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1.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2148228

ABSTRACT

A 12-year-old female individual receives a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 and reports bilateral blurry vision, large blue paracentral scotomata, and a migraine without a scintillating scotoma. What would you do next?

2.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1381-A0077, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058693

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma are vision-threatening diseases (VTDs) affecting 36 million people in the USA. With 5.7 ophthalmologists per 100,000 Americans, over 50% of VTDs go undetected. We assessed deep learning Artificial Intelligence (DLAI) in VTD detection in community and clinical settings. Methods : 223 subjects (mean age 54.6, 58% male) from community screenings (A) and clinic (B) underwent 45-degree retinal imaging. In A (non-dilated), an onsite telemedicine reader (R1) and remote ophthalmologist (R2) graded image quality (gamma and alignment, 1-5 scale) and referable VTD using the international grading scales for AMD and DR, and cup-to-disc ratio and nerve fiber layer for glaucoma. In B (dilated), gradings were collected from R1 and the clinical diagnosis (d). A senior ophthalmologist (R3) adjudicated disputed findings. In A, DLAI VTD referral was compared to R1/R2/R3 consensus (S);in B, overall referral was compared to R1/d/R3 consensus (C). Images were uploaded to a cloud-based DLAI (SELENA+, EyRIS Pte Ltd) (Fig 1). Cohen's kappa assessed intergrader agreement. Results : R1 and R2 found 4.7% eyes ungradable. DLAI marked 55.6% ungradable;74.6% of them were for AMD. Of the DLAI ungradable eyes, image quality was ≤ 3, and 56.2% had ≥ 1+ cataract (R1). Compared to in A, in B DLAI had higher sensitivity (97.1% vs. 63.2%) and positive predictive value (69.4% vs. 32%). In A, DLAI had higher specificity (94.5% vs.16.7%) and negative predictive value (98.4% vs. 75.0%) (Table 1). In A, Cohen's kappa was 0.946 between R1 and R2, with a 13% disagreement rate. In 56% of the disagreements, R3 agreed with R1. In B, Cohen's kappa was 0.874 for R1 and d;R1 referred more than d. In A and B, DLAI referred more than R1, R2, and H/C. DLAI referred all eyes with > 1 VTD (1%) for further examination. Grading times for DLAI, R1, and R2 were 30, 129, and 68 seconds. Conclusions : DLAI performed best in DR and glaucoma detection;a potential solution for the high ungradable rate can be for DLAI to re-center uploaded images. DLAI can increase efficiency and accessibility of screenings for multiple VTDs, in both underserved populations and clinic. The ability to minimize direct contact confers an advantage during COVID-19. Further studies will investigate DLAI use in VTD progression.

3.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1385-A0081, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058685

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The most common cause of blurry vision in the United States is refractive error. Despite being a correctable condition, over 8.2 million people are estimated to have their refractive error go undiagnosed or untreated. Minorities and low-income groups in particular have significantly increased odds of inadequate correction and double the rates of near-vision impairment. We aimed to address this gap in care through the provision of refractive glasses during community-based tele-ophthalmology screenings. Methods : Eight free eye screening events were held in Newark and West New York, NJ. Demographic information, intraocular pressure, visual acuity, auto-refraction, retinal imaging, and optical coherence tomography were obtained from each subject as part of a comprehensive tele-ophthalmology protocol. Reading glasses were provided as needed based on the recommendation of a certified telemedicine reader. Eligible recipients completed surveys on site regarding access to eye care. They were surveyed again by phone after one month to assess degree of satisfaction and vision improvement. Results : 38 subjects (mean age 53, 47% male) qualified for presbyopia correction and received reading glasses. 97% were Hispanic and 3% were African American. Of the 33 that returned surveys, 88% reported not seeing an eye doctor annually. The most common reason was lack of insurance or inability to pay (71%). Others included having no need to see an eye doctor (10%), disliking eye doctors (7%), not knowing the importance of regular eye exams (3%), and COVID-19 (3%). Of the 25 subjects that were reached for follow-up, 92% reported using the glasses daily. Those that did not reported the power was too strong or they did not feel they needed them. Subjects noted an average improvement in vision of 4.4 out of 5 and an average satisfaction of 4.7 out of 5 (Figure 1). Conclusions : Glasses distribution is an effective way to address refractive error in underserved communities. Given the gaps in knowledge and utilization of eye care identified in our study, there is an obvious need for continued outreach to these areas. Further studies will include larger populations and evaluate mobile refraction devices to increase ease and reach of glasses provision.

4.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1386-A0082, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058677

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Over 50% of individuals with vision-threatening disease (VTD) (e.g., diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, macular degeneration) are unaware of their condition, and once diagnosed, 80% will not follow up for clinical care, especially since the onset of SARS-CoV-2 in 2020. Remote teleophthalmology with real-time robotic teleconsultation was implemented to include automated puff-tonometry (APT) as pre-triage to identify patients who require more detailed clinical assessment and treatment. Methods : 224 subjects (58% male) of average age 55 years were screened over 8 events. Following COVID-19 protocols screenings took place in New Jersey churches and health fairs featuring a high prevalence of African American and Hispanic subjects. Masked and self-reported vaccinated subjects underwent medical history, blood pressure, visual acuity (with pinhole), automated puff-tonometry (APT) for intraocular pressures (IOP), automated refraction, non-mydriatic retinal imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and wearable visual field device (WVFD) testing. Face masks were fitted with surgical tape on the nose bridge to limit instrument fogging. To minimize equipment contact, all subjects were screened in the standing position, including APT and retinal imaging (Fig.1). Chi-square and t-tests were performed to assess factors associated with glaucoma referral. Subjects without IOP readings were excluded;significance was set at p<0.05. Results : 10.29% of measured eyes had an IOP>18 and underwent additional testing including OCT-B of the optic nerve head, nerve fiber layer, and ganglion cell complex. 31.43% of eyes with IOP>18 underwent teleconsultation with a glaucoma specialist, vs. 8.85% of eyes with IOP≤18 ((p<0.001), Table 1). The difference in mean age in subjects with glaucoma referral vs. without (57.42 vs. 51.61 years) was significant (p=0.008). Conclusions : APT was useful in supporting on-site OCT-B imaging and WVFD referral (37.67%, 8.52% of total subjects) that yielded 17.94% referral to on-site teleconsultation through a real-time telerobot. Future investigation will include larger and more diverse community-based populations.

5.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1384-A0080, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058605

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Retinal imaging is the gold standard in tele-ophthalmology. Limitations in twodimensional imaging can lead to poor triage or unnecessary clinical referrals, especially during COVID-19. Combined retinal imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography-B scan (OCT-B) in detecting vision threatening diseases (VTDs) such as glaucoma in communitybased screenings adds a third dimension to subject data. Methods : A non-mydriatic Topcon 3D Maestro1 imaging system was deployed in this pilot study to screen 120 subjects (43.3% male, mean age 55.1) in community-based screenings. Measurements of vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), nerve fiber layer (NFL) thickness and macular and ganglion cell layer (GCL) thickness were collected along with color retinal images by the Maestro1. Visual acuity and intraocular pressures (IOP) were obtained as part of the screening protocol. Four types of OCTs were acquired: 78.33% 3D Wide, 13.33% 3D Macula, 5.83% 3D Disc, and 2.51% 5-Line Cross. An on-site certified reader (CR) interpreted results and provided consultation follow-up to a remote ophthalmic subspecialist. Results : Of 222 eyes, OCT-B confirmed follow-up in 86.94%. 88.3% of subjects had referable eye pathology: 23.33% to general or specialty eye clinic and 65% to telemedicine. CR glaucoma referral based on OCT-B scan, VCDR and NFL defects was compared to OCT-B referral based on VCDR ≥0.65. Cohen's kappa was 0.546 with 30% disagreement. Compared to CR, OCT-B generated VCDR had a 91.1% specificity and 42.3% sensitivity in detecting glaucoma. VCDR, IOP, NFL, and GCL measurements were significantly correlated with CR glaucoma referral (p<0.05). Only VCDR, NFL, and GCL were significantly correlated with Maestro 1 glaucoma referral (p<0.05). Conclusions : OCT-B images provide valuable added diagnostic information about referrals in glaucoma. Its ability to capture greater depth of information about the eye, such as NFL and GCL measurements, compared to traditional two-dimensional retinal photography, warrants consideration for OCT-B as a replacement for non-mydriatic retinal photography as the gold standard in ophthalmic diagnostics. Further studies can investigate the utility trend analysis of OCT-B in predicting VTD's progression over time.

6.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1379-A0075, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058539

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Vision Threatening Diseases (VTDs) (age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma) affect 36 million individuals in the United States. 50% are unaware they have a VTD, disproportionally affecting minorities and lowincome groups with less access to eye care. While screening programs in underserved communities result in early detection, less than half of subjects with findings follow up with a specialist. This number is four times lower during COVID-19. Methods : Robotic Telepresence (RT) was implemented in this pilot study during COVID19 to increase real-time access to specialist care. 58 subjects (age 56, 45% male) underwent a non-mydriatic screening protocol over five screenings. They were divided into three groups for consult: In Person (IP) followed by RT (N = 21), RT followed by IP (N = 19), and IP only (N = 18). IP consult was done by an on-site certified reader. RT consult was done by an off-site glaucoma or retina specialist with access to blood pressure, visual acuity, intraocular pressure, 45° retinal images, and ocular coherence tomography Bscans via cloud-based software. Video connection for RT was established via HIPAAcompliant mobile hotspot. Subject demographics and preferences were collected afterwards via survey. Results : Of 40 RT consults, 26 were second opinion for VTD suspect and 14 were wellness encounters. 24 reported their last eye care visit >3 years ago or never. Following RT consult, 18 subjects received one or multiple VTD diagnosis and 3 with glaucoma were referred for pressure-lowering eye drops. In the group with IP consult first, preferences were 5% RT, 52% IP, and 43% none. In the group with RT consult first, preferences were 5% RT, 58% IP, and 37% none. There was no significant difference in number of questions asked, wait time, or encounter length between IP and RT consults. Conclusions : RT consults proved valuable in community-based VTD screenings, particularly during COVID-19 when access to eye care is further limited. Most subjects preferred IP. However subjects with VTD that face socioeconomic barriers benefit from immediate RT consult and management directives from remote subspecialists. Further studies should incorporate consults from additional specialties (endocrinologists, general practitioners, social workers) and include telehealth CPT code for reimbursement.

7.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):265-A0119, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058538

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The COVID-19 pandemic has caused societal, behavioral changes that have resulted in increased near work and less outdoor time. These changes may influence myopia progression. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional prevalence study on the population base in Olmsted County, Minnesota to determine if there are short-term changes in myopia. Methods : Individuals living in Olmsted County who received ophthalmic care at Mayo Clinic Rochester from 2018 to 2021 were analyzed. Exclusion criteria included 1) visually significant cataract, 2) pseudophakia, 3) prior refractive surgery and 4) Age < 6 years. Manifest refractions were converted to spherical equivalent (SE). Patients with a SE ≤ -0.5 D were classified as myopic while SE ≤ -6.0 D were classified with high myopia. Individual age, sex, visual acuity, and lens prescription data were recorded. An algorithm was designed to estimate prevalence for patients without a manifest refraction utilizing their visual acuity, as was used in the NHANES study . Results : We sampled 11,783 invidiual records (8,413 adults;3,370 children). In adults from 2018 to 2021, the prevalence of myopia was similar at 61% vs 59% (p=0.3887) and high myopia was also similar at 10% vs 9.9% (p=0.5447). In children from 2018 to 2021, the prevalence of both myopia was similar at 21% vs 17% (p=0.2) and high myopia was also similar at 2.6% and 3.8% (p=.37). Conclusions : From 2018 to 2021, we did not find any trends in myopia development over a relatively brief, 4-year window in either pediatric or adult patients living in Olmsted County, Minnesota.

8.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1383-A0079, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2058064

ABSTRACT

Purpose : The COVID-19 pandemic exposed the need for increased mobilization of teleophthalmology resources. Artificial intelligence (AI) may serve as a tool to assist physicians in triaging highest need patients if the AI's assessment of disease is comparable to the physician's assessment. This study assesses the ability of AI software to diagnose diabetic retinopathy (DR) as compared to Tele-ophthalmology and in-person examination by a retina specialist. Methods : Records of forty patients (average age 55.1±10.9 years) presenting to an urban retina clinic were reviewed retrospectively for factors including demographics, retinal photos taken by Canon CR-2 Plus AF Retinal Imaging camera (Tokyo, Japan), and diagnosis of DR based on the International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy (ICDR) classification scale during an in-person clinic visit in which a fundus exam was performed. Retinal photos were graded by AI software, EyeArt (EyeNuk, CA), as Normal, Mild DR, or More than Mild DR. Retinal images were also graded remotely by a retina specialist using the ICDR classification scale via TeamViewer software (Tele). Agreement between Tele, AI, and inperson DR diagnosis was assessed using Cohen's Kappa (κ) coefficient using IBM® SPSS® Statistics software. Results : Among 80 eyes, 33 were diagnosed in-person with no DR, 5 with mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 9 with moderate NPDR, 3 with severe NPDR, 7 with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), and 23 with regressed PDR. Eleven and 26 eyes could not be graded by Tele or AI, respectively. κ±SE for in-Person diagnosis vs Tele was 0.859±0.058 (p<.001), in-person vs AI was 0.751±0.082 (p<.001), and Tele vs AI was 0.883±0.063 (p<.001). Conclusions : AI is a reliable tool for screening patients for DR and referring them for physician evaluation since AI had a substantial rate of agreement with the in-person diagnosis and near perfect agreement with Tele. Tele grading was in near perfect agreement with the in-person diagnosis, showing that Tele is a reliable option for a physician to remotely screen patients that may be ungradable by AI. However, improvements are needed due to the high number of images that are ungradable via Tele and AI. Further studies should assess ways to reduce the number of ungradable images via Tele and AI and create a trend analysis for multiple visits for a given patient.

9.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1421-A0117, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057824

ABSTRACT

Purpose : Limited access to eye-care among Latinos can lead to missed Vision Threatening Diseases (VTDs) defined as Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), cataracts, Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and glaucoma. As 50% of the people with VTD's are unaware of their condition made worse during COVID-19, comprehensive eye screenings to assess ocular wellness was implemented using telemedicine, Artificial Intelligence (AI) and robotic consultations. Methods : State-sponsored screenings were conducted at a church in West New York, NJ (78% Latino, mostly from Colombia) over 3 weekends during the 2021 Pandemic. All participants had received two-dose vaccinations and wore a surgical mask during screenings. Nine first-year medical students and 6 community volunteers took part in the wellness evaluation including: medical history, blood pressure, visual acuity, automated refraction, puff tonometry, 45-degree non-mydriatic retinal photography AI. To confirm findings: 6-micron resolution ocular coherence tomography (OCT) B-scan was performed. Screened subjects had their data reviewed by an onsite ophthalmic grader using a Spanish-speaking interpreter. As 80% of screened subjects are lost to follow-up, remote robotic ophthalmology consultation via HIPAA compliant Wi-Fi was utilized in real-time to connect with an off-site ophthalmologist. Results : 153 subjects, (71 Female (46%), median age 55) had 127 ocular findings (Table 1) found in 85 (55%) subjects, of which 98% of findings were previously unknown and 40 (47%) classified as VTD. 23(15%) subjects had multiple findings. OCT confirmed 23 cases of AMD and glaucoma. AI referred 39 cases. 36 individuals took part in robotic virtual consults. Findings were: cataracts 70 (45%), glaucoma 32 (20%), and AMD 25(16%). Among those with findings, 82% were uninsured and 90% had >2 years since last eye exam. 32 (32/153) subjects had undertreated or untreated hypertension. 93% were un-familiar with telemedicine. Conclusions : Latinos without health insurance and ease of access to eyecare may have a higher burden of multi-VTDs. An exception was DR which could be a limitation of population bias. This pilot study supports comprehensive wellness eye screenings that may allow for early detection, confirmation, and referral of single or multiple VTD in high-risk low-income communities. Further studies are needed using larger sample populations. (Figure Presented).

10.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science ; 63(7):1389-A0085, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2057429

ABSTRACT

Purpose : 57.5 million people worldwide are affected by glaucoma. However, 50% of those with glaucoma are unaware, and 80% of those identified for follow-up in community screenings (CS) fail to do so. Current standards of visual field testing are usually limited to the clinic. As such, a wearable perimetry headset was used to perform Virtual Reality Visual Field Acuity (VRVFA) examination for suspected visual field loss in the community minimizing exposure to COVID-19 and the need for follow-up. Methods : 31 subjects from 4 CS were screened by an onsite certified telemedicine reader (CR) who considered family history, visual acuity, intraocular pressures, cup-to-disc ratio, nerve fiber layer defects, and ganglion cell complex captured by non-mydriatic photography and ocular coherence tomography (OCT-B). Cataracts were also graded. Supervised VRVFA testing with a multilingual Palmscan VF2000 Analyzer (Fig.1) was performed in 6 minutes on average. Eyes with fixation losses >20% or false positive/negative ratios >0.375 were excluded. Visual field index (VFI), mean deviation (MD), pattern standard deviation (PSD), and mean sensitivity (MS) from VRVFA were compared to CR glaucoma referral and cataract grading. Descriptive statistics, independent samples t-tests, and Mood's median tests were performed. Subjects with positive findings underwent same-day robotic glaucoma specialist telepresence evaluation. Results : 37 eyes from 31 subjects met inclusion criteria (mean age 51.42 ± 14.57 years, 56.76% male, 94.59% Hispanic). 7 (18.92%) eyes were referred for glaucoma evaluation. Glaucoma referrals had significantly different VFI (66.86% vs 86.40%, p=0.027), MD (-9.60 vs -4.04, p=0.031), and MS (19.94 vs 26.01, p=0.027) (Fig. 2). 30 (81.08%) eyes were 0-1+ in cataract grading, 5 (13.51%) were 2-3+, and 2 (5.41%) were intra-ocular lenses (IOL);respectively, these subgroups were not significantly different in VFI (84.20% vs 92.80% vs 35.00%, p=0.147), MD (-4.70 vs -2.11 vs -18.41, p=0.147), PSD (3.52 vs 2.25 vs 9.69, p=0.053), or MS (25.38 vs 27.75 vs 9.91, p=0.147) (Fig. 2). Conclusions : VRVFA testing yielded valuable information on the extent of vision loss as a supportive screening tool for glaucoma congruent with referrals. Expanded testing is needed. Future studies may evaluate VRVFA utility in evaluating other peripheral vision threatening diseases.

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