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researchsquare; 2020.


The uncertainty about COVID-19 outcomes in angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) users continues with contradictory findings. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ACEI/ARB use in patients with severe COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study done in two Saudi public specialty hospitals designated as COVID-19 referral facilities. We included 354 patients with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 between April and June 2020, of which 146 were ACEI/ARB users and 208 were non-ACEI/ARB users. Controlling for confounders, we conducted a multivariate logistic regression and a sensitivity analysis using propensity score matched (PSM) patients. Compared to non-ACEI/ARB users, ACEI/ARB users had an eight-fold higher risk of developing critical or severe COVID-19 (OR=8.25, 95%CI=3.32-20.53); a nearly 7-fold higher risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission (OR=6.76, 95%CI=2.88-15.89) and a nearly 5-fold higher risk of requiring noninvasive ventilation (OR=4.77,95%CI=2.15-10.55). Patients with diabetes, hypertension, and/or renal disease had a five-fold higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease (OR=5.40,95%CI=2.0-14.54]. These results were confirmed in the PSM analysis. In general, but especially among patients with hypertension, diabetes, and/or renal disease, ACEI/ARB use is associated with a significantly higher risk of severe or critical COVID-19 disease, and ICU care.

Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110081, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634173


Hand hygiene by washing with soap and water is recommended for the prevention of COVID-19 spread. Soaps and detergents are explained to act by damaging viral spike glycoproteins (peplomers) or by washing out the virus through entrapment in the micelles. Technically, soaps come under a functional category of molecules known as surfactants. Surfactants are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. We wonder why surfactants are still not tried for prophylaxis or therapy against COVID-19? That too when many of them have proven antiviral properties. Moreover, lung surfactants have already shown benefits in respiratory viral infections. Therefore, we postulate that surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy would be promising. We believe that our hypothesis would stimulate debate or new research exploring the possibility of surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy against COVID-19. The success of a surfactant-based technique would save the world from any such pandemic in the future too.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Micelles , Models, Biological , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Drug Treatment