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1.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 55, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure is associated with high mortality. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with microembolism or microvascular endothelial injuries. Here, we report that syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, may be a biomarker of severity classification for COVID-19 related to endothelial injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We analyzed the data of COVID-19 patients for 1 year from February 2020 at Yokohama City University Hospital and Yokohama City University Medical Center Hospital. We selected COVID-19 patients who required admission care, including intensive care, and analyzed the classification of severe and critical COVID-19 retrospectively, using various clinical data and laboratory data with SDC-1 by ELISA. RESULTS: We analyzed clinical and laboratory data with SDC-1 in five severe COVID-19 and ten critical COVID-19 patients. In the two groups, their backgrounds were almost the same. In laboratory data, the LDH, CHE, and CRP levels showed significant differences in each group (P = 0.032, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.007, respectively) with no significant differences in coagulation-related factors (platelet, PT-INR, d-dimer, ISTH score; P = 0.200, 0.277, 0.655, and 0.36, respectively). For the clinical data, the SOFA score was significantly different from admission day to day 14 of admission (p < 0.0001). The SDC-1 levels of critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher on admission day and all-time course compared with the levels of severe COVID-19 patients (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal change of SDC-1 levels closely reflect the severity of COVID-19, therefore, SDC-1 may be a therapeutic target and a biomarker for the severity classification of Covid-19.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334352

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic efficacy of steroids on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) has been reported. However, predictive indicators of early weaning from MV in such cases have not yet been defined. Our aim was to clarify clinical utility of interleukin (IL)-6 level in ventilated patients with established ARDS. Clinical, treatment, and outcome data were evaluated in 119 invasively ventilated patients with ARDS caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Plasma levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured on days 1, 4, and 7 after intubation. Fifty-two patients received dexamethasone (steroid group) and the remaining 67 did not (non-steroid group). Duration of MV use was significantly shorter in the steroid group compared to non-steroid group (11.5±0.6 vs. 16.1±1.0 days, P = 0.0005, respectively). Even when restricted to the steroid group, among the post-MV variables, the IL-6 level on day 7 was most closely correlated with the duration of MV use and showed the highest accuracy for withdrawal from MV within 11 days (AUC: 0.88), with optimal cutoff value of 20.6 pg/mL. Collectively, in intubated patients with ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2 who received dexamethasone, plasma IL-6 levels served as a predictor of early withdrawal from MV.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333057

ABSTRACT

Background Therapeutic effects of steroids on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) have been reported. However, predictive indicators of early weaning from MV post-treatment have not yet been defined, making treating established ARDS challenging. Interleukin (IL)-6 has been associated with the pathogenesis of ARDS. Objective Our aim was to clarify clinical utility of IL-6 level in ventilated patients with established ARDS. Methods Clinical, treatment, and outcome data were evaluated in 119 invasively ventilated patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-mediated ARDS. Plasma levels of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured on days 1, 4, and 7 after intubation. Results Fifty-two patients were treated with dexamethasone (steroid group), while the remaining 67 patients were not (non-steroid group). Duration of MV use was significantly shorter in the steroid group compared to non-steroid group (11.5±0.6 vs. 16.1±1.0 days, P = 0.0005, respectively) along with significantly decreased levels of IL-6 and CRP. Even when restricted to the steroid group, among variables post-MV, IL-6 level on day 7 was most closely correlated with duration of MV use (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient [ρ] = 0.73, P < 0.0001), followed by CRP level on day 7 and the percentage change in IL-6 or CRP levels between day 1 and day 7. Moreover, among these variables, IL-6 levels on day 7 showed the highest accuracy for withdrawal from MV within 11 days (AUC: 0.88), with optimal cutoff value of 20.6 pg/mL. Consistently, the rate of MV weaning increased significantly earlier in patients with low IL-6 (≤ 20.6 pg/mL) than in those with high IL-6 (> 20.6 pg/mL) (log-rank test P < 0.0001). Conclusions In invasively ventilated patients with established ARDS due to SARS-CoV-2, plasma IL-6 levels served as a predictor of early withdrawal from MV after dexamethasone administration.

4.
Cureus ; 14(2): e22571, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761152

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is used to manage respiratory distress. This study's key clinical question was whether COVID-19 could be complicated by hemorrhagic and thrombotic events, such as iliopsoas hematoma (IPH), during the management of ECMO and the method to quickly and effectively detect IPH. A 52-year-old man with fever and dyspnea was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. He warranted VV-ECMO management on day 9, which was successfully tapered off on day 18. On day 20, computed tomography revealed a unilateral iliopsoas hematoma that was successfully managed with conservative care. However, a retrospective review of abdominal radiography performed on day 14 revealed a positive left psoas sign. When managing severe COVID-19 patients with VV-ECMO, cautious anticoagulative care and abdominal X-ray findings are warranted when considering the diagnosis of iliopsoas hematoma, including circulatory instability, anemia, and pain associated with limb movement.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314230

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 is an unprecedented threat to humanity provoking global health concerns. Since the etio-pathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. An accurate prediction of the disease progression can aid in appropriate patient categorization to determine the best treatment option. Here, we introduced an innovative approach utilizing data-independent acquisition (DIA) mass spectrometry to identify the serum proteins closely associated with the COVID-19 severity. We observed 23 proteins to be differentially expressed between the cohorts of critically ill COVID-19 patients with adverse and favorable prognosis. Myoglobin (MB), CHI3L1 and IGFALS were found to have a high sensitivity and specificity for their possible use as independent biomarkers to provide information on the disease prognosis. Our findings can help in formulating a diagnostic approach for accurately discriminating severe COVID-19 patients and provide appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.Funding: This work was in part supported by grants from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (JP19fk0108169 to YK and JP19fk0108110/JP20he0522001 to AR).Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: This research plan and protocol was approved by the Clinical Ethics Committee of Yokohama City University Hospital (B2002000048). This study was also performed with the approval of the Clinical Ethics Committee in each of the medical facilities. Informed consent was obtained from all patients and/or their guardians before serum samples collection.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314229

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented threat to humanity provoking global health concerns. Since the etio-pathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. An accurate prediction of the disease progression can aid in appropriate patient categorization to determine the best treatment option. Here, we have introduced a proteomic approach utilizing data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) to identify the serum proteins closely associated with the prognosis of COVID-19. We observed 27 proteins to be differentially expressed between the cohorts of severely ill COVID-19 patients with adverse and favorable prognosis. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that 15 out of the 27 proteins might be regulated by cytokine signalling relevant to interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and their differential expression was possibly implicated in the systemic inflammatory response and cardiovascular disorders. We further evaluated the practical prognosticators for the clinical prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Subsequent ELISA analyses further uncovered that CHI3L1 and IGFALS could be potent prognostic markers with a high sensitivity. Our findings can help in formulating a diagnostic approach for accurately discriminating severe COVID-19 patients and provide appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322533

ABSTRACT

Background: Some patients with severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19) who present with fibrosis on computed tomography (CT) require prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV). Lung ultrasound (LUS), a rapid, bedside test, has been reported to have findings consistent with those of CT. Thus, this study aimed to assess whether serial LUS scores could predict PMV or successful extubation in severe COVID-19 patients. Methods: : LUS was performed for 20 consecutive severe COVID-19 patients at three time points: admission (day 1), after 48 h (day 3), and seventh-day follow-up (day 7). We compared the LUS score with the results of chest X-rays and laboratory tests at three time points. Moreover, we assessed LUS score to determine the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the results among examiners. Results: : While there were no significant differences in mortality in each PMV and successful extubation groups, there were significant differences in LUS scores on day 3 and day 7;XP score on day 7;and P/F ratio on day 7 in the PMV group (p<0.05). There were significant differences in LUS scores on days 3 and 7, C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on day 7, and P/F ratio on day 7 in the successful extubation group (p<0.05). The areas under the curves (AUCs) of LUS score on days 3 and 7, XP score on day 7, and P/F ratio were 0.88, 0.98, 0.77, and 0.80, respectively in the PMV group;and the AUCs of LUS score on days 3 and 7, CRP levels on day 7, and P/F ratio 0.79, 0.90, 0.82, and 0.79, respectively, in the successful extubation group. Variations in serial LUS scores exhibited significant differences between the groups. The serial LUS score on day 7 was higher than that on day 1 in the PMV group but lower in the successful extubation group (p<0.05). However, there was slight IRR agreement in the LUS score changes on days 1 to 7 (κ= 0.15 [95% CI: 0-0.31]). Conclusions: : The serial LUS score of severe COVID-19 patients could predicted PMV and successful extubation. To overcome IRR disagreement, the automatic ultrasound judgement, such as deep learning, would be needed.

8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320568

ABSTRACT

The increasing requirement of mechanical ventilation (MV) due to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is still a global threat. The aim of this study is to identify markers that can easily stratify the impending use of MV in the emergency room (ER). A total of 106 patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen support were enrolled. Fifty-nine patients were provided MV 0.5 hours (interquartile range: 0.3 to 1.4) post-admission. Clinical and laboratory data before intubation were collected. Using a multivariate logistic regression model, we identified four markers associated with the impending use of MV, including the ratio of peripheral blood oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO 2 /FiO 2 ratio), alanine aminotransferase, blood glucose (BG), and lymphocyte counts. Among these markers, the combination of SpO 2 /FiO 2 ratio and BG, which can be measured easily and immediately, showed higher accuracy in its prediction (AUC: 0.88) compared to SpO 2 /FiO 2 ratio alone (AUC: 0.84). Moreover, even in patients without severe respiratory failure (SpO 2 /FiO 2 ratio > 300), BG (> 138 mg/dL) was predictive of MV use. Measuring BG and SpO 2 /FiO 2 ratio may be a simple and versatile new strategy to accurately identify ER patients with COVID-19 at high risk for the imminent need of MV.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318235

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure is associated with high mortality. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with microemboli or microvascular endothelial injuries. Here, we report that serum syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, may be a biomarker of severity classification for COVID-19 related to endothelial injury. Methods: and analysis : We analyzed the data of COVID-19 patients for one year from February 2020 at Yokohama City University Hospital and Yokohama City University Medical Center Hospital. We selected COVID-19 patients who required admission care, including intensive care, and analyzed the classification of severe and critical COVID-19 retrospectively, using various clinical data and laboratory data with serum SDC-1 by ELISA. Results: We analyzed clinical and laboratory data with SDC-1 in five severe COVID-19 and ten critical COVID-19 patients. In the two groups, their backgrounds were almost the same. In laboratory data, the LDH, CHE, and CRP levels showed significant differences in each group ( P =0.032, P <0.0001, and P = 0.007, respectively) with no significant differences in coagulation-related factors (platelet, PT-INR, D-dimer, ISTH score;P =0.200, 0.277, 0.655, and 0.36, respectively). For the clinical data, the SOFA score was significantly different from admission day to day 14 of admission (p<0.0001). The SDC-1 levels of critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher on admission day and all-time course compared with the levels of severe COVID-19 patients ( P =0.009 and P <0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Annual changes in serum SDC-1 levels closely reflect the severity of COVID-19, therefore, serum SDC-1 may be a therapeutic target and a biomarker for the severity classification of Covid-19.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318234

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure has a high mortality rate. Based on recent reports, the most severely ill patients present with coagulopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like massive intravascular clot formation is frequently observed. Coagulopathy has emerged as a significant contributor to thrombotic complications. Although recommendations have been made for anticoagulant use for COVID-19, no guidelines have been specified. Case presentation: We describe four cases of critical COVID-19 with thrombosis detected by enhanced CT scan. The CT findings of all cases demonstrated typical findings of COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombus without critical exacerbation. Two patients died of respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Discussion: Previous reports have suggested coagulopathy with thrombotic signs as the main pathological feature of COVID-19, but no previous reports have focused on coagulopathy evaluated by whole-body enhanced CT scan. Changes in hemostatic biomarkers, represented by an increase in D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, indicated that the essence of coagulopathy was massive fibrin formation. Although there were no clinical symptoms related to their prognosis, critical COVID-19-induced systemic thrombus formation was observed. Conclusions: : Therapeutic dose anticoagulants should be considered for critical COVID-19 because of induced coagulopathy, and aggressive follow-up by whole body enhanced CT scan for systemic venous thromboembolism (VTE) is necessary.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317707

ABSTRACT

Background: Although some predictors of COVID-19 pneumonia severity and mortality have been identified, much of the pathophysiology of this emerging infectious disease remains unclear. We hypothesized that a patient’s cholinesterase level on admission could predict COVID-19 pneumonia severity and mortality. Methods We retrospectively collected data of 26 COVID-19 pneumonia patients from February–May 2020. Outcomes were aggravation of symptoms and in-hospital mortality. We compared receiver operating curves of cholinesterase, C-reactive protein, lymphocytes, albumin, D-dimer, and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio and examined prediction accuracy. Regarding the interaction between cholinesterase and other variables, each independent variable was divided into two groups using cutoff values, and interaction terms were created. Results Cholinesterase levels on admission were significantly lower in the severe group than in the mild-to-moderate group (326 vs. 218 IU/L, p = 0.006;area under the curve: 0.81;95% confidence interval 0.61–0.94). When comparing the area under the curve, cholinesterase was comparable to C-reactive protein, albumin, lymphocytes, and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio other than D-dimer in the prediction accuracy of severe cases and mortality. Cholinesterase levels on admission were significantly lower in the death group than in the survival group (274 vs. 187.5 IU/L, p = 0.028;area under the curve: 0.79;95% interval 0.58–0.93). Regarding the interaction between cholinesterase and established predictors, the prediction accuracy of both severity and death was higher when cholinesterase was combined with each predictor than when cholinesterase was used alone. Conclusions Cholinesterase may reflect the disease state of COVID-19 pneumonia, suggesting that a patient’s cholinesterase level on admission may be useful as a predictor of severity and prognosis.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317164

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to spread worldwide. Because of the absence of reliable rapid diagnostic systems, patients with COVID-19 symptoms are suspected of disease. Computed tomography (CT) in patients with suspected COVID-19 may be reasonable for triaging, and CT-first triage strategies have been proposed. However, clinical evaluation of a CT-first triage protocol is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate the real-world efficacy and limitations of a CT-first triage strategy in patients with suspected COVID-19. Methods: : This was a single-center cohort study evaluating outpatients with suspected COVID-19 who underwent a medical examination at Yokohama City University Hospital and who were prospectively registered between 9 February and 5 May 2020. We treated patients according to the CT-first triage protocol. CT findings were classified into five categories according to the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS). With the CT-first triage protocol, patients with a suspicious clinical history, symptoms, or suspicious findings on chest CT were allocated to the COVID-19 suspected group. The primary outcome was efficacy of the CT-first triage protocol for outpatients with suspected COVID-19. We conducted additional analyses of the isolation time of outpatients with suspected COVID-19 and reached final diagnoses. Results: : In total, 108 outpatients with suspected COVID-19 were examined at our hospital. Forty-eight patients (44.9%) were categorized as CO-RADS 1, 26 patients (24.3%) as CO-RADS 2, 14 patients (13.1%) as CO-RADS 3, 6 patients (5.6%) as CO-RADS 4, and 13 patients (12.1%) as CO-RADS 5. One patient was excluded because of pregnancy. Using the CT-first triage protocol, 48 (44.9%) patients were suspected of having COVID-19. Nine patients (18.8%) in this group were positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 using polymerase chain reaction;no patients in the group not suspected of having COVID-19 were diagnosed with COVID-19 during follow up. The protocol significantly shortened the duration of isolation for the not-suspected versus the suspected group (70.5 vs. 1037.0 minutes, P < .001). Conclusions: : Our CT-first triage protocol was acceptable for triaging outpatients with suspected COVID-19. This protocol will be helpful for appropriate triage, especially in areas where polymerase chain reaction is limited.

13.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662444

ABSTRACT

Rapid screening and diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 in the emergency department is important for controlling infections. When polymerase chain reaction tests cannot be rapidly performed, rapid antigen testing is often used, albeit with insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of combining rapid antigen and antibody test results. This was a retrospective review of patients who visited our emergency department between February and May 2021 and underwent rapid antigen, immunoglobulin G antibody, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests. The study included 1,070 patients, of whom 56 (5.2%) tested positive on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of rapid antigen testing were 73.7%, 100.0%, and 0.87, respectively. The combined rapid antigen and antibody test result had improved diagnostic accuracy, with 91.2% sensitivity, 97.9% specificity, and an area under the curve of 0.95. The results of the rapid antigen and antibody tests could be combined as a reliable alternative to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Nihon Ika Daigaku Igakkai Zasshi ; 17(4):198-201, 2021.
Article in Japanese | J-Stage | ID: covidwho-1542153
15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20638, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475483

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is an unprecedented threat to humanity that has provoked global health concerns. Since the etiopathogenesis of this illness is not fully characterized, the prognostic factors enabling treatment decisions have not been well documented. Accurately predicting the progression of the disease would aid in appropriate patient categorization and thus help determine the best treatment option. Here, we have introduced a proteomic approach utilizing data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry (DIA-MS) to identify the serum proteins that are closely associated with COVID-19 prognosis. Twenty-seven proteins were differentially expressed between severely ill COVID-19 patients with an adverse or favorable prognosis. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that 15 of the 27 proteins might be regulated by cytokine signaling relevant to interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and their differential expression was implicated in the systemic inflammatory response and in cardiovascular disorders. We further evaluated practical predictors of the clinical prognosis of severe COVID-19 patients. Subsequent ELISA assays revealed that CHI3L1 and IGFALS may serve as highly sensitive prognostic markers. Our findings can help formulate a diagnostic approach for accurately identifying COVID-19 patients with severe disease and for providing appropriate treatment based on their predicted prognosis.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Gene Expression Profiling , Proteomics/methods , Chitinase-3-Like Protein 1/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-1beta/biosynthesis , Interleukin-6/biosynthesis , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis , Virus Diseases
18.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1212-1217, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many health care workers around the world tackled with COVID-19, however sadly, the infection of many medical care workers were reported. To reduce the risk of infection, we launched selected team (Team COVID) of non-specialists and brought in active telemedicine method and computed tomography (CT)-first protocol. We describe our actual practice and the health status of medical doctors dealing with COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Between April 17, 2020 and May 24, 2020, 10 doctors worked with COVID-19 patients as part of Team COVID. The Team COVID doctors used a CT-first triage protocol for outpatients and telemedicine for inpatients and outpatients. We evaluated paired serum-specific antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 at the initial and end of the study duration and PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 at the end of the study duration. Furthermore, 36-item short-form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire (SF-36) at the beginning and end of the study period were evaluated. RESULTS: Ten doctors worked as Team COVID: seven internal medicine doctors and three surgeons. During the study period, Team COVID treated 165 individuals in the outpatient clinic and isolated hospitalized patients for 315 person-days. There were no positive results of serum-specific antibody testing and PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2 in Team COVID doctors. Furthermore, the SF-36 showed no deterioration in physical and mental QOL status. No in-hospital infection occurred during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The Team COVID fulfilled the treatment using the active telemedicine and CT-first triage protocol without in hospital infection and excess stress. The combination strategy seems acceptable for both the protection and stress relief among the medical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triage
20.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 55, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure is associated with high mortality. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with microembolism or microvascular endothelial injuries. Here, we report that syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, may be a biomarker of severity classification for COVID-19 related to endothelial injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We analyzed the data of COVID-19 patients for 1 year from February 2020 at Yokohama City University Hospital and Yokohama City University Medical Center Hospital. We selected COVID-19 patients who required admission care, including intensive care, and analyzed the classification of severe and critical COVID-19 retrospectively, using various clinical data and laboratory data with SDC-1 by ELISA. RESULTS: We analyzed clinical and laboratory data with SDC-1 in five severe COVID-19 and ten critical COVID-19 patients. In the two groups, their backgrounds were almost the same. In laboratory data, the LDH, CHE, and CRP levels showed significant differences in each group (P = 0.032, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.007, respectively) with no significant differences in coagulation-related factors (platelet, PT-INR, d-dimer, ISTH score; P = 0.200, 0.277, 0.655, and 0.36, respectively). For the clinical data, the SOFA score was significantly different from admission day to day 14 of admission (p < 0.0001). The SDC-1 levels of critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher on admission day and all-time course compared with the levels of severe COVID-19 patients (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal change of SDC-1 levels closely reflect the severity of COVID-19, therefore, SDC-1 may be a therapeutic target and a biomarker for the severity classification of Covid-19.

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