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Clin Microbiol Infect ; 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797042


OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity and safety of SpikoGen®, a subunit COVID-19 vaccine composed of a recombinant prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein combined with the Advax-CpG55.2™ adjuvant, in seronegative and seropositive populations as primary vaccination. METHODS: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2 trial was conducted on 400 participants randomized 3:1 to receive two doses of 25 µg of SpikoGen® 3 weeks apart or the placebo. The primary safety outcomes were the incidence of solicited adverse events up to 7 days after each dose and unsolicited adverse events up to 28 days after the second dose. The primary immunogenicity outcomes were seroconversion against the S1 protein and the geometric mean concentration of S1 antibodies by days 21 and 35. RESULTS: The SpikoGen® vaccine was well tolerated and no serious adverse events were recorded. The most common solicited adverse events were injection site pain and fatigue, largely graded as mild and transient. By day 35 (2 weeks post second dose), the seroconversion rate against S1 was 63.55 (95% CI: 57.81-69.01) in the SpikoGen® group versus 7.23 (95% CI: 2.7-15.07) in the placebo group. The geometric mean concentration of S1 antibodies was 29.12 (95% CI: 24.32-34.87) in the SpikoGen® group versus 5.53 (95% CI: 4.39-6.97) in the placebo group. Previously infected seropositive volunteers showed a large SARS-CoV-2 humoral response after a single SpikoGen® dose. DISCUSSION: SpikoGen® had an acceptable safety profile and induced promising humoral and cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2.

Int Immunopharmacol ; 95: 107522, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385749


BACKGROUND: We examined the safety and efficacy of a treatment protocol containing Favipiravir for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We did a multicenter randomized open-labeled clinical trial on moderate to severe cases infections of SARS-CoV-2. Patients with typical ground glass appearance on chest computerized tomography scan (CT scan) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of less than 93% were enrolled. They were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (1.6 gr loading, 1.8 gr daily) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (800/200 mg daily) treatment regimens in addition to standard care. In-hospital mortality, ICU admission, intubation, time to clinical recovery, changes in daily SpO2 after 5 min discontinuation of supplemental oxygen, and length of hospital stay were quantified and compared in the two groups. RESULTS: 380 patients were randomly allocated into Favipiravir (193) and Lopinavir/Ritonavir (187) groups in 13 centers. The number of deaths, intubations, and ICU admissions were not significantly different (26, 27, 31 and 21, 17, 25 respectively). Mean hospital stay was also not different (7.9 days [SD = 6] in the Favipiravir and 8.1 [SD = 6.5] days in Lopinavir/Ritonavir groups) (p = 0.61). Time to clinical recovery in the Favipiravir group was similar to Lopinavir/Ritonavir group (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.75 - 1.17) and likewise the changes in the daily SpO2 after discontinuation of supplemental oxygen (p = 0.46) CONCLUSION: Adding Favipiravir to the treatment protocol did not reduce the number of ICU admissions or intubations or In-hospital mortality compared to Lopinavir/Ritonavir regimen. It also did not shorten time to clinical recovery and length of hospital stay.

Amides/administration & dosage , Amides/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pyrazines/administration & dosage , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intubation , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Length of Stay , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Lopinavir/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Ritonavir/adverse effects , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 17(5): 499-511, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171671


OBJECTIVES: Currently published papers and clinical guidelines regarding the effects of tocilizumab in severe and critical COVID-19 are contradictory. The aim of this meta-analysis was to combine the results of clinical studies of different designs to investigate the efficacy and safety of tocilizumab in severely-to-critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL,, Scopus, and preprint servers up to 26 December 2020. Since a substantial heterogeneity was expected, a random-effects model was applied to calculate the pooled effect size (ES) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study outcome. RESULTS: Forty-five comparative studies involving 13,189 patients and 28 single-arm studies involving 1,770 patients were analyzed. The risk of mortality (RR of 0.76 [95%CI 0.65 to 0.89], P < 0.01) and intubation (RR of 0.48 [95%CI 0.24 to 0.97], P = 0.04) were lower in tocilizumab patients compared with controls. We did not find any significant difference in secondary infections, length of hospital stay, hospital discharge before day 14, and ICU admission between groups. CONCLUSION: Tocilizumab can improve clinical outcomes and reduce mortality rates in severe to critical COVID-19 patients. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are still required to improve the statistical power of meta-analysis.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Humans