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1.
Annals of Medicine and Surgery ; : 104871, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122307

ABSTRACT

The goal of this study was to analyze the content availability and accessibility of preventive medicine residency program websites. In COVID-related travel restrictions, the information provided on program websites has become increasingly crucial for residency applicants. A cross-sectional study was conducted by extracting the list of preventive medicine residency programs on the Fellowship and Residency Electronic and Interactive Database (FRIEDA). A 40-point criterion was used for the quality evaluation of residency programs. The study was conducted and analyzed in 2021. 82 preventive medicine residency programs were identified, and listed on FRIEDA, out of which 65 program websites were accessible. The median number of 40-point criteria met by the preventive medicine residency website was 25. The criteria fulfilled by the greatest number of program websites was research opportunity/facilities (94%). The majority of the preventive medicine residency program websites were not up to the mark regarding accessibility and quality. An updated preventive medicine residency program website is essential for the applicants. Programs with relevant and precise information on their websites have higher chances of attracting potential candidates and better chances of finding the match between applicants and programs.

2.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; : 1-2, 2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118748
3.
Front Public Health ; 10: 967440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119683

ABSTRACT

Background: Telemedicine has proved its significance in the healthcare system, especially during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic as it assists in the provision of early and effective healthcare to those in distant areas. This study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of healthcare professionals toward the use of telemedicine in the rural areas of Sindh, Pakistan. Materials and methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted with 212 healthcare professionals including physicians, consultants, surgeons, residents, dentists, and house officers working in public sector hospitals. The face-to-face method was used for data collection. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were applied to find the association between different variables and knowledge and practice of telemedicine using SPSS V 24. Results: The knowledge of participants regarding the usability of telemedicine and various tools used for the provision of medical services (video consultations, conferencing, use of applications, software, and online groups) was good. A total of 52.2% of participants showed agreement when they were questioned about being aware of online healthcare service provision. In this study, 52.8% of the participants practiced telemedicine by delivering healthcare services through online consultations. The majority of the participants were surgeons (25.9%), residents (23.1%), and physicians (18.9%). The internet (42.4%) and public media (25.9%) were the major sources of information for telemedicine. A total of 70.5% of participants suggested that strategies and efforts should be directed toward the enhanced implementation of telemedicine. Training in telemedicine as a source of information [OR = 13.02 (95% CI = 3.9-43.6), p < 0.001)] and awareness regarding the effect of telemedicine in healthcare quality [OR = 10.25 (95% CI = 2.9-35.4), p < 0.001)] remained the predicting factors for the practice of telemedicine among healthcare workers using multivariate regression analysis. Conclusion: Telemedicine has technologically revolutionized the medical sciences worldwide. The awareness level and usage of telemedicine were good among healthcare professionals in rural Sindh. Telemedicine should be utilized to provide quality healthcare in underprivileged areas by investing in infrastructure and education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pakistan , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care
4.
Brain Behav ; : e2789, 2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094155

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This review highlights the potential mechanisms of neuromuscular manifestation of COVID-19, especially myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: An extensive literature search was conducted by two independent investigators using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar from its inception to December 2020. RESULTS: Exacerbations of clinical symptoms in patients of MG who were treated with some commonly used COVID-19 drugs has been reported, with updated recommendations of management of symptoms of neuromuscular disorders. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can induce the immune response to trigger autoimmune neurological disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Further clinical studies are warranted to indicate and rather confirm if MG in the setting of COVID-19 can pre-existent subclinically or develop as a new-onset disease.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 951556, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080175

ABSTRACT

Introduction and objectives: In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several abnormal hematological biomarkers have been reported. The current study aimed to find out the association of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and derived NLR (dNLR) with COVID-19. The objective was to compare the accuracy of both of these markers in predicting the severity of the disease. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in a single-center having patients with COVID-19 with a considerable hospital stay. NLR is easily calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) with the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) {ANC/ALC}, while dNLR is calculated by ANC divided by total leukocyte count minus ANC {ANC/(WBC-ANC)}. Medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were represented by box plots. Multivariable logistic regression was performed obtaining an odds ratio (OR), 95% CI, and further adjusted to discover the independent predictors and risk factors associated with elevated NLR and dNLR. Results: A total of 1,000 patients with COVID-19 were included. The baseline NLR and dNLR were 5.00 (2.91-10.46) and 4.00 (2.33-6.14), respectively. A cut-off value of 4.23 for NLR and 2.63 for dNLR were set by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Significant associations of NLR were obtained by binary logistic regression for dependent outcome variables as ICU stay (p < 0.001), death (p < 0.001), and invasive ventilation (p < 0.001) while that of dNLR with ICU stay (p = 0.002), death (p < 0.001), and invasive ventilation (p = 0.002) on multivariate analysis when adjusted for age, gender, and a wave of pandemics. Moreover, the indices were found correlating with other inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and procalcitonin (PCT). Conclusion: Both markers are equally reliable and sensitive for predicting in-hospital outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Early detection and predictive analysis of these markers can allow physicians to risk assessment and prompt management of these patients.

6.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(6): e881, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068569

ABSTRACT

Background: The menstrual cycle in women is the main indicator of their reproductive health which is affected by the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This review aims to summarize the effects of the COVID-19 infection and the global pandemic on the menstrual health of women. Methods: The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Google Scholar using keywords "COVID-19," "Menstrual Cycle," "Menstrual Cycle Irregularities," "Amenorrhea," "Polymenorrhea," and "Dysmenorrhea." The articles were selected according to the following inclusion criteria: (i) cross-sectional studies, (ii) cohort studies, (iii) surveys, and (iv) other observational studies observing the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 pandemic on menstrual health of women. Exclusion criteria included: case reports, gray literature, and website articles regarding menstrual health. Results: A total of 30,510 articles were shortlisted after a comprehensive search. Sixteen articles were included out of which 13 studies investigated the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the menstrual cycle while 3 evaluated the possible effects of COVID-19 infection on the menstrual health of women. Menstrual disorders or irregularities were a more common finding during the pandemic as compared to before (p = 0.008). Women affected by pandemic-related stress were more prone to changes in the duration of their menses (p = 0.0008), reported heavier bleeding (p = 0.028), and increased incidence of painful periods (p < 0.0001). COVID-19 infected women also reported changes in their menstrual cycle including irregular menstruation, increased symptoms of premenstrual syndrome, and infrequent menstruation. Conclusions: Women suffering from COVID-19 infection or pandemic-associated stress and anxiety were more likely to experience irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, and other menstrual abnormalities compared to those who were less exposed.

7.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 83: 104766, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060329

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 took over the world in 2020 and a lockdown has been imposed seeing its fast spread. Frontline health care workers (HCWs) were reported frequently with a lack of motivation, hesitancy and unwillingness to perform their duties during this pandemic. This cross-sectional survey aims to evaluate the factors associated with lack of motivation and increased hesitancy among the frontline HCWs to perform their duties during COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: A total of 239 HCWs were included in this web-based cross-sectional study, who have worked during the COVID-19 pandemic. The anonymous online questionnaire was sent to all faculty, trainees and staff of Aga Khan University Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. The survey was conducted from September 2020 to January 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. All data was exported into Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 19 for multivariate analysis. Results: The risk of getting infected was strongly reported by 180 participants, and it was associated with higher hesitation to work (aOR = 6.09 [2.55-14.59]). Fifty-one participants felt that lack of knowledge about prevention and protection was associated with lower motivation to work (aOR = 0.66 [0.35-1.25]). Participants reported higher hesitation due to the burden of changed quality of work, physical exhaustion, mental exhaustion and altered sleep patterns. Sense of feeling protected by their hospitals was a motivating factor, and participants receiving adequate support reported higher motivation to work (aOR = 2.60 [1.32-5.14]). Conclusion: Fear of infection, increased working hours, and inadequate support of the workplace played a key role in escalating the hesitancy among HCWs to perform their duties. Lack of disease knowledge and paucity of personal protective equipment further lowered the motivation levels of HCWs to work effectively during the COVID-19 pandemic.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(31): e29305, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051676

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients of end-stage renal disease are prone to have a very low quality of life (QoL). Variety of factors influence the QoL among sufferers of chronic kidney disease comprising of type of dialysis, sufficiency/adequacy of dialysis, and associated burden of disease. We conducted this study amidst the pandemic to determine the associated factors for poor QoL in hemodialysis patients during the ongoing pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in a hemodialysis unit of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 118 participants responded to the validated questionnaire of Quality of Life Index-dialysis version-III (QLI). Higher scores signify good QoL, total scores are further categorized into subgroups desirable, relatively desirable and undesirable. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 57.36 ± 10.03 years and mean body mass index of 26.73 ± 5.54 kg/m2. The mean total QoL of the study population was found quite low (12.99 ± 5.89). Majority of respondents fell in undesirable category of QoL (49.2%). Total QoL (P = 0.004) and subscale health/functioning (P = 0.003) were significantly lower in females. All the subscales along with total QoL scores were found lower in twice-weekly dialyzed patients (P < 0.001). Marital status (P = 0.049) and twice-weekly dialysis (P < 0.001) were found significant with undesirable QoL. On multivariate analysis, significant determinants of undesirable QoL were twice-weekly dialysis (P = 0.001), catheter access (P = 0.034), phosphate (P = 0.005) and uric acid (P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Inadequate dialysis due to lesser frequency per week leading to poorly cleared toxic substances were most significant contributors of poor QoL in our study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Female , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Renal Dialysis , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Med J Islam Repub Iran ; 35: 195, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026775

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created unprecedented challenges across the globe. In addition to its debilitating impacts on health, the pandemic has also resulted in sudden changes in the quality of life. Our study aims to assess and highlight the alterations in lifestyle, health practices, and perceived anxiety in amongst the Pakistani denizens during the categorical lockdown across the country. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during April 2020 through an online self-administered questionnaire using the snowball sampling technique. The online survey included a diversified set of questions ranging from the demographics, participants' sleeping routine, physical activity, hygiene habits, daily routine, and dietary habits during the quarantine period. It also assessed their anxiety through a series of questions, stretching from their own apprehension of their mental health to their assumption regarding the uncertainty of the future. SPSS v23 was used for data analysis, and chi-square test was applied. Results: A total of 384 respondents were included in the study. The mean age of the participants was 21.26 ± 4.267 years. It was observed that 203 (52.9%) individuals spent most of their time in self-isolation on social media, and 167 (43.5%) of participants claimed to be undertaking online classes or watching television. Furthermore, half of the participants noted that their sleep duration had increased 194 (50.5%), along with increased levels of perceived anxiety 242 (63%). Conclusion: The imposed nationwide lockdown due to COVID-19 has extensively affected the daily routine of the people living in Pakistan, eliciting profound changes in their sleeping patterns, dietary habits, mental health, and physical activity. Therefore, addressing the issues that arise amidst the lockdown remains pivotal.

10.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 81: 104535, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007404

ABSTRACT

With the sharp rise in dengue cases across the state and the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is crucial to pay attention to the common misbelieves among the population about dengue. It should be considered to actively spread awareness about the disease to bust the common myths associated with it. A few common myths include that it is a contagious disease, or it is a milder infection than COVID-19, so it's not taken more seriously, or that one cannot be coinfected with both dengue and COVID-19 at one time. We propose that accurate information about dengue can be spread through community education through televisions and social media to cater to the targeted audience. In addition to that, awareness campaigns in rural areas should be planned to help the masses understand the pathogenesis of the diseases and play a role in limiting the transmission.

11.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1980224

ABSTRACT

Introduction and objectives In patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several abnormal hematological biomarkers have been reported. The current study aimed to find out the association of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and derived NLR (dNLR) with COVID-19. The objective was to compare the accuracy of both of these markers in predicting the severity of the disease. Materials and methods The study was conducted in a single-center having patients with COVID-19 with a considerable hospital stay. NLR is easily calculated by dividing the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) with the absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) {ANC/ALC}, while dNLR is calculated by ANC divided by total leukocyte count minus ANC {ANC/(WBC-ANC)}. Medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) were represented by box plots. Multivariable logistic regression was performed obtaining an odds ratio (OR), 95% CI, and further adjusted to discover the independent predictors and risk factors associated with elevated NLR and dNLR. Results A total of 1,000 patients with COVID-19 were included. The baseline NLR and dNLR were 5.00 (2.91–10.46) and 4.00 (2.33–6.14), respectively. A cut-off value of 4.23 for NLR and 2.63 for dNLR were set by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Significant associations of NLR were obtained by binary logistic regression for dependent outcome variables as ICU stay (p < 0.001), death (p < 0.001), and invasive ventilation (p < 0.001) while that of dNLR with ICU stay (p = 0.002), death (p < 0.001), and invasive ventilation (p = 0.002) on multivariate analysis when adjusted for age, gender, and a wave of pandemics. Moreover, the indices were found correlating with other inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and procalcitonin (PCT). Conclusion Both markers are equally reliable and sensitive for predicting in-hospital outcomes of patients with COVID-19. Early detection and predictive analysis of these markers can allow physicians to risk assessment and prompt management of these patients.

12.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103919, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944149

ABSTRACT

Genetic mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have resulted in variants with more transmissibility and partial resistance to COVID-19 vaccines, as seen in the recently classified variant of concern (VOC) "Omicron". The rapid spread has raised concerns about Omicron being airborne, which leads to a high risk of contamination in public premises, particularly among the frontline healthcare workers. Mandatory usage of protective face masks and respirators is highly recommended in order to break the chain of transmission. Furthermore, health authorities need to reassess the modes of transmission of VOCs and provide updated guidelines to the general public for its prevention.

13.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103894, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944145

ABSTRACT

Background: Adverse effects on the health and well-being changes may also express as a decreased sleep quality in COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to assess sleep quality among confirmed COVID-19 patients and the non-COVID-19 Pakistani population. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between April and September 2020 in Punjab province, Pakistan. Information about demographic characteristics, COVID-19 diseased status, prior knowledge about COVID-19, and sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was collected. Results: A total of 597 participants were included in this study, 296 (49.6%) COVID-19 patients and 301(50.4%) non-COVID-19 population. The PQSI was used to measure seven distinct sleep components; subjective quality, latency, duration, efficiency, disturbances, medication, and daytime dysfunction. Where mean ± standard deviation (SD) were 0.96 ± 0.743, 1.47 ± 1.032, 0.97 ± 1.006, 0.61 ± 0.995, 1.13 ± 0.649, 0.23 ± 0.651, 1.02 ± 0.861 respectively in total population (N = 597). Sleep latency, sleep duration, and sleep efficiency did not show a significant difference in the T-Test. While sleep quality, sleep disturbances, sleep medication, and daytime dysfunction showed a significant difference between both populations. Conclusion: In conclusion, we highlighted the poor sleep quality in COVID-19 patients as compared to the non-COVID-19 population.

14.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103796, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944135

ABSTRACT

With the emergence of COVID-19 vaccines, individuals with comorbidities and immunosuppression require particular attention and should be prioritized for vaccination. However, the majority of vaccine clinical trials excluded people with comorbidities, resulting in a lack of data regarding vaccine efficacy in this demographic. Along with more inclusivity in clinical trials, reaching a definitive conclusion regarding vaccine efficacy in these patients is also crucial. In our review, we highlight the BNT162b2 vaccine safety and efficacy based on the limited number of clinical trials which included this demographic. We also provide vaccine considerations for individuals with cancer, autoimmune diseases, HIV, obesity, diabetes, organ transplant recipients and those undergoing maintenance haemodialysis to help them govern their decision regarding vaccine administration. In conclusion, further studies are required to alleviate any insecurities in patients with comorbidities regarding vaccination and it is recommended that patients are monitored post-vaccination to make sure sufficient immunity is achieved.

15.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103705, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944126

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the survival rate and palliative care of cancer patients all over the globe. In Pakistan, there are only a few institutions and organizations which provide specialized facilities for palliative care. During the pandemic, these specialized facilities were further limited. As only less than one percent of people had access to palliative care across Pakistan in the pandemic, the situation can be improved by establishing more such departments, providing telemedicine, increasing social media campaigns, and highlighting the importance of palliative care among cancer patients.

18.
Infectious Medicine ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877154

ABSTRACT

Background The therapeutic effectiveness of interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor inhibitor in critically ill hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is uncertain. Methods To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the outcome as recovery or death of tocilizumab for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial in critically ill COVID-19 adult patients. The patients were randomly assigned in a 4:1 ratio to receive standard medical treatment plus the recommended dose of either tocilizumab or the placebo drug. Randomization was stratified. The primary outcome was the recovery or death after administration of tocilizumab or a placebo drug. The secondary outcomes were clinical recovery or worsening of the patients' symptoms and inflammatory markers and discharge from the hospital. Results Out of 190 patients included in this study, 152 received tocilizumab, and 38 received a placebo. The duration of hospital stay of the interventional group was 12.9±9.2, while the placebo group had a more extended hospital stay (15.6±8.8). The survival ratio in tocilizumab group was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.55 to 12.24;p=0.58 by log-rank test). The survival ratio in the placebo group was 0.23 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.86 to 16.11;p=0.32 by log-rank test). The inflammatory markers in the tocilizumab group significantly declined by day 16 compared to the placebo group. Conclusions The use of tocilizumab was associated with decreased mortality, earlier improvement of inflammatory markers, and reduced hospital stay in patients with severe COVID-19.

19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(20): e29333, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860982

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, classically diagnosed based on the clinical triad of ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia. MFS is usually preceded by viral infections and febrile illness; however, only a few cases have been reported after vaccinations. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old hypertensive male presented with a 2-day history of progressive ascending paralysis of the lower limbs along with diplopia and ataxia, 8 days after the first dose of the Sinovac-Coronavac coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, with no prior history of any predisposing infections or triggers. DIAGNOSES: Physical examination showed moderate motor and sensory loss with areflexia in the lower limbs bilaterally. Routine blood investigations and radiological investigations were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed albuminocytologic dissociation and nerve conduction studies revealed prolonged latencies with reduced conduction velocities. The diagnosis of MFS was established based on the findings of physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and nerve conduction studies. INTERVENTIONS: A management plan was devised based on intravenous immunoglobulins, pregabalin, and physiotherapy. However, due to certain socioeconomic factors, the patient was managed conservatively with regular physiotherapy sessions. OUTCOMES: Follow-up after 6 weeks showed remarkable improvement, with complete resolution of symptoms 10 weeks after the discharge. LESSONS: This case suggests that MFS is a rare adverse effect after COVID-19 vaccination and additional research is required to substantiate a temporal association. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology behind such complications to enhance the safety of COVID-19 vaccinations in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Ataxia/chemically induced , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Diplopia/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Miller Fisher Syndrome/chemically induced , Miller Fisher Syndrome/diagnosis , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103641, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797201

ABSTRACT

Background: Gaming addiction has become a topic of increasing research interest worldwide but little research has been carried out in Pakistan. Aims: The present study assessed the prevalence of gaming addiction among a Pakistani sample of adults in the general population. It also explored the effects of online gaming addiction upon sleep quality. Method: A cross-sectional survey was carried out during a national lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. Using a convenience sampling technique, an online survey comprising demographic information, the Game Addiction Scale (GAS), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was completed by 618 participants (67.5% male) aged 18-56 years (M = 24.53 years, SD = ±5.016). Results: Out of 618 participants, 57.0% (n=352) played online games. Among gamers, 12.5% (n = 44) were classed as addicted to the gaming based on GAS scores. Compared to those not addicted to gaming, participants with gaming addiction had significantly poorer subjective sleep quality, higher sleep disturbance, lesser sleep duration, and higher daytime dysfunction. Gaming addiction was also more prevalent among males compared to females. Conclusion: Gaming addiction among the Pakistani general population is significantly associated with poor sleep quality. This problem needs to be addressed at both individual and societal levels to avoid adverse long-term health impacts.

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