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1.
World journal of gastroenterology ; 28(19):2034-2056, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1877233

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is known to cause gastrointestinal symptoms. Recent studies have revealed COVID-19-attributed acute pancreatitis (AP). However, clinical characteristics of COVID-19-attributed AP remain unclear. We performed a narrative review to elucidate relation between COVID-19 and AP using the PubMed database. Some basic and pathological reports revealed expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine 2, key proteins that aid in the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the pancreas. The experimental and pathological evaluation suggested that SARS-CoV-2 infects human endocrine and exocrine pancreas cells, and thus, SARS-CoV-2 may have a direct involvement in pancreatic disorders. Additionally, systemic inflammation, especially in children, may cause AP. Levels of immune mediators associated with AP, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10, interferon-γ, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor-α are higher in the plasma of patients with COVID-19, that suggests an indirect involvement of the pancreas. In real-world settings, some clinical features of AP complicate COVID-19, such as a high complication rate of pancreatic necrosis, severe AP, and high mortality. However, clinical features of COVID-19-attributed AP remain uncertain due to insufficient research on etiologies of AP. Therefore, high-quality clinical studies and case reports that specify methods for differential diagnoses of other etiologies of AP are needed.

2.
Pathogens ; 11(5)2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875721

ABSTRACT

Using an effective natural virucidal substance may be a feasible approach for preventing food-borne viral contamination. Here, the virucidal efficacy of theaflavins (TFs)-enriched tea leaf extract (TY-1) against feline calicivirus (FCV) and murine norovirus (MNV), surrogates of human norovirus (HuNoV), was evaluated. The virus solutions were mixed with various dosages of TY-1 and incubated at 25 °C for different contact times. TY-1 reduced the viral titer of both surrogate viruses in a time- and dosage-dependent manner. A statistically significant reduction in the viral titer of FCV by 5.0 mg/mL TY-1 and MNV by 25.0 mg/mL TY-1 was observed in 10 s and 1 min, respectively. Furthermore, TY-1 reduced the viral titer of FCV and MNV on the dry surface in 10 min. The multiple compounds in TY-1, including TFs and catechins, contributed to its overall virucidal activity. Furthermore, the effect of TY-1 on viral proteins and genome was analyzed using Western blotting, RT-PCR, and transmission electron microscopy. TY-1 was found to promote the profound disruption of virion structures, including the capsid proteins and genome. Our finding demonstrates the potential of using TY-1 as a nature-derived disinfectant in food processing facilities and healthcare settings to reduce viral load and HuNoV transmission.

3.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(24): e0182421, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532953

ABSTRACT

As a result of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, strengthening control measures against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become an urgent global issue. In addition to antiviral therapy and vaccination strategies, applying available virucidal substances for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation is also a target of research to prevent the spread of infection. Here, we evaluated the SARS-CoV-2 inactivation activity of a copper iodide (CuI) nanoparticle dispersion, which provides Cu+ ions having high virucidal activity, and its mode of actions. In addition, the utility of CuI-doped film and fabric for SARS-CoV-2 inactivation was evaluated. The CuI dispersion exhibited time-dependent rapid virucidal activity. Analyses of the modes of action of CuI performed by Western blotting and real-time reverse transcription-PCR targeting viral proteins and the genome revealed that CuI treatment induced the destruction of these viral components. In this setting, the indirect action of CuI-derived reactive oxygen species contributed to the destruction of viral protein. Moreover, the CuI-doped film and fabric demonstrated rapid inactivation of the SARS-CoV-2 solution in which the viral titer was high. These findings indicated the utility of the CuI-doped film and fabric as anti-SARS-CoV-2 materials for the protection of high-touch environmental surfaces and surgical masks/protective clothes. Throughout this study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of CuI nanoparticles for inactivating SARS-CoV-2 and revealed a part of its virucidal mechanism of action. IMPORTANCE The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unprecedented number of infections and deaths. As the spread of the disease is rapid and the risk of infection is severe, hand and environmental hygiene may contribute to suppressing contact transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Here, we evaluated the SARS-CoV-2 inactivation activity of CuI nanoparticles, which provide the Cu+ ion as an antiviral agent, and we provided advanced findings of the virucidal mechanisms of action of Cu+. Our results showed that the CuI dispersion, as well as CuI-doped film and fabric, rapidly inactivated SARS-CoV-2 with a high viral titer. We also demonstrated the CuI's virucidal mechanisms of action, specifically the destruction of viral proteins and the genome by CuI treatment. Protein destruction largely depended on CuI-derived reactive oxygen species. This study provides novel information about the utility and mechanisms of action of promising virucidal material against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Copper/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Iodides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Nanoparticles , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
4.
Molecules ; 26(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410351

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity and virucidal mechanisms of ozonated water (OW) with those of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and 70% ethanol (EtOH). SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity was evaluated in a virus solution containing 1%, 20% or 40% fetal bovine serum (FBS) with OW, SAEW or EtOH at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:9, 1:19 or 1:99 for a reaction time of 20 s. EtOH showed the strongest virucidal activity, followed by SAEW and OW. Even though EtOH potently inactivated the virus despite the 40% FBS concentration, virus inactivation by OW and SAEW decreased in proportion to the increase in FBS concentration. Nevertheless, OW and SAEW showed potent virucidal activity with 40% FBS at a virus-to-test solution ratio of 1:99. Real-time PCR targeting the viral genome revealed that cycle threshold values in the OW and SAEW groups were significantly higher than those in the control group, suggesting that OW and SAEW disrupted the viral genome. Western blotting analysis targeting the recombinant viral spike protein S1 subunit showed a change in the specific band into a ladder upon treatment with OW and SAEW. OW and SAEW may cause conformational changes in the S1 subunit of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Ethanol/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Humans
5.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348676

ABSTRACT

Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is producing a large number of infections and deaths globally, the development of supportive and auxiliary treatments is attracting increasing attention. Here, we evaluated SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of the polyphenol-rich tea leaf extract TY-1 containing concentrated theaflavins and other virucidal catechins. The TY-1 was mixed with SARS-CoV-2 solution, and its virucidal activity was evaluated. To evaluate the inhibition activity of TY-1 in SARS-CoV-2 infection, TY-1 was co-added with SARS-CoV-2 into cell culture media. After 1 h of incubation, the cell culture medium was replaced, and the cells were further incubated in the absence of TY-1. The viral titers were then evaluated. To evaluate the impacts of TY-1 on viral proteins and genome, TY-1-treated SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins and viral RNA were analyzed using western blotting and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. TY-1 showed time- and concentration-dependent virucidal activity. TY-1 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 infection of cells. The results of western blotting and real-time RT-PCR suggested that TY-1 induced structural change in the S2 subunit of the S protein and viral genome destruction, respectively. Our findings provided basic insights in vitro into the possible value of TY-1 as a virucidal agent, which could enhance the current SARS-CoV-2 control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Polyphenols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Tea/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biflavonoids/chemistry , Biflavonoids/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Camellia sinensis/metabolism , Catechin/chemistry , Catechin/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyphenols/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
6.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(3): 316-321, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281335

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of ozonated glycerol (OG). When a viral solution with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 20 s, OG with ozone concentrations of over 1000 ppm inactivated ≥ 94.38% of the virus. Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to the inactivation of ≥ 99.82% of the virus (the viral titer was below the detection limit). Extension to 24 h resulted in concentrations over 200 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.87% of the virus (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Next, viral solutions with 1, 20, and 40% FBS were mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 5 min. Whereas the virucidal activity of 500 ppm OG was very limited in the presence of 1% FBS (79.47% inactivation), it increased in the presence of 20 and 40% FBS (95.13 and 97.95% inactivation, respectively; the viral titers were not below the detection limit). Meanwhile, over 1000 ppm OG inactivated ≥ 99.44% of the virus regardless of the FBS concentration (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to 500 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.91 and ≥ 99.95% of the virus with 20 and 40% FBS, respectively (the viral titers were below the detection limit). These results suggested that OG might be useful as a virucidal agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Glycerol , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Skin , Vero Cells , Viral Load
7.
J Water Health ; 19(3): 448-456, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231291

ABSTRACT

The use of effective disinfectants is a key method of controlling the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hypochlorous acid water (HAW) has a broad spectrum of virucidal activities. We previously reported that acidic electrolyzed water, one of the HAW products, had potent SARS-CoV-2-inactivating activity and showed promise as a disinfectant. However, different manufacturing methods have produced several HAW products with various pH values. Here, we compared the SARS-CoV-2-inactivating activities of various HAW products. At sufficiently high volume and residual chlorine concentration (RCC), the HAW products inactivated SARS-CoV-2 efficiently regardless of pH or manufacturing method. However, although HAW products at pH 5.0-6.4 maintained high RCC and sustained virucidal activity for 21 days, the RCC rapidly decreased in HAW products at pH ≤ 3.0. Our results may guide in choosing appropriate HAW products for different usage situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hypochlorous Acid/pharmacology , Water
8.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154509

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally. Although measures to control SARS-CoV-2, namely, vaccination, medication, and chemical disinfectants are being investigated, there is an increase in the demand for auxiliary antiviral approaches using natural compounds. Here we have focused on hydroxytyrosol (HT)-rich aqueous olive pulp extract (HIDROX®) and evaluated its SARS-CoV-2-inactivating activity in vitro. We showed that the HIDROX solution exhibits time- and concentration-dependent SARS-CoV-2-inactivating activities, and that HIDROX has more potent virucidal activity than pure HT. The evaluation of the mechanism of action suggested that both HIDROX and HT induced structural changes in SARS-CoV-2, which changed the molecular weight of the spike proteins. Even though the spike protein is highly glycosylated, this change was induced regardless of the glycosylation status. In addition, HIDROX or HT treatment disrupted the viral genome. Moreover, the HIDROX-containing cream applied on film showed time- and concentration-dependent SARS-CoV-2-inactivating activities. Thus, the HIDROX-containing cream can be applied topically as an antiviral hand cream. Our findings suggest that HIDROX contributes to improving SARS-CoV-2 control measures.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Olea , Phenylethyl Alcohol/analogs & derivatives , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Administration, Topical , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Glycosylation , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenylethyl Alcohol/administration & dosage , Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Skin Cream , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
9.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 530(1): 1-3, 2020 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641528

ABSTRACT

Alcohol-based disinfectant shortage is a serious concern in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Acidic electrolyzed water (EW) with a high concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) shows strong antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Here, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2-inactivating efficacy of acidic EW for use as an alternative disinfectant. The quick virucidal effect of acidic EW depended on the concentrations of contained-FAC. The effect completely disappeared in acidic EW in which FAC was lost owing to long-time storage after generation. In addition, the virucidal activity increased proportionately with the volume of acidic EW mixed with the virus solution when the FAC concentration in EW was same. These findings suggest that the virucidal activity of acidic EW against SARS-CoV-2 depends on the amount of FAC contacting the virus.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Chlorine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Acids/chemistry , Acids/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Chlorine/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disinfectants/chemistry , Electrolysis/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Water/chemistry , Water/pharmacology
10.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-627994

ABSTRACT

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), influenza A virus (IAV), and norovirus (NV) are highly contagious pathogens that threaten human health. Here we focused on the antiviral potential of the medicinal herb, Saxifraga spinulosa (SS). Water-soluble extracts of SS were prepared, and their virus-inactivating activity was evaluated against the human virus pathogens SARS-CoV-2 and IAV; we also examined virucidal activity against feline calicivirus and murine norovirus, which are surrogates for human NV. Among our findings, we found that SS-derived gallocatechin gallate compounds were capable of inactivating all viruses tested. Interestingly, a pyrogallol-enriched fraction (Fr 1C) inactivated all viruses more rapidly and effectively than did any of the component compounds used alone. We found that 25 µg/mL of Fr 1C inactivated >99.6% of SARS-CoV-2 within 10 s (reduction of ≥2.33 log10 TCID50/mL). Fr 1C resulted in the disruption of viral genomes and proteins as determined by gel electrophoresis, electron microscopy, and reverse transcription-PCR. Taken together, our results reveal the potential of Fr 1C for development as a novel antiviral disinfectant.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Norovirus/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Saxifragaceae , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Calicivirus, Feline/drug effects , Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel , Genome, Viral/drug effects , Hemagglutination Tests , Humans , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/drug effects
11.
Sens Actuators B Chem ; 316: 128160, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-95022

ABSTRACT

A rapid, facile and selective detection of anti-H5 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) antibody in serum by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was achieved. A fragment of recombinant H5 subtype AIV hemagglutinin was produced and labeled with fluorescein to use it as a labeled antigen in FPIA. This labeled antigen was mixed with anti-AIV sera (H1-H16 subtypes) and FP of the mixture was measured using a portable FP analyzer on a microdevice. It was found that FP increased in proportion to the concentration of anti-H5 AIV antibody (serum) and was significantly higher than FP obtained with the other sera. The selective detection of anti-H5 subtype AIV antibody was confirmed. The required volume of original sample was 2 µL and analysis time was within 20 min. This detection system realizes an efficient on-site diagnosis and surveillance of AIV.

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