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1.
Plant Dis ; 90(9): 1263, 2006 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781121

ABSTRACT

Wax myrtle (Morella cerifera (synonym Myrica cerifera) (L.) Small) is a native tree used in Florida landscapes. In the summer of 2005 and spring of 2006, small necrotic spots were observed on young leaves in two commercial nurseries in central Florida. Lesions were dark brown-to-black and eventually coalesced to form large, irregular necrotic areas. Leaves with large lesions abscised prematurely, defoliating the entire plant. Conidia formed on acervuli were observed on the surface of the largest lesions and were tentatively identified as a Colletotrichum sp. Isolations from the edges of lesions were made on potato dextrose agar (PDA) after surface disinfestation of leaf pieces in 0.6% NaOCl for 30 sec. Red chromogenic colonies developed after 5 days of incubation at 24°C. Colonies produced hyaline, oblong conidia with pointed ends averaging 14 × 4 µm and were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds (1). The sequence from internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 and the 5.8s rRNA gene of the rDNA repeat for an isolate (GenBank Accession No. DQ839609) was 100% identical to sequence from the same region of 36 C. acutatum isolates in the NCBI database. These isolates came from at least 16 different hosts, including seven ornamental hosts. There were three isolates from blueberry among the matches (Accession Nos. AB219029, AJ301911, and AJ301905), and the rDNA sequence was also identical to the sequence obtained in our laboratory for a chromogenic C. acutatum isolate from blueberry. Three single-spore isolates were tested for pathogenicity on potted plants in the greenhouse. Two young shoots were spray inoculated with a suspension (1 × 106 conidia/ml) of each isolate. Shoots were covered with a plastic bag for 24 h and maintained at 26.5°C. Two shoots were sprayed with sterile water as a control and similarly covered. All isolates produced brown spots on the youngest leaves 3 to 5 days after inoculation; no symptoms developed on control shoots. The fungus was reisolated from all inoculated shoots. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. acutatum on wax myrtle in Florida. The disease has a potential to spread and become a significant problem for the cultivation of this species in ornamental nurseries in Florida. Reference: (1) J. H. Simmonds. Qld. J. Agric. Anim. Sci. 22:437, 1965.

2.
Genet Mol Res ; 15(1): 15016850, 2016 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985946

ABSTRACT

The soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is a major cause of soybean yield reduction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of marker-assisted selection to identify genotypes resistant to SCN race 3 infection, using Sat_168 and Sat-141 resistance quantitative trait loci. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, using soybean populations originated from crosses between susceptible and resistant parent stock: CD-201 (susceptible) and Foster IAC (resistant), Conquista (susceptible) and S83-30 (resistant), La-Suprema (susceptible) and S57-11 (resistant), and Parecis (susceptible) and S65-50 (resistant). Plants were inoculated with SCN and evaluated according to the female index (FI), those with FI < 10% were classified as resistant to nematode infection. Plants were genotyped for SCN resistance using microsatellite markers Sat-141 and Sat_168. Marker selection efficiency was analyzed by a contingency table, taking into account genotypic versus phenotypic evaluations for each line. These markers were shown to be useful tool for selection of SCN race 3.


Subject(s)
Disease Resistance , Microsatellite Repeats , Nematoda/physiology , Quantitative Trait Loci , Soybeans/genetics , Animals , Genes, Plant , Genetic Markers/genetics , Genetic Variation , Immunity, Innate , Inbreeding , Plant Diseases/genetics , Plant Diseases/immunology , Soybeans/immunology , Soybeans/parasitology
3.
Health Place ; 22: 1-6, 2013 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23518256

ABSTRACT

This qualitative study utilized a time-geography framework to explore the daily routines and daily paths of African American men who have sex with men (AA MSM) and how these shape HIV risk. Twenty AA MSM aged 18 years and older completed an in-depth interview. Findings revealed (1) paths and routines were differentiated by indicators of socio-economic status, namely employment and addiction, and (2) risk was situated within social and spatial processes that included dimensions of MSM disclosure and substance use. This study highlights the critical need for future research and interventions that incorporate the social and spatial dimensions of behavior to advance our ability to explain racial disparities in HIV and develop effective public health responses.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/etiology , Homosexuality, Male , Social Environment , Adult , Baltimore , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qualitative Research , Risk Assessment , Social Class , Substance-Related Disorders , Young Adult
4.
Soc Sci Med ; 53(7): 845-63, 2001 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11522133

ABSTRACT

Geographers have shown that daily activities and social networks are constrained by time-space, but there are also enabling facets or opportunities created by daily routines for accessing material and emotional resources, improving quality of life, and even challenging existing power relations. Time-geography in this paper is taken as a starting point to assess how individuals living with HIV and AIDS navigate the complex and often difficult time space contexts defining their access to services. The concept of time space windows of access is offered as a way to understand the opportunities created by daily routines and social network interaction even in highly marginalized social, economic, and political circumstances. Survey data and in-depth interviews conducted with a diverse group of persons living with HIV and AIDS are used to illustrate this conceptual argument. Results indicate that the time space characteristics of daily routines, such as frequency of activities, variety or heterogeneity in activities, and whether activities are self- or social network-oriented, serve to define the availability of temporal and spatial windows of access to services. In addition, daily routines seem to matter for specific types of services, and have a limited role to play in terms of primary medical services or those associated with basic needs. The implications of these findings for theorizing and for enhancing access to services are provided.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Research/methods , Leisure Activities , Adult , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Quality of Life , Social Support
5.
Health Place ; 3(3): 187-99, 1997 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-10670970

ABSTRACT

HIV and AIDS are rapidly becoming leading causes of death for men and women in large cities across the US. Epidemiological data indicate that persons of color in particular have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. The continuing growth in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among persons of color implies that human service facilities will be needed in close proximity. However, there has been little research exploring response to human service facilities associated with HIV/AIDS in communities of color. This paper explores community response to facilities associated with HIV/AIDS by analyzing in-depth interviews with fifteen Vietnamese and Latino/Latina informal opinion leaders in Orange County, California. These interviews indicate that the stigma surrounding HIV/AIDS emanates to a large degree from the social construction of "HIV/AIDS as homosexuality". Even with the deviance and marginalization associated with HIV/AIDS, however, creative coping strategies have been developed by families within the Latino and Vietnamese communities to enable the maintenance of family ties with persons living with HIV/AIDS.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Hispanic or Latino/psychology , Prejudice , Social Work , Adult , California , Community-Institutional Relations , Female , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Humans , Male , Vietnam/ethnology
6.
Semina ; 18(Ed.esp): 46-54, nov. 1997. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS (Americas) | ID: lil-223970

ABSTRACT

Escolhendo o tema das verminoses, o Grupo Interdisciplinar e Multiprofissional n§9 (GIM-9) fez um levantamento da frequência de positividade de verminose entre a populaçäo da área de abrangência da Unidade Básica de Saúde do Jardim Leonor, em Londrina, e, em seguida, procurou proporcionar maior informaçäo àquela populaçäo sobre a importância de cuidados básicos, higiene pessoal e saneamento básico. Como objetivos secundários, decorrentes do processo de aprendizagem, destacamos a integraçäo e desenvolvimento em equipe multidisciplinar, o amadurecimento ético e humanístico e o despertar do espírito crítico logo no início da nossa formaçäo profissional


Subject(s)
Basic Sanitation , Enterobius , Hygiene , Patient Care Team
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 45(6): 903-14, 1997 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-9255923

ABSTRACT

A central element of community response to controversial human service facilities is the socio-spatial construction of stigma. This paper develops a conceptual framework for understanding the constitution and role of stigma in community rejection of human services, particularly those associated with homelessness and HIV/AIDS. Three facets of stigma concerning homelessness and HIV/ AIDS (non-productivity, dangerousness, and personal culpability) are offered as a way of understanding the rising tide of community rejection toward human service facilities.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Community Health Services , Prejudice , Humans , United States
8.
Soc Sci Med ; 38(10): 1401-13, 1994 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8023190

ABSTRACT

Studies of homelessness have rarely addressed the differences between homed and homeless groups. Such differences may have significant impacts for subgroups of the homeless population, especially the mentally disabled homeless. This paper examines the characteristics of a sample of homed and homeless welfare applicants (N = 372) in Los Angeles County based on a recent survey conducted by the Department of Public and Social Services. First, a social geography of the homed and homeless is presented. Second, an analysis of these survey data indicates that these two populations differ in terms of demographic characteristics, types of employment, and access to institutional and social support. These results suggest that greater institutional and social support, labor market access, and stable and affordable housing resources are all necessary elements in policy which prevents and ameliorates homelessness.


Subject(s)
Health Status , Housing , Social Welfare , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Disabled Persons , Employment , Female , Health Policy , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Status Indicators , Humans , Least-Squares Analysis , Likelihood Functions , Logistic Models , Los Angeles , Male , Mental Disorders/rehabilitation , Multivariate Analysis , Population Dynamics , Poverty , Psychological Distance , Social Support
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