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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307124

ABSTRACT

Background: Obesity as well as metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities are established, significant predictors of worse prognosis in overall COVID-19 population, but limited information are available on their specific roles in young adults (aged ≤ 50 years). The main objectives of the present Italian multi-center study were to describe clinical characteristics, and role of selected prognostic predictors, in particular obesity, in a large cohort of young hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.Methods: Nine Pulmonology Units, across North and Centre of Italy, were involved in this retrospective study. Demographic and clinical characteristics as well as radiological features were registered for all cases. Comorbidity were classified according to their known or potential association with COVID-19.Findings: A total of 263 subjects were included. The prevalence of obesity was 25.9%, mechanical ventilation (MV) was needed in 73 patients (27.7%), and 28 in-hospital deaths occurred (10.6%). Obesity and older age were the only significant predictors for MV in a full model adjusted for comorbidities and markers of severity. Pre-existing comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes and asthma, and increased D-dimer level were significantly associated with higher mortality risk, regardless of age, body mass index, and MV.Interpretation: Obesity in young adults is, per se, a strong, independent, predictor of a more complicated COVID-19, without, however, influencing in-hospital mortality. On the other hand, selected comorbidities, mainly hypertension, diabetes and asthma, significantly impact survival even in a young population, and prompt recognition of these conditions as well as a closer surveillance of this subgroup are highly recommended.Funding: none.Declaration of Interests: Prof. Bonifazi reports speaker fees from Boehringer Ingelheim and Roche, outside the submitted work;Dr. Harari reports personal fees from Roche, grants and personal fees from Actelion and Boehringer Ingelheim, outside the submitted work.Ethics Approval Statement: Anonymized data of patients included in the study cohort were retrospectively collected from electronic medical records. The study protocol complies to the ethical guidelines of the 1975 Declaration of Helsinki and it was notified and approved by the coordinator ethics committee (n. 2020131) and by each local ethics committee and the need for patient’s informed consent was waived.

2.
Intern Med J ; 51(4): 506-514, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175058

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients who could develop a severe form of COVID-19 must be considered of great importance to carry out adequate care and optimise the use of limited resources. AIMS: To use several machine learning classification models to analyse a series of non-critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to a general medicine ward to verify if any clinical variables recorded could predict the clinical outcome. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed non-critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the general ward of the hospital in Pordenone from 1 March 2020 to 30 April 2020. Patients' characteristics were compared based on clinical outcomes. Through several machine learning classification models, some predictors for clinical outcome were detected. RESULTS: In the considered period, we analysed 176 consecutive patients admitted: 119 (67.6%) were discharged, 35 (19.9%) dead and 22 (12.5%) were transferred to intensive care unit. The most accurate models were a random forest model (M2) and a conditional inference tree model (M5) (accuracy = 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.64-0.90, for both). For M2, glomerular filtration rate and creatinine were the most accurate predictors for the outcome, followed by age and fraction-inspired oxygen. For M5, serum sodium, body temperature and arterial pressure of oxygen and inspiratory fraction of oxygen ratio were the most reliable predictors. CONCLUSIONS: In non-critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to a medical ward, glomerular filtration rate, creatinine and serum sodium were promising predictors for the clinical outcome. Some factors not determined by COVID-19, such as age or dementia, influence clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136514

ABSTRACT

Obesity as well as metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities are established, significant predictors of worse prognosis in the overall COVID-19 population, but limited information is available on their roles in young and middle-aged adults (aged ≤ 50 years). The main objectives of the present Italian multi-center study were to describe clinical characteristics and role of selected prognostic predictors in a large cohort of young and middle-aged hospitalized patients. Nine pulmonology units, across north and center of Italy, were involved in this retrospective study. Comorbidities were classified according to their known or potential association with COVID-19. A total of 263 subjects were included. The prevalence of obesity was 25.9%, mechanical ventilation (MV) was needed in 27.7%, and 28 in-hospital deaths occurred (10.6%). Obesity and older age were the only independent, significant predictors for MV. Comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, and increased D-dimer levels were significantly associated with higher mortality risk, regardless of age, body mass index, and MV. Obesity in young and middle-aged adults is a strong predictor of a more complicated COVID-19, without, however, evidence of a significant effect on in-hospital mortality. Selected comorbidities, including hypertension, diabetes and asthma, significantly impact survival even in a younger population, suggesting the need for prompt recognition of these conditions.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(10): ofaa421, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, progression to acute respiratory failure requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Severe dysregulated systemic inflammation is the putative mechanism. We hypothesize that early prolonged methylprednisolone (MP) treatment could accelerate disease resolution, decreasing the need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter observational study to explore the association between exposure to prolonged, low-dose MP treatment and need for ICU referral, intubation, or death within 28 days (composite primary end point) in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to Italian respiratory high-dependency units. Secondary outcomes were invasive MV-free days and changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. RESULTS: Findings are reported as MP (n = 83) vs control (n = 90). The composite primary end point was met by 19 vs 40 (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.24-0.72). Transfer to ICU and invasive MV were necessary in 15 vs 27 (P = .07) and 14 vs 26 (P = .10), respectively. By day 28, the MP group had fewer deaths (6 vs 21; aHR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.12-0.73) and more days off invasive MV (24.0 ±â€…9.0 vs 17.5 ±â€…12.8; P = .001). Study treatment was associated with rapid improvement in PaO2:FiO2 and CRP levels. The complication rate was similar for the 2 groups (P = .84). CONCLUSION: In patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, early administration of prolonged MP treatment was associated with a significantly lower hazard of death (71%) and decreased ventilator dependence. Treatment was safe and did not impact viral clearance. A large randomized controlled trial (RECOVERY trial) has been performed that validates these findings. Clinical trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04323592.

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