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Int J Womens Health ; 13: 1087-1093, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523547


PURPOSE: Pregnant women are vulnerable to stress. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a global pandemic and created significant stress for many people. Social distancing to reduce the spread of COVID-19 has also reduced social interactions, which has increased social isolation and loneliness. Loneliness is thought to increase perceived stress, cause psychological distress, and increase the risk of mental illness, such as depression. This study examined the association between serious psychological distress (SPD) and loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic in pregnant Japanese women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An internet survey of 1022 pregnant women in Japan was conducted between June 1 and July 21, 2021. The 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, 3-item Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, and Fear of COVID-19 Scale were used as measurement tools. The prevalence of SPD was defined as a K6 score of ≥13. RESULTS: The prevalence of SPD was 16.5%. Multivariate analysis revealed that the risk factors for SPD were younger age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01 to 1.10; p = 0.020), history of abortion or miscarriages (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.36; p = 0.034), unemployment (OR 1.67; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.45; p = 0.008), fear of COVID-19 (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.17; p < 0.001), and loneliness (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.38 to 1.70; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Pregnant women in Japan showed a high prevalence of SPD. Younger age, unemployment, history of abortion or miscarriages, fear of COVID-19, and loneliness were independently associated with SPD. Clinicians and health officials should pay particular attention to the psychological health of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Tohoku J Exp Med ; 255(1): 71-77, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496650


COVID-19 has caused an unprecedented global pandemic. Premenstrual symptoms include mood-related, behavioral, and physical symptoms that are limited to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for premenstrual symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the association between premenstrual symptoms and stress caused by COVID-19. We analyzed data from 871 students with regular menstrual cycles who completed the Premenstrual Symptoms Questionnaire (PSQ), Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Impact of Event Scale-Revised version (IES-R). The total PSQ score was significantly higher in women with COVID-19-induced posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with pre-pandemic data (2019), the total PSQ score did not change in non-PTSS, but increased in PTSS groups. All symptoms were more severe in PTSS groups than in non-PTSS groups. Compared with 2019, PTSS groups had more severe symptoms for all symptoms except 'physical symptoms' and 'decreased social activity', and non-PTSS groups only exhibited improvements in the 'decreased social activity'. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the IES-R score was a significant exacerbation factor of the total PSQ score, along with age and menstrual pain. This study revealed the association between pandemic-associated PTSS and the severity of premenstrual symptoms.

COVID-19/complications , Premenstrual Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Menstrual Cycle , Pandemics , Premenstrual Syndrome/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires