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1.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 516, 2022 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947507

ABSTRACT

The development of an in vitro cell model that can be used to study severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) research is expected. Here we conducted infection experiments in bronchial organoids (BO) and an BO-derived air-liquid interface model (BO-ALI) using 8 SARS-CoV-2 variants. The infection efficiency in BO-ALI was more than 1,000 times higher than that in BO. Among the bronchial epithelial cells, we found that ciliated cells were infected with the virus, but basal cells were not. Ciliated cells died 7 days after the viral infection, but basal cells survived after the viral infection and differentiated into ciliated cells. Fibroblast growth factor 10 signaling was essential for this differentiation. These results indicate that BO and BO-ALI may be used not only to evaluate the cell response to SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapeutic agents, but also for airway regeneration studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bronchi , Humans , Organoids
2.
Antiviral Res ; 199: 105268, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850634

ABSTRACT

Experiments with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are limited by the need for biosafety level 3 (BSL3) conditions. A SARS-CoV-2 replicon system rather than an in vitro infection system is suitable for antiviral screening since it can be handled under BSL2 conditions and does not produce infectious particles. However, the reported replicon systems are cumbersome because of the need for transient transfection in each assay. In this study, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome vector (the replicon-BAC vector) including the SARS-CoV-2 replicon and a fusion gene encoding Renilla luciferase and neomycin phosphotransferase II, examined the antiviral effects of several known compounds, and then established a cell line stably harboring the replicon-BAC vector. Several cell lines transiently transfected with the replicon-BAC vector produced subgenomic replicon RNAs (sgRNAs) and viral proteins, and exhibited luciferase activity. In the transient replicon system, treatment with remdesivir or interferon-ß but not with camostat or favipiravir suppressed the production of viral agents and luciferase, indicating that luciferase activity corresponds to viral replication. VeroE6/Rep3, a stable replicon cell line based on VeroE6 cells, was successfully established and continuously produced viral proteins, sgRNAs and luciferase, and their production was suppressed by treatment with remdesivir or interferon-ß. Molnupiravir, a novel coronavirus RdRp inhibitor, inhibited viral replication more potently in VeroE6/Rep3 cells than in VeroE6-based transient replicon cells. In summary, our stable replicon system will be a powerful tool for the identification of SARS-CoV-2 antivirals through high-throughput screening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Replicon , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication
3.
Epidemiologia ; 3(2):229-237, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1820216

ABSTRACT

The scientific, private, and industrial sectors use a wide variety of technological platforms available to achieve protection against SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), including vaccines. However, the virus evolves continually into new highly virulent variants, which might overcome the protection provided by vaccines and may re-expose the population to infections. Mass vaccinations should be continued in combination with more or less mandatory non-pharmaceutical interventions. Therefore, the key questions to be answered are: (i) How to identify the primary and secondary infections of SARS-CoV-2? (ii) Why are neutralizing antibodies not long-lasting in both cases of natural infections and post-vaccinations? (iii) Which are the factors responsible for this decay in neutralizing antibodies? (iv) What strategy could be adapted to develop long-term herd immunity? (v) Is the Spike protein the only vaccine target or is a vaccine cocktail better?

4.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(7)2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776315

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic is urgently demanding the development of alternative materials capable of inactivating the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Calcium alginate is a crosslinked hydrophilic biopolymer with an immense range of biomedical applications due to its excellent chemical, physical, and biological properties. In this study, the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of calcium alginate in the form of films were studied. The results showed that these films, prepared by solvent casting and subsequent crosslinking with calcium cations, are biocompatible in human keratinocytes and are capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as bacteriophage phi 6 with a 1.43-log reduction (94.92% viral inactivation) and SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant with a 1.64-log reduction (96.94% viral inactivation) in virus titers. The antiviral activity of these calcium alginate films can be attributed to its compacted negative charges that may bind to viral envelopes inactivating membrane receptors.

5.
PeerJ ; 10: e13136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753927

ABSTRACT

Open reading frame 8 (ORF8) shows one of the highest levels of variability among accessory proteins in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). It was previously reported that the ORF8 protein inhibits the presentation of viral antigens by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), which interacts with host factors involved in pulmonary inflammation. The ORF8 protein assists SARS-CoV-2 in evading immunity and plays a role in SARS-CoV-2 replication. Among many contributing mutations, Q27STOP, a mutation in the ORF8 protein, defines the B.1.1.7 lineage of SARS-CoV-2, engendering the second wave of COVID-19. In the present study, 47 unique truncated ORF8 proteins (T-ORF8) with the Q27STOP mutations were identified among 49,055 available B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 sequences. The results show that only one of the 47 T-ORF8 variants spread to over 57 geo-locations in North America, and other continents, which include Africa, Asia, Europe and South America. Based on various quantitative features, such as amino acid homology, polar/non-polar sequence homology, Shannon entropy conservation, and other physicochemical properties of all specific 47 T-ORF8 protein variants, nine possible T-ORF8 unique variants were defined. The question as to whether T-ORF8 variants function similarly to the wild type ORF8 is yet to be investigated. A positive response to the question could exacerbate future COVID-19 waves, necessitating severe containment measures.

6.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330298

ABSTRACT

The scientific, private and industrial sectors use a wide variety of technological platforms available to achieve protection against SARS-CoV-2, including vaccines. However, the virus evolves continually into new highly virulent variants, which might overcome the protection provided by vaccines and may re-expose the population to infections. Mass vaccinations should be continued in combination with more or less obligation mandatory non-pharmaceutical interventions. Therefore, the key questions to be answered are: (i) How to identify the primary and secondary infections of SARS-CoV-2? (ii) Why are neutralizing antibodies not long-lasting in both the cases of natural infections and post-vaccinations? (iii) Which are the factors responsible for this decay in neutralizing antibodies? (iv) What strategy could be adapted to develop long-term herd immunity? (v) Is the Spike the only vaccine candidate or a vaccine cocktail is better?

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329067

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic is urgently demanding to discover alternative materials capable of inactivate the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Calcium alginate is a crosslinked hydrophilic biopolymer with an immense range of biomedical applications due to its excellent chemical, physical and biological properties. In this study, the cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of calcium alginate in the form of films were studied. The results showed that these films are biocompatible in human keratinocytes and are capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as bacteriophage phi 6 with a 1.43-log reduction (94.92% viral inactivation) and SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant with a 1.64-log reduction (96.94% viral inactivation) in virus titers. The antiviral activity of these calcium alginate films can be attributed to its negative charge density that may bind to viral envelopes inactivating membrane receptors.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323006

ABSTRACT

Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can get infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing, or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current COVID-19 pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321083

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic options for the highly pathogenic human Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing the current pandemic Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) are urgently needed. COVID-19 is associated with viral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The proposed treatments for COVID-19, such as hydroxychloroquine, remdesivir and lopinavir/ritonavir, have shown little or no effect in the clinic. Additionally, bacterial and fungal pathogens contribute to the SARS-CoV-2 mediated pneumonia disease complex. The antibiotic resistance in pneumonia treatment is increasing at an alarming rate. Therefore, carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs), such as fullerene, carbon dots, graphene, and their derivatives constitute a promising alternative due to their wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity, biocompatibility, biodegradability and capacity to induce tissue regeneration. Furthermore, the antimicrobial mode of action is mainly physical (e.g. membrane distortion), which is characterized by a low risk of antimicrobial resistance. In this review, we evaluated the literature on the antiviral activity and broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties of CBNs. CBNs had antiviral activity against 12 enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses similar to SARS-CoV-2. CBNs with low or no toxicity to the humans are promising therapeutics against COVID-19 pneumonia complex with other viruses, bacteria and fungi, including those that are multidrug-resistant.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312112

ABSTRACT

The devastating impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on public health, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made fighting of the COVID-19 pandemic is a top priority in medical research and pharmaceutical development. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 mutations is essential for the comprehension of SARS-CoV-2 variant diversity and their impact on virulence and pathogenicity. The SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 10 (ORF10) protein interacts with multiple human proteins CUL2, ELOB, ELOC, MAP7D1, PPT1, RBX1, THTPA, TIMM8B, and ZYG11B expressed in the lung tissues. Mutations and co-mutations in the emerging SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants are expected to impact the severity of the virus and its associated consequences. In this article, We highlight 128 single mutations and 35 co-mutations in the unique SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants in this article. The possible predicted effects of these mutations and co-mutations on the secondary structure of ORF10 variants and host protein interactomes are presented. The findings highlight the possible effects of mutations and co-mutations on the emerging 140 ORF10 unique variants from secondary structure and intrinsic protein disorder perspectives.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312110

ABSTRACT

Several hypotheses have been presented on the origin of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from its identification as the agent causing the current coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic. So far, no hypothesis has managed to identify the origin, and the issue has resurfaced. Here we have unfolded a pattern of distribution of several mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 proteins across different continents comprising 24 geo-locations. The results showed an evenly uneven distribution of unique protein variants, distinct mutations, unique frequency of common conserved residues, and mutational residues across the 24 geo-locations. Furthermore, ample mutations were identified in the evolutionarily conserved invariant regions in the SARS-CoV-2 proteins across almost all geo-locations we have considered. This pattern of mutations potentially breaches the law of evolutionary conserved functional units of the beta-coronavirus genus. These mutations may lead to several novel SARS-CoV-2 variants with a high degree of transmissibility and virulence. A thorough investigation on the origin and characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 needs to be conducted in the interest of science and to be prepared to meet the challenges of potential future pandemics.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306347

ABSTRACT

Recently, two cases of complete remission of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) after SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported. However, the precise molecular mechanism of this rare event is yet to be understood. Here, we hypothesize a potential anti-tumor immune response of SARS-CoV-2 and based on computational approach show that (i) SARS-CoV-2 Spike-RBD may bind to extracellular domains of CD15, CD27, CD45, and CD152 receptors of cHL or FL, (ii) upon internalization, SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein and Orf3a may bind to gamma-tubulin complex component 3 (GCP3) at its tubulin gamma-1 chain (TUBG1) binding site, (iii) M protein may also interact with TUBG1 blocking its binding to GCP3, (iv) both M and Orf3a may render the GCP2-GCP3 lateral binding where M possibly interacts with GCP2 at its GCP3 binding site and Orf3a to GCP3 at its GCP2 interacting residues, (v) interactions of M and Orf3a with these gamma-tubulin ring complex components potentially block the initial process of microtubule nucleation, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, (vi) Spike-RBD may also interact with and block PD-1 signaling similar to pembrolizumab and nivolumab like monoclonal antibodies and may induce B-cell apoptosis and remission, (vii) finally, the TRADD interacting PVQLSY motif of Epstein-Barr virus LMP-1, that is responsible for NF-kB mediated oncogenesis, potentially interacts with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, nsp7, nsp10, and Spike proteins and may regulate the LMP-1 mediated cell proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest a possible therapeutic potential of SARS-CoV-2 in proliferative disorders.

13.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 717: 109124, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653889

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2) with an estimated fatality rate of less than 1%. The SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, and ORF10 possess putative functions to manipulate host immune mechanisms. These involve interferons, which appear as a consensus function, immune signaling receptor NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) and are critical in COVID-19 pathology. Outspread variations of each of the six accessory proteins were observed across six continents of all complete SARS-CoV-2 proteomes based on the data reported before November 2020. A decreasing order of percentage of unique variations in the accessory proteins was determined as ORF3a > ORF8 > ORF7a > ORF6 > ORF10 > ORF7b across all continents. The highest and lowest unique variations of ORF3a were observed in South America and Oceania, respectively. These findings suggest that the wide variations in accessory proteins seem to affect the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viroporin Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 194: 128-143, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549823

ABSTRACT

The devastating impact of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on public health, caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has made targeting the COVID-19 pandemic a top priority in medical research and pharmaceutical development. Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 mutations is essential for the comprehension of SARS-CoV-2 variant diversity and their impact on virulence and pathogenicity. The SARS-CoV-2 open reading frame 10 (ORF10) protein interacts with multiple human proteins CUL2, ELOB, ELOC, MAP7D1, PPT1, RBX1, THTPA, TIMM8B, and ZYG11B expressed in lung tissue. Mutations and co-occurring mutations in the emerging SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants are expected to impact the severity of the virus and its associated consequences. In this article, we highlight 128 single mutations and 35 co-occurring mutations in the unique SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 variants. The possible predicted effects of these mutations and co-occurring mutations on the secondary structure of ORF10 variants and host protein interactomes are presented. The findings highlight the possible effects of mutations and co-occurring mutations on the emerging 140 ORF10 unique variants from secondary structure and intrinsic protein disorder perspectives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Open Reading Frames , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins , Humans , Mutation , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542581

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic is demanding the rapid action of the authorities and scientific community in order to find new antimicrobial solutions that could inactivate the pathogen SARS-CoV-2 that causes this disease. Gram-positive bacteria contribute to severe pneumonia associated with COVID-19, and their resistance to antibiotics is exponentially increasing. In this regard, non-woven fabrics are currently used for the fabrication of infection prevention clothing such as face masks, caps, scrubs, shirts, trousers, disposable gowns, overalls, hoods, aprons and shoe covers as protective tools against viral and bacterial infections. However, these non-woven fabrics are made of materials that do not exhibit intrinsic antimicrobial activity. Thus, we have here developed non-woven fabrics with antimicrobial coatings of cranberry extracts capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and the bacteriophage phi 6 (about 99% of viral inactivation in 1 min of viral contact), and two multidrug-resistant bacteria: the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. The morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the produced filters were characterized by optical and electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. The non-toxicity of these advanced technologies was ensured using a Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo model. These results open up a new prevention path using natural and biodegradable compounds for the fabrication of infection prevention clothing in the current COVID-19 pandemic and microbial resistant era.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles , Vaccinium macrocarpon/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caenorhabditis elegans/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(48): 56725-56751, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526048

ABSTRACT

Management of the COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has relied in part on the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Face masks, as a representative example of PPE, have made a particularly significant contribution. However, most commonly used face masks are made of materials lacking inactivation properties against either SARS-CoV-2 or multidrug-resistant bacteria. Therefore, symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals wearing masks can still infect others due to viable microbial loads escaping from the masks. Moreover, microbial contact transmission can occur by touching the mask, and the discarded masks are an increasing source of contaminated biological waste and a serious environmental threat. For this reason, during the current pandemic, many researchers have worked to develop face masks made of advanced materials with intrinsic antimicrobial, self-cleaning, reusable, and/or biodegradable properties, thereby providing extra protection against pathogens in a sustainable manner. To overview this segment of the remarkable efforts against COVID-19, this review describes the different types of commercialized face masks, their main fabrication methods and treatments, and the progress achieved in face mask development.


Subject(s)
Masks/trends , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Biodegradation, Environmental , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Humans , Masks/classification , Recycling , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
17.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 26: 1107-1114, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472122

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that many receptors and proteases are required for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the most important of these receptors, little is known about the contribution of other genes. In this study, we examined the roles of neuropilin-1, basigin, transmembrane serine proteases (TMPRSSs), and cathepsins (CTSs) in SARS-CoV-2 infection using the CRISPR interference system and ACE2-expressing human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Double knockdown of TMPRSS2 and cathepsin B (CTSB) reduced the viral load to 0.036% ± 0.021%. Consistently, the combination of the CTPB inhibitor CA-074 methyl ester and the TMPRSS2 inhibitor camostat reduced the viral load to 0.0078% ± 0.0057%. This result was confirmed using four SARS-CoV-2 variants (B.1.3, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.1.248). The simultaneous use of these two drugs reduced viral load to less than 0.01% in both female and male iPS cells. These findings suggest that compounds targeting TMPRSS2 and CTSB exhibit highly efficient antiviral effects independent of gender and SARS-CoV-2 variant.

18.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438747

ABSTRACT

Recently, two cases of complete remission of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and follicular lymphoma (FL) after SARS-CoV-2 infection were reported. However, the precise molecular mechanism of this rare event is yet to be understood. Here, we hypothesize a potential anti-tumor immune response of SARS-CoV-2 and based on a computational approach show that: (i) SARS-CoV-2 Spike-RBD may bind to the extracellular domains of CD15, CD27, CD45, and CD152 receptors of cHL or FL and may directly inhibit cell proliferation. (ii) Alternately, upon internalization after binding to these CD molecules, the SARS-CoV-2 membrane (M) protein and ORF3a may bind to gamma-tubulin complex component 3 (GCP3) at its tubulin gamma-1 chain (TUBG1) binding site. (iii) The M protein may also interact with TUBG1, blocking its binding to GCP3. (iv) Both the M and ORF3a proteins may render the GCP2-GCP3 lateral binding where the M protein possibly interacts with GCP2 at its GCP3 binding site and the ORF3a protein to GCP3 at its GCP2 interacting residues. (v) Interactions of the M and ORF3a proteins with these gamma-tubulin ring complex components potentially block the initial process of microtubule nucleation, leading to cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. (vi) The Spike-RBD may also interact with and block PD-1 signaling similar to pembrolizumab and nivolumab- like monoclonal antibodies and may induce B-cell apoptosis and remission. (vii) Finally, the TRADD interacting "PVQLSY" motif of Epstein-Barr virus LMP-1, that is responsible for NF-kB mediated oncogenesis, potentially interacts with SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, NSP7, NSP10, and spike (S) proteins, and may inhibit the LMP-1 mediated cell proliferation. Taken together, our results suggest a possible therapeutic potential of SARS-CoV-2 in lymphoproliferative disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Lymphoma/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/complications , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Glycoproteins/ultrastructure , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Lymphoma/therapy , Lymphoma/virology , Models, Theoretical , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/ultrastructure , Viroporin Proteins/metabolism , Viroporin Proteins/ultrastructure
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 191: 934-955, 2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433283

ABSTRACT

The spike (S) protein is a critical determinant of the infectivity and antigenicity of SARS-CoV-2. Several mutations in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 have already been detected, and their effect in immune system evasion and enhanced transmission as a cause of increased morbidity and mortality are being investigated. From pathogenic and epidemiological perspectives, S proteins are of prime interest to researchers. This study focused on the unique variants of S proteins from six continents: Asia, Africa, Europe, Oceania, South America, and North America. In comparison to the other five continents, Africa had the highest percentage of unique S proteins (29.1%). The phylogenetic relationship implies that unique S proteins from North America are significantly different from those of the other five continents. They are most likely to spread to the other geographic locations through international travel or naturally by emerging mutations. It is suggested that restriction of international travel should be considered, and massive vaccination as an utmost measure to combat the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also further suggested that the efficacy of existing vaccines and future vaccine development must be reviewed with careful scrutiny, and if needed, further re-engineered based on requirements dictated by new emerging S protein variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Substitution/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Entropy , Humans , Isoelectric Point , Mutation/immunology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
Environ Res ; 204(Pt B): 112092, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433211

ABSTRACT

Various lineages of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) have contributed to prolongation of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Several non-synonymous mutations in SARS-CoV-2 proteins have generated multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants. In our previous report, we have shown that an evenly uneven distribution of unique protein variants of SARS-CoV-2 is geo-location or demography-specific. However, the correlation between the demographic transmutability of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and mutations in various proteins remains unknown due to hidden symmetry/asymmetry in the occurrence of mutations. This study tracked how these mutations are emerging in SARS-CoV-2 proteins in six model countries and globally. In a geo-location, considering the mutations having a frequency of detection of at least 500 in each SARS-CoV-2 protein, we studied the country-wise percentage of invariant residues. Our data revealed that since October 2020, highly frequent mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have been observed mostly in the Open Reading Frame (ORF) 7b and ORF8, worldwide. No such highly frequent mutations in any of the SARS-CoV-2 proteins were found in the UK, India, and Brazil, which does not correlate with the degree of transmissibility of the virus in India and Brazil. However, we have found a signature that SARS-CoV-2 proteins were evolving at a higher rate, and considering global data, mutations are detected in the majority of the available amino acid locations. Fractal analysis of each protein's normalized factor time series showed a periodically aperiodic emergence of dominant variants for SARS-CoV-2 protein mutations across different countries. It was noticed that certain high-frequency variants have emerged in the last couple of months, and thus the emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains are expected to contain prevalent mutations in the ORF3a, membrane, and ORF8 proteins. In contrast to other beta-coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 variants have rapidly emerged based on demographically dependent mutations. Characterization of the periodically aperiodic nature of the demographic spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants in various countries can contribute to the identification of the origin of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mutation , Uncertainty
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