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1.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 837-846, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in infants. Nirsevimab is a monoclonal antibody to the RSV fusion protein that has an extended half-life. The efficacy and safety of nirsevimab in healthy late-preterm and term infants are uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, infants who had been born at a gestational age of at least 35 weeks to receive a single intramuscular injection of nirsevimab or placebo before the start of an RSV season. The primary efficacy end point was medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after the injection. The secondary efficacy end point was hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after the injection. RESULTS: A total of 1490 infants underwent randomization: 994 were assigned to the nirsevimab group and 496 to the placebo group. Medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection occurred in 12 infants (1.2%) in the nirsevimab group and in 25 infants (5.0%) in the placebo group; these findings correspond to an efficacy of 74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.6 to 87.1; P<0.001) for nirsevimab. Hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection occurred in 6 infants (0.6%) in the nirsevimab group and in 8 infants (1.6%) in the placebo group (efficacy, 62.1%; 95% CI, -8.6 to 86.8; P = 0.07). Among infants with data available to day 361, antidrug antibodies after baseline were detected in 58 of 951 (6.1%) in the nirsevimab group and in 5 of 473 (1.1%) in the placebo group. Serious adverse events were reported in 67 of 987 infants (6.8%) who received nirsevimab and in 36 of 491 infants (7.3%) who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: A single injection of nirsevimab administered before the RSV season protected healthy late-preterm and term infants from medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by MedImmune/AstraZeneca and Sanofi; MELODY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03979313.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Infant, Premature, Diseases/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injections, Intramuscular , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male
3.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S811-S812, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564219

ABSTRACT

Background Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants. Nirsevimab is a single-dose monoclonal antibody with extended half-life that was shown to protect preterm infants 29 to < 35 weeks gestation against RSV LRTI. However, most medically attended (MA) cases occur in otherwise healthy, term infants for whom there is currently no effective RSV prevention strategy. We report the primary analysis of efficacy and safety, along with the impact of nirsevimab in late preterm and term infants (≥ 35 weeks gestation) in the phase 3 MELODY study (NCT03979313). Methods Infants were randomized 2:1 to receive one intramuscular injection of nirsevimab (50 mg if < 5 kg;100 mg if ≥ 5 kg at dosing) or placebo entering their first RSV season. The primary endpoint was the incidence of MA RSV LRTI over 150 days postdose. Cases met predefined clinical criteria of disease severity and were confirmed by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR. Safety was evaluated through 360 days postdose. Enrollment started on 23 July 2019 and was suspended following the declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic by the WHO on 11 March 2020. Results Overall, 1490 infants were randomized and included in the intent-to-treat population;1465 (98%) completed the 150-day efficacy follow-up, and 1367 (92%) completed the 360-day safety follow-up. The incidence of MA RSV LRTI was 1.2% (n=12/994) in the nirsevimab group and 5.0% (n=25/496) in the placebo group, giving nirsevimab an efficacy of 74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49.6, 87.1;p< 0.0001). Nirsevimab averted 93.6 (95% CI 63.0, 124.0) MA LRTIs per 1000 infants dosed. Nirsevimab was well tolerated, with similar rates of adverse events (87.4% nirsevimab;86.8% placebo) and serious adverse events (6.8% nirsevimab;7.3% placebo) between groups. Conclusion In this phase 3 study, a single dose of nirsevimab protected late preterm and term infants against MA RSV LRTI over an RSV season with a favorable safety profile. Approximately 11 infants need to be immunized to prevent 1 case of LRTI;nirsevimab has the potential to be an important intervention to reduce the burden of RSV LRTI in healthy infants. Disclosures Laura Hammitt, MD, MedImmune (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Merck & Co., Inc. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Novavax (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support) Laura Hammitt, MD, MedImmune (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, Research grant to my institution;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, Research grant to my institution;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, Research grant to my institution Ron Dagan, MD, Medimmune/AstraZeneca (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)MSD (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member, Research Grant or Support, Speaker’s Bureau)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member, Research Grant or Support, Speaker’s Bureau) Yuan Yuan, PhD, AstraZeneca (Employee, Shareholder) Shabhir A. Mahdi, PhD, BMGF (Research Grant or Support)EDCTP (Research Grant or Support)GlaxoSmithKline (Research Grant or Support)Melody (Research Grant or Support)Minervax (Research Grant or Support)Novavax (Research Grant or Support)SAMRC (Research Grant or Support) William J. Muller, MD, PhD, Ansun (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Astellas (Scientific Research Study Investigator)AstraZeneca (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Genentech (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Gilead (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Scientific Research tudy Investigator)Karius (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Melinta (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Nabriva (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Seqirus (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Tetraphase (Scientific Research Study Investigator) William J. Muller, MD, PhD, Ansun (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Astellas (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Research Grant or Support;AstraZeneca (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;BD (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Research Grant or Support;Eli Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Gilead (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Karius, Inc. (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator;Melinta (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Moderna (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Nabriva (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support;Seqirus (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Consultant;Tetraphase (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support Heather J. Zar, PhD, AstraZeneca (Grant/Research Support)Novavax (Grant/Research Support)Pfizer (Grant/Research Support, Advisor or Review Panel member) Dennis Brooks, MD, AstraZeneca (Employee) Amy Grenham, MSc, AstraZeneca (Employee, Shareholder) Ulrika Wählby Hamrén, PhD, AstraZeneca R&D (Employee, Shareholder) Vaishali S. Mankad, MD, AstraZeneca (Employee) Therese Takas, BSc, AstraZeneca (Employee, Other Financial or Material Support, Own stock in AstraZeneca) Jon Heinrichs, PhD, AstraZeneca (Shareholder)Bristol Myers Squibb (Shareholder)J&J (Shareholder)Merck (Shareholder)Organon (Shareholder)Procter & Gamble (Shareholder)Sanofi (Shareholder)Sanofi Pasteur (Employee) Amanda Leach, MRCPCH, AstraZeneca (Employee, Shareholder) M. Pamela Griffin, MD, AstraZeneca (Employee) Tonya L. Villafana, PhD, AstraZeneca (Employee)

4.
N Engl J Med ; 385(25): 2348-2360, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The safety and efficacy of the AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine in a large, diverse population at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the United States, Chile, and Peru has not been known. METHODS: In this ongoing, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 clinical trial, we investigated the safety, vaccine efficacy, and immunogenicity of two doses of AZD1222 as compared with placebo in preventing the onset of symptomatic and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) 15 days or more after the second dose in adults, including older adults, in the United States, Chile, and Peru. RESULTS: A total of 32,451 participants underwent randomization, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive AZD1222 (21,635 participants) or placebo (10,816 participants). AZD1222 was safe, with low incidences of serious and medically attended adverse events and adverse events of special interest; the incidences were similar to those observed in the placebo group. Solicited local and systemic reactions were generally mild or moderate in both groups. Overall estimated vaccine efficacy was 74.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.3 to 80.5; P<0.001) and estimated vaccine efficacy was 83.5% (95% CI, 54.2 to 94.1) in participants 65 years of age or older. High vaccine efficacy was consistent across a range of demographic subgroups. In the fully vaccinated analysis subgroup, no severe or critical symptomatic Covid-19 cases were observed among the 17,662 participants in the AZD1222 group; 8 cases were noted among the 8550 participants in the placebo group (<0.1%). The estimated vaccine efficacy for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection (nucleocapsid antibody seroconversion) was 64.3% (95% CI, 56.1 to 71.0; P<0.001). SARS-CoV-2 spike protein binding and neutralizing antibodies increased after the first dose and increased further when measured 28 days after the second dose. CONCLUSIONS: AZD1222 was safe and efficacious in preventing symptomatic and severe Covid-19 across diverse populations that included older adults. (Funded by AstraZeneca and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04516746.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Peru/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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