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1.
25th International Conference on Network-Based Information Systems, NBiS 2022 ; 526 LNNS:365-373, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2013976

ABSTRACT

Taking advantage of self-restraint due to the infection spread of COVID-19 in recent years, the utilization of online communication using the Internet in various fields such as classes and conference is rapidly expanding. However, it has been pointed out that many systems that are mainly used at present have traditional problems, such as feeling various discomforts compared to normal face-to-face communication. In order to realize on-line communication more smoothly, we proposed and implemented an on-line communication system that can convey the face and face orientation of the participant by using multiple cameras. In addition, we verified the effectiveness of this proposed system by comparative experiments with traditional on-line communication system. As these results, we confirmed that the multi-camera system can communicate the direction of the face to the other participants. Moreover, the obstacles in conversation can be removed as a whole, although there are differences in the usability of each participant. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

2.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333553

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The absence of systematic surveillance for SARS-CoV-2 has curtailed accurate appraisal of transmission intensity. Our objective was to perform case detection of an entire rural community to quantify SARS-CoV-2 transmission using PCR and antibody testing. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the prevalence and cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the rural town of Bolinas, California (population 1,620), four weeks following shelter-in-place orders. Residents and county essential workers were tested between April 20th-24th, 2020. Prevalence by PCR and seroprevalence combining data from two forms of antibody testing were performed in parallel (Abbott ARCHITECT IgG to nucleocapsid protein and in-house IgG ELISA to the receptor binding domain). RESULTS: Of 1,891 participants, 1,312 were confirmed Bolinas residents (>80% community ascertainment). Zero participants were PCR positive. Assuming 80% sensitivity, it would have been unlikely to observe these results (p<0.05) if there were >3 active infections in the community. Based on antibody results, estimated prevalence of prior infection was 0.16% (95% CrI: 0.02%, 0.46%). Seroprevalence estimates using only one of the two tests would have been higher, with greater uncertainty. The positive predictive value (PPV) of a positive result on both tests was 99.11% (95% CrI: 95.75%, 99.94%), compared to PPV 44.19%-63.32% (95% CrI range 3.25%-98.64%) if only one test was utilized. CONCLUSIONS: Four weeks following shelter-in-place, active and prior SARS-CoV-2 infection in a rural Northern California community was extremely rare. In this low prevalence setting, use of two antibody tests increased the PPV and precision of seroprevalence estimates.

3.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 0(0):8, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1677603

ABSTRACT

Objectives An effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is essential to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. In these several months, a number of groups have started to report humoral responses and side effects after BNT162b2 vaccinations. Although these reports demonstrate the safety and efficacy, further studies are warranted to verify these findings. Here we examined the levels of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in Japanese healthy volunteers who underwent BNT162b2 vaccine, to assess the humoral responses and side effects. Methods Forty-one healthy volunteers' samples were used for the measurement of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies with chemiluminescent assays against the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the virus. We also measured the side effects of the vaccination. Results Although the levels of IgM varied, all participants were seronegative for IgM and IgG before vaccination, and both IgM and IgG were significantly increased after the vaccinations. We further analyzed the humoral responses in relation to age, and found that the IgG levels for 14 days and 35 days, and IgM levels for 14 days after vaccination showed clear declining trends with age. Commonly reported side effects in the participants were sore arm/pain (90.0%) after the first dose, and generalized weakness/fatigue (70.0%), fever (57.5%), and sore arm/pain (90.0%) after the second dose. Conclusions BNT162b2 vaccination generates sufficient production of IgG especially after the second dose, though the response decreases age-dependently. The high frequencies of generalized weakness/fatigue, fever, and sore arm/pain were not negligible, especially after the second dose. This may be associated with the age characteristics of the population.

4.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 0(0):3, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1666794
5.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293448

ABSTRACT

Serosurveys are a key resource for measuring SARS-CoV-2 cumulative incidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that asymptomatic and mild infections (together making up over 95% of all infections) are associated with lower antibody titers than severe infections. Antibody levels also peak a few weeks after infection and decay gradually. We developed a statistical approach to produce adjusted estimates of seroprevalence from raw serosurvey results that account for these sources of spectrum bias. We incorporate data on antibody responses on multiple assays from a post-infection longitudinal cohort, along with epidemic time series to account for the timing of a serosurvey relative to how recently individuals may have been infected. We applied this method to produce adjusted seroprevalence estimates from five large-scale SARS-CoV-2 serosurveys across different settings and study designs. We identify substantial differences between reported and adjusted estimates of over two-fold in the results of some surveys, and provide a tool for practitioners to generate adjusted estimates with pre-set or custom parameter values. While unprecedented efforts have been launched to generate SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimates over this past year, interpretation of results from these studies requires properly accounting for both population-level epidemiologic context and individual-level immune dynamics.

6.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293421

ABSTRACT

Background: As COVID-19 vaccines continue to be rolled-out, the "double burden" of health disparities in both exposure to infection and vaccination coverage intersect to determine the current and future patterns of infection, immunity, and mortality. Serology provides a unique opportunity to measure biomarkers of infection and vaccination simultaneously, and to relate these metrics to demographic and geographic factors. Methods: Leveraging algorithmically selected residual serum samples from two hospital networks in San Francisco, we sampled 1014 individuals during February 2021, capturing transmission during the first 11 months of the epidemic and the early roll out of vaccination. These samples were tested using two serologic assays: one detecting antibodies elicited by infection, and not by vaccines, and one detecting antibodies elicited by both infection and vaccination. We used Bayesian statistical models to estimate the proportion of the population that was naturally infected and the proportion protected due to vaccination. Findings: We estimated that the risk of prior infection of Latinx residents was 5.3 (95% CI: 3.2 - 10.3) times greater than the risk of white residents aged 18-64 and that white San Francisco residents over the age of 65 were twice as likely (2.0, 95% CI: 1.1 - 4.6) to be vaccinated as Black residents. We also found socioeconomically deprived zipcodes in the city had high probabilities of natural infections and lower vaccination coverage than wealthier zipcodes. Interpretation: Using a platform we created for SARS-CoV-2 serologic data collection in San Francisco, we characterized and quantified the stark disparities in infection rates and vaccine coverage by demographic groups over the first year of the pandemic. While the arrival of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has created a 'light at the end of the tunnel' for this pandemic, ongoing challenges in achieving and maintaining equity must also be considered. Funding: NIH, NIGMS, Schmidt Science Fellows in partnership with the Rhodes Trust and the Chan Zuckerberg Biohub.

7.
Journal of Laboratory Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1443871

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is rapidly spreading globally. Early diagnosis plays an essential role in controlling the infection. Therefore, early and accurate SARS-CoV-2 detection assays along with easy operation are required. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of the Ampdirect™ 2019-nCoV Detection Kit (SHIMADZU assay), which does not require RNA purification steps, with that of the preexisting SARS-CoV-2 detection assays, which use a purified RNA template. A total of 71 samples (65 nasopharyngeal specimens and 6 sputum specimens) were collected from 32 individuals, including patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and those with suspected infection. The sensitivity and kappa (κ) coefficient were assessed between the SARS-CoV-2 detection assays using the reference standard, which was defined as a true positive result by any one of the four SARS-CoV-2 detection assays. The overall sensitivity and κ coefficient of the SHIMADZU assay were 86.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.9-94.2) and 0.83 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96), respectively. In particular, among the 18 samples collected within 10 days from symptom onset, the sensitivity and κ coefficient of the SHIMADZU assay were 100% and 1.0, respectively. Although a relatively small number of samples was evaluated, the SHIMADZU assay showed good analytical performance and as such would be highly useful for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The test can be performed easily and quickly and has the potential for future applications in situations where a highly sensitive diagnosis is required. © 2021

8.
Annals of Oncology ; 32:S320, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1338339

ABSTRACT

Background: An emergency framework was set to confront the first wave COVID-19 pandemic at the medical oncology division for breast cancer at the Cancer Institute Hospital of JFCR, Tokyo, in March 2020. Medical therapy was classified into two phases in our guideline. In the initial phase, workload or patients' visit was to be reduced without impairing disease control and survival. In the successive phase under restriction of medical resources, only therapies with higher priority and alternate therapies were to be practiced. Whereas no significant effect on medical practice was observed during first wave pandemic, actual impact was evaluated in this study. Methods: Among patients in our division from April to May 2020, cases of treatment change, postponement of treatment introduction, treatment interruption, long-term prescription, telephone consultation, postponement of visit, reference to other hospital, and COVID-19 diagnosis were retrospectively searched from medical records. Results: There were estimated 984 patients, 389 perioperative and 595 metastatic, of whom 119(12%) were affected by COVID-19. The breakdown is 7 cases of treatment changes, 7 cases of postponements of introduction, 20 cases of interruptions, 12 cases of long-term prescriptions of oral chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy, 36 cases of prescriptions by telephone consultation, 94 cases of postponements of visit, 3 cases of reference to other hospital, and 4 cases of fever for which COVID-19 infection could not be denied. Conclusion: 12% of patients in the division of medical oncology at the breast center changed their treatment or schedule of visit. Treatment change that could affect breast cancer survival were 2 cases of cancellation of adjuvant chemotherapy. The effect might have been minimized by formulation of a COVID-19 guideline prior to the pandemic.

9.
Japanese Journal of Clinical Urology ; 74(13):1052-1055, 2020.
Article in Japanese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1208106
10.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-7510

ABSTRACT

Serosurveillance provides a unique opportunity to quantify the proportion of the population that has been exposed to pathogens. Here, we developed and piloted Serosurveillance for Continuous, ActionabLe Epidemiologic Intelligence of Transmission (SCALE-IT), a platform through which we systematically tested remnant samples from routine blood draws in two major hospital networks in San Francisco for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies during the early months of the pandemic. Importantly, SCALE-IT allows for algorithmic sample selection and rich data on covariates by leveraging electronic medical record data. We estimated overall seroprevalence at 4.2%, corresponding to a case ascertainment rate of only 4.9%, and identified important heterogeneities by neighborhood, homelessness status, and race/ethnicity. Neighborhood seroprevalence estimates from SCALE-IT were comparable to local community-based surveys, while providing results encompassing the entire city that have been previously unavailable. Leveraging this hybrid serosurveillance approach has strong potential for application beyond this local context and for diseases other than SARS-CoV-2.

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