on the chemical kinetics. The machine learning tools have been used to satisfy the criteria designed by the dynamical analysis. Regression learner tools of Python are used as the reverse engineering tools for the understanding of the balance in the mathematical model, maintained by the parameters and their corresponding intervals and thresholds set by the dynamical analysis.

11.
Blood ; 138:4058, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582388

ABSTRACT

[Formula presented] PV, NR and MMP contributed equally Introduction Patients with red blood cell disorders (RBCD), chronic life threating multisystemic disorders in their severe forms, are likely to be at increased risk of complications from SARS-Cov-2 (Covid-19), but evidence in this population is scarce due to its low frequency and heterogeneous distribution. ERN-EuroBloodNet, the European Reference Network in rare hematological disorders, established a European registry to determine the impact of COVID-19 on RBCD patients and identify risk factors predicting severe outcomes. Methods The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry was established in March 2020 by Vall d'Hebron Research Institute based on REDcap software in accordance with the Regulation (EU) 2016/679 on personal data. The local Research Ethics Committee confirmed that the exceptional case of the pandemic justifies the waiver of informed consent. The ERN-EuroBloodNet registry on RBCD and COVID-19 is endorsed by the European Hematology Association (EHA). Eligible patients had confirmed RBCD and COVID-19. Data collected included demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, treatments, and COVID-19 (severity grade, clinical manifestations, acute events, treatments, hospitalization, intensive care unit, death). For analysis of COVID-19 severity, two groups were established 1) Mild: asymptomatic or mild symptoms without clinical pneumonia and 2) Severe: pneumonia requiring oxygen/respiratory support and/or admission to intensive care unit. Continuous variables were compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskall Wallis test, while categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's Exact test. Relevant factors influencing disease or severity were examined by the logistic regression adjusted for age. Results As of June 2021, 42 medical centers from 10 EU countries had registered 373 patients: 191 Sickle cell disease (SCD), 156 Thalassemia major and intermedia (THAL) and 26 other RBCD. 84% of the SCD patients were reported by Spain, Belgium, Italy and The Netherlands and 92% of the THAL patients by Italy and Greece. The mean age of SCD was lower (22.5y) than of THAL (39.6y) with pediatric population accounting for 50.5% in SCD and 9% in THAL (p <0.001). Splenectomy and comorbidities were higher in THAL (51.3% and 65.8%) than in SCD (16% and 48.1%) (p<0.001, p=0.002). Age and BMI correlated with COVID-19 severity, as described in the general population (p=0.002, p<0.001). Fig 1 shows age distribution and COVID-19 severity by disease severity groups. The mean age for severe COVID-19 was lower in patients with severe SCD (SS/SB0 vs SC/SB+: 23.3y vs 67.5y) and THAL (major vs intermedia: 43.5 vs 51.3y) (p<0.001). Potential risk factors such as elevated ferritin, current chelation or history of splenectomy did not confer additional risk for developing severe COVID-19 in any patient group. Only diabetes as a comorbidity correlated with severity grade in SCD (p=0.011) and hypertension in THAL (p=0.014). While severe COVID-19 infection in SCD was associated with both ACS (p<0.001) and kidney failure requiring treatment (p=0.001), this was not predicted by a history of previous ACS or kidney disease in steady state. Overall, 14.8% RBC patients needed oxygen/respiratory support, 4.4% were admitted to ICU with an overall mortality rate of 0.8% (no deaths were registered in pediatric age), much lower than reported in other similar cohorts. Discussion Results obtained so far show that severe COVID-19 occurs at younger ages in more aggressive forms of SCD and THAL. Current preventive approaches (shielding, vaccinations) focus on age over disease severity. Our data highlights the risk of severe COVID-19 infection in some young patients, particularly those with SS/SB0 SCD, suggesting that immunization should be considered in this pediatric group as well. Results between similar sized cohorts of RBCD patients vary between each other and those presented here, highlighting the importance of collecting all of these small cohorts together to ensure adequate statistical p wer so that definitive risk factors (eg. age, genotype, comorbidities) can be reliably identified and used to guide management of patients with these rare disorders in the light of the ongoing pandemic. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Longo: Bristol Myers Squibb: Honoraria;BlueBird Bio: Honoraria. Bardón-Cancho: Novartis Oncology Spain: Research Funding. Flevari: PROTAGONIST COMPANY: Research Funding;ADDMEDICA: Consultancy, Research Funding;BMS: Research Funding;IMARA COMPANY: Research Funding;NOVARTIS COMPANY: Research Funding. Voskaridou: BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding;IMARA: Research Funding;NOVARTIS: Research Funding;ADDMEDICA: Consultancy, Research Funding;GENESIS: Consultancy, Research Funding;PROTAGONIST: Research Funding. Biemond: GBT: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau;Novo Nordisk: Honoraria;Celgene: Honoraria;Sanquin: Research Funding. Nur: Celgene: Speakers Bureau;Roche: Speakers Bureau;Novartis: Research Funding, Speakers Bureau. Beneitez-Pastor: Agios: Honoraria;Alexion: Honoraria;Novartis: Honoraria;Forma Therapeutics: Honoraria. Pepe: Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A: Other: no profit support;Bayer S.p.A.: Other: no profit support. de Montalembert: Novartis: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Addmedica: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BlueBirdBio: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Vertex: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Glenthøj: Agios: Consultancy;Novo Nordisk: Honoraria;Novartis: Consultancy;Alexion: Research Funding;Bluebird Bio: Consultancy;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;Saniona: Research Funding;Sanofi: Research Funding. Benghiat: Novartis: Consultancy;BMS: Consultancy. Labarque: Novartis: Consultancy;Bayer: Consultancy;Sobi: Consultancy;NovoNordisk: Consultancy;Octapharma: Consultancy. Diamantidis: Genesis Pharma: Honoraria;Uni-Pharma: Honoraria;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy;IONIS Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding;NOVARTIS, Genesis Pharma SA: Research Funding. Kerkhoffs: Sanofi: Research Funding;Terumo BCT: Research Funding. Iolascon: Celgene: Other: Advisory Board;Bluebird Bio: Other: Advisory Board. Taher: Vifor Pharma: Consultancy, Research Funding;Agios Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy;Ionis Pharmaceuticals: Consultancy, Research Funding;Bristol Myers Squibb: Consultancy, Research Funding;Novartis: Consultancy, Research Funding. Colombatti: Novartis: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Global Blood Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Research Funding;Novonordisk: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Forma Therapeutics: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Addmedica: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;BlueBirdBio: Research Funding. Mañú Pereira: Novartis: Research Funding;Agios Pharmaceuticals: Research Funding.

12.
Results Phys ; 33: 105046, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586715

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV2 virus has prompted research into new therapeutic solutions that can be used to treat the CoVid-19 syndrome. As part of this research, immunotherapy, first developed against cancer, is offering new therapeutic horizons also against viral infections. CAR technology, with the production of CAR-T cells (adoptive immunotherapy), has shown applicability in the field of HIV viral infections through second generation CAR-T cells implemented with the "CD4CAR" system with a viral fusion inhibitor. In addition, to avoid the immunoescape of the virus, bi- or trispecific CAR receptors have been developed. Our research group hypothesizes the use of this immunotherapy system against SARS-CoV2, admitting the appropriate adjustments concerning the target-epitope and a possible remodeling of the nuclease related to the action of this virus. For a more in-depth analysis of this hypothesis, a mathematical model has been developed which, starting from the fractional derivative Caputo, creates a system of equations that describes the interactions between CAR-T cells, memory cells, and cells infected with SARS-CoV2. Through an analysis of the existence and non-negativity of the solutions, the hypothesis is stabilized; then is further demonstrated through the use of the piece-wise derivative and the consequent application of the formula of Newton polynomial interpolation.

13.
PeerJ Comput Sci ; 7: e776, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513095

ABSTRACT

The cornovirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a severe impact on our daily lives. As a result, there has been an increasing demand for technological solutions to overcome such challenges. The Internet of Things (IoT) has recently emerged to improve many aspects of human's day-to-day activities and routines. IoT makes it easier to follow the safety guidelines and precautions provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prior reports have shown that the world nowadays may need more IoT facilities than ever before. However, little is known about the reaction of the IoT community towards defeating the COVID-19 pandemic, technologies being used, solutions being provided, and how our societies perceive the IoT means available to them. In this paper, we conduct an empirical study to investigate the IoT response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, we study the characteristics of the IoT solutions hosted on a large online IoT community (i.e., Hackster.io) throughout the year of 2020. The study: (a) explores the proportion, types, and nations of IoT solutions/engineers that contributed to defeating COVID-19, (b) characterizes the complexity of COVID-19 IoT solutions, and (c) identifies how IoT solutions are perceived by the surrounding community. Our results indicate that IoT engineers have been actively working towards providing solutions to help their societies, especially in the most affected nations. Our findings (i) provide insights into the aspects IoT practitioners need to pay more attention to when developing IoT solutions for COVID-19 and to (ii) outlines the common IoT solutions and technologies available to humans to deal with the current challenges.

14.
American Journal of Hematology ; 29:29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210010
15.
MethodsX ; 8: 101316, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157617

ABSTRACT

This project aimed to assess the Online National Board of Urology Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) feasibility in evaluating candidates simultaneously from five urology training centers in Indonesia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected from two online OSCE simulation trials and the Online National Board of Urology OSCE. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess examiners and candidates' perception. The average final score of the Online OSCE was compared to previous face-to-face OSCE results. All candidates and examiners (100%) heard and saw clearly the audio-visual in both OSCE simulation trials. None of the candidates had a failing score on the mock exam from all stations. There was a statistically significant difference between the online OSCE and December 2019 face-to-face OSCE. The Online National Board Urology OSCE was feasible and comparable to face-to-face OSCE in evaluating urology candidates. It may be beneficial for the future OSCE method in the medical education system.•Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) which assesses a broad range of urology candidates' high-level clinical skills, is a more valid and reliable assessment instrument than the traditional oral examination•The Online National Board of Urology OSCE method can help evaluate urology candidates, especially during the unprecedented COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Results Phys ; 22: 103873, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1057291

ABSTRACT

In the present work, we investigated the transmission dynamics of fractional order SARS-CoV-2 mathematical model with the help of Susceptible S ( t ) , Exposed E ( t ) , Infected I ( t ) , Quarantine Q ( t ) , and Recovered R ( t ) . The aims of this work is to investigate the stability and optimal control of the concerned mathematical model for both local and global stability by third additive compound matrix approach and we also obtained threshold value by the next generation approach. The author's visualized the desired results graphically. We also control each of the population of underlying model with control variables by optimal control strategies with Pontryagin's maximum Principle and obtained the desired numerical results by using the homotopy perturbation method. The proposed model is locally asymptotically unstable, while stable globally asymptotically on endemic equilibrium. We also explored the results graphically in numerical section for better understanding of transmission dynamics.

17.
Results Phys ; 20: 103702, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014789

ABSTRACT

Fractional-order derivative-based modeling is very significant to describe real-world problems with forecasting and analyze the realistic situation of the proposed model. The aim of this work is to predict future trends in the behavior of the COVID-19 epidemic of confirmed cases and deaths in India for October 2020, using the expert modeler model and statistical analysis programs (SPSS version 23 & Eviews version 9). We also generalize a mathematical model based on a fractal fractional operator to investigate the existing outbreak of this disease. Our model describes the diverse transmission passages in the infection dynamics and affirms the role of the environmental reservoir in the transmission and outbreak of this disease. We give an itemized analysis of the proposed model including, the equilibrium points analysis, reproductive number R 0 , and the positiveness of the model solutions. Besides, the existence, uniqueness, and Ulam-Hyers stability results are investigated of the suggested model via some fixed point technique. The fractional Adams Bashforth method is applied to solve the fractal fractional model. Finally, a brief discussion of the graphical results using the numerical simulation (Matlab version 16) is shown.

18.
Results Phys ; 20: 103716, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989166

ABSTRACT

Nigeria, like most other countries in the world, imposes lockdown as a measure to curtail the spread of COVID-19. But, it is known fact that in some countries the lockdown strategy could bring the desired results while in some the situation could worsen the spread of the virus due to poor management and lack of facilities, palliatives and incentives. To this regard, we feel motivated to develop a new mathematical model that assesses the imposition of the lockdown in Nigeria. The model comprises of a system of five ODE. Mathematical analysis of the model were carried out, where boundedness, computation of equilibria, calculation of the basic reproduction ratio and stability analysis of the equilibria were carried out. We finally study the numerical outcomes of the governing model in respect of the approximate solutions. To this aim, we employed the effective ODE45, Euler, RK-2 and RK-4 schemes and compare the results.

19.
Process Saf Environ Prot ; 149: 223-233, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894169

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak has become a global pandemic that affected more than 200 countries. Predicting the epidemiological behavior of this outbreak has a vital role to prevent its spreading. In this study, long short-term memory (LSTM) network as a robust deep learning model is proposed to forecast the number of total confirmed cases, total recovered cases, and total deaths in Saudi Arabia. The model was trained using the official reported data. The optimal values of the model's parameters that maximize the forecasting accuracy were determined. The forecasting accuracy of the model was assessed using seven statistical assessment criteria, namely, root mean square error (RMSE), coefficient of determination (R2), mean absolute error (MAE), efficiency coefficient (EC), overall index (OI), coefficient of variation (COV), and coefficient of residual mass (CRM). A reasonable forecasting accuracy was obtained. The forecasting accuracy of the suggested model is compared with two other models. The first is a statistical based model called autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). The second is an artificial intelligence based model called nonlinear autoregressive artificial neural networks (NARANN). Finally, the proposed LSTM model was applied to forecast the total number of confirmed cases as well as deaths in six different countries; Brazil, India, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Spain, and USA. These countries have different epidemic trends as they apply different polices and have different age structure, weather, and culture. The social distancing and protection measures applied in different countries are assumed to be maintained during the forecasting period. The obtained results may help policymakers to control the disease and to put strategic plans to organize Hajj and the closure periods of the schools and universities.

20.
Extreme Mech Lett ; 40: 100924, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-703980

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) may spread through respiratory droplets released by infected individuals during coughing, sneezing, or speaking. Given the limited supply of professional respirators and face masks, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has recommended home-made cloth face coverings for use by the general public. While there have been several studies on aerosol filtration performance of household fabrics, their effectiveness at blocking larger droplets has not been investigated. Here, we ascertained the performance of 11 common household fabrics at blocking large, high-velocity droplets, using a commercial medical mask as a benchmark. We also assessed the breathability (air permeability), texture, fiber composition, and water absorption properties of the fabrics. We found that most fabrics have substantial blocking efficiency (median values >70%). In particular, two layers of highly permeable fabric, such as T-shirt cloth, blocks droplets with an efficiency (>94%) similar to that of medical masks, while being approximately twice as breathable. The first layer allows about 17% of the droplet volume to transmit, but it significantly reduces their velocity. This allows the second layer to trap the transmitted droplets resulting in high blocking efficacy. Overall, our study suggests that cloth face coverings, especially with multiple layers, may help reduce droplet transmission of respiratory infections. Furthermore, face coverings made from materials such as cotton fabrics allow washing and reusing, and can help reduce the adverse environmental effects of widespread use of commercial disposable and non-biodegradable facemasks.

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