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2.
J Clin Med ; 11(5)2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is frequent during COVID-19 disease, and thus, identifying predictive factors of hemostasis associated with a poor prognosis is of interest. The objective was to explore coagulation disorders as early predictors of worsening critical conditions in the intensive care unit (ICU) using routine and more advanced explorations. MATERIALS: Blood samples within 24 h of ICU admission for viscoelastic point-of-care testing, (VET), advanced laboratory tests: absolute immature platelet count (A-IPC), von Willebrand-GPIb activity (vWF-GpIb), prothrombin fragments 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), and the thrombin generation assay (TGA) were used. An association with worse outcomes was explored using univariable and multivariable analyses. Worsening was defined as death or the need for organ support. RESULTS: An amount of 85 patients with 33 in critical condition were included. A-IPC were lower in worsening patients (9.6 [6.4-12.5] vs. 12.3 [8.3-20.7], p = 0.02) while fibrinogen (6.9 [6.1-7.7] vs. 6.2 [5.4-6.9], p = 0.03), vWF-GpIb (286 [265-389] vs. 268 [216-326], p = 0.03) and F1 + 2 (226 [151-578] vs. 155 [129-248], p = 0.01) were higher. There was no difference observed for D-dimer, TGA or VET. SAPS-II and A-IPC were independently associated with worsening (OR = 1.11 [1.06-1.17] and OR = 0.47 [0.25-0.76] respectively). The association of a SAPS-II ≥ 33 and an A-IPC ≤ 12.6 G/L predicted the worsening of patients (sensitivity 58%, specificity 89%). CONCLUSIONS: Immature platelets are early predictors of worsening in severe COVID-19 patients, suggesting a key role of thrombopoiesis in the adaption of an organism to SARS-CoV-2 infection.

3.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 11, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607559

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent multicenter studies identified COVID-19 as a risk factor for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). However, no large multicenter study has compared the incidence of IPA between COVID-19 and influenza patients. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of putative IPA in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients, compared with influenza patients. METHODS: This study was a planned ancillary analysis of the coVAPid multicenter retrospective European cohort. Consecutive adult patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for > 48 h for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia or influenza pneumonia were included. The 28-day cumulative incidence of putative IPA, based on Blot definition, was the primary outcome. IPA incidence was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, considering extubation (dead or alive) within 28 days as competing event. RESULTS: A total of 1047 patients were included (566 in the SARS-CoV-2 group and 481 in the influenza group). The incidence of putative IPA was lower in SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia group (14, 2.5%) than in influenza pneumonia group (29, 6%), adjusted cause-specific hazard ratio (cHR) 3.29 (95% CI 1.53-7.02, p = 0.0006). When putative IPA and Aspergillus respiratory tract colonization were combined, the incidence was also significantly lower in the SARS-CoV-2 group, as compared to influenza group (4.1% vs. 10.2%), adjusted cHR 3.21 (95% CI 1.88-5.46, p < 0.0001). In the whole study population, putative IPA was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality rate, and length of ICU stay, compared with colonized patients, or those with no IPA or Aspergillus colonization. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the incidence of putative IPA was low. Its incidence was significantly lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia than in those with influenza pneumonia. Clinical trial registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04359693 .


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Intubation , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551452

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416749

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Early empirical antimicrobial treatment is frequently prescribed to critically ill patients with COVID-19, based on Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine the prevalence of early bacterial identification in intubated patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia, and to characterize its microbiology and impact on outcomes. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. All adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation >48h were eligible if they had SARS-CoV-2 or influenza pneumonia at ICU admission. Bacterial identification was defined by a positive bacterial culture, within 48h after intubation, in endotracheal aspirates, bronchoalveolar lavage, blood cultures, or a positive pneumococcal or legionella urinary antigen test. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: 1,050 patients were included (568 in SARS-CoV-2 and 482 in influenza groups). The prevalence of bacterial identification was significantly lower in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia (9.7 vs 33.6%, unadjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.21 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.15 to 0.30), adjusted OR 0.23 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.33), p<0.0001). Gram-positive cocci were responsible for 58% and 72% of co-infection in patients with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza pneumonia, respectively. Bacterial identification was associated with increased adjusted hazard ratio for 28-day mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (1.57 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.44), p=0.043). However, no significant difference was found in heterogeneity of outcomes related to bacterial identification between the two study groups, suggesting that the impact of co-infection on mortality was not different between SARS-CoV-2 and influenza patients. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial identification within 48h after intubation is significantly less frequent in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(11): 2892-2898, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406813

ABSTRACT

We performed an observational study to investigate intensive care unit incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of coronavirus disease-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA). We found 10%-15% CAPA incidence among 823 patients in 2 cohorts. Several factors were independently associated with CAPA in 1 cohort and mortality rates were 43%-52%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(2): 188-198, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384370

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Although patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection have several risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI), the reported incidence of hospital-acquired infections is low. We aimed to determine the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, and the incidence of VA-LRTI. METHODS: Multicenter retrospective European cohort performed in 36 ICUs. All adult patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation > 48 h were eligible if they had: SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection at ICU admission. VA-LRTI, including ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), were diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. All VA-LRTI were prospectively identified, and chest-X rays were analyzed by at least two physicians. Cumulative incidence of first episodes of VA-LRTI was estimated using the Kalbfleisch and Prentice method, and compared using Fine-and Gray models. RESULTS: 1576 patients were included (568 in SARS-CoV-2, 482 in influenza, and 526 in no viral infection groups). VA-LRTI incidence was significantly higher in SARS-CoV-2 patients (287, 50.5%), as compared to influenza patients (146, 30.3%, adjusted sub hazard ratio (sHR) 1.60 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 2.04)) or patients with no viral infection (133, 25.3%, adjusted sHR 1.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 2.39)). Gram-negative bacilli were responsible for a large proportion (82% to 89.7%) of VA-LRTI, mainly Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp., and Klebsiella spp. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of VA-LRTI is significantly higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, as compared to patients with influenza pneumonia, or no viral infection after statistical adjustment, but residual confounding may still play a role in the effect estimates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe , Female , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ventilators, Mechanical
10.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 177, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352667

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are at higher risk for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). No study has evaluated the relationship between VAP and mortality in this population, or compared this relationship between SARS-CoV-2 patients and other populations. The main objective of our study was to determine the relationship between VAP and mortality in SARS-CoV-2 patients. METHODS: Planned ancillary analysis of a multicenter retrospective European cohort. VAP was diagnosed using clinical, radiological and quantitative microbiological criteria. Univariable and multivariable marginal Cox's regression models, with cause-specific hazard for duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay, were used to compare outcomes between study groups. Extubation, and ICU discharge alive were considered as events of interest, and mortality as competing event. FINDINGS: Of 1576 included patients, 568 were SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, 482 influenza pneumonia, and 526 no evidence of viral infection at ICU admission. VAP was associated with significantly higher risk for 28-day mortality in SARS-CoV-2 (adjusted HR 1.70 (95% CI 1.16-2.47), p = 0.006), and influenza groups (1.75 (1.03-3.02), p = 0.045), but not in the no viral infection group (1.07 (0.64-1.78), p = 0.79). VAP was associated with significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the SARS-CoV-2 group, but not in the influenza or no viral infection groups. VAP was associated with significantly longer duration of ICU stay in the 3 study groups. No significant difference was found in heterogeneity of outcomes related to VAP between the 3 groups, suggesting that the impact of VAP on mortality was not different between study groups. INTERPRETATION: VAP was associated with significantly increased 28-day mortality rate in SARS-CoV-2 patients. However, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, as compared to influenza pneumonia or no viral infection, did not significantly modify the relationship between VAP and 28-day mortality. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT04359693.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Aged , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies
12.
Nutr. Clin. Metab. ; 2020.
Article in English, French | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-1220980

ABSTRACT

The viral epidemic caused by the new Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for the new Coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19). This epidemic imposes upheavals in our organizations in healthcare centres, which should not obscure the importance of nutritional care. The nutritional diagnosis and the early nutritional care management of Covid-19 patients must be integrated into the overall therapeutic strategy, as with any acute situation of acute illness. This document was prepared by the French speaking Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (SFNCM) in the emergency of the health crisis by a group of experts, based on the national and international recommendations available in the field of malnutrition, critical illness, metabolic stress and intensive care medicine on March 23, 2020. We hope that this article will bring to healthcare professionals especially those not specialized in nutrition, useful landmarks to help them to manage hospitalized patients, infected or not by Covid-19 in the context of epidemic and intrahospital confinement.

13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(9): 1477-1486, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219092

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have unveiled a relationship between the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and obesity. The aims of this multicenter retrospective cohort study were to disentangle the association of BMI and associated metabolic risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and current smoking status) in critically ill patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Patients admitted to intensive care units for COVID-19 in 21 centers (in Europe, Israel, and the United States) were enrolled in this study between February 19, 2020, and May 19, 2020. Primary and secondary outcomes were the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and 28-day mortality, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 1,461 patients were enrolled; the median (interquartile range) age was 64 years (40.9-72.0); 73.2% of patients were male; the median BMI was 28.1 kg/m2 (25.4-32.3); a total of 1,080 patients (73.9%) required IMV; and the 28-day mortality estimate was 36.1% (95% CI: 33.0-39.5). An adjusted mixed logistic regression model showed a significant linear relationship between BMI and IMV: odds ratio = 1.27 (95% CI: 1.12-1.45) per 5 kg/m2 . An adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression model showed a significant association between BMI and mortality, which was increased only in obesity class III (≥40; hazard ratio = 1.68 [95% CI: 1.06-2.64]). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, a linear association between BMI and the need for IMV, independent of other metabolic risk factors, and a nonlinear association between BMI and mortality risk were observed.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Pneumonia , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Europe , Female , Humans , Israel , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Retrospective Studies , United States
14.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140007

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to assess physical fitness and its relationship with functional dyspnea in survivors of COVID-19 6 months after their discharge from the hospital. METHODS: Data collected routinely from people referred for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) following hospitalization for COVID-19 were retrospectively analyzed. Persistent dyspnea was assessed using the modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale. RESULTS: Twenty-three people with persistent symptoms were referred for CPET. Mean modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score was 1 (SD = 1) and was significantly associated with peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak; %) (rho = -0.49). At 6 months, those hospitalized in the general ward had a relatively preserved VO2peak (87% [SD = 20]), whereas those who had been in the intensive care unit had a moderately reduced VO2peak (77% [SD = 15]). Of note, the results of the CPET revealed that, in all individuals, respiratory equivalents were high, power-to-weight ratios were low, and those who had been in the intensive care unit had a relatively low ventilatory efficiency (mean VE/VCO2 slope = 34 [SD = 5]). Analysis of each individual showed that none had a breathing reserve <15% or 11 L/min, all had a normal exercise electrocardiogram, and 4 had a heart rate >90%. CONCLUSION: At 6 months, persistent dyspnea was associated with reduced physical fitness. This study offers initial insights into the mid-term physical fitness of people who required hospitalization for COVID-19. It also provides novel pathophysiological clues about the underlaying mechanism of the physical limitations associated with persistent dyspnea. Those with persistent dyspnea should be offered a tailored rehabilitation intervention, which should probably include muscle reconditioning, breathing retraining, and perhaps respiratory muscle training. IMPACT: This study is the first, to our knowledge, to show that a persistent breathing disorder (in addition to muscle deconditioning) can explain persistent symptoms 6 months after hospitalization for COVID-19 infection and suggests that a specific rehabilitation intervention is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Fatigue/physiopathology , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Physical Fitness/physiology , Dyspnea/virology , Exercise Test , Fatigue/virology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
ASAIO J ; 67(2): 125-131, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054373

ABSTRACT

No study has compared patients with COVID-19-related refractory ARDS requiring veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) to a relevant and homogenous control population. We aimed to compare the outcomes, the clinical characteristics, and the adverse effects of COVID-19 patients to a retrospective cohort of influenza patients. This retrospective case-control study was conducted in the ICUs of Lille and Rouen University Hospitals between January 2014 and May 2020. Two independent cohorts of patients with ARDS requiring V-V ECMO infected with either COVID-19 (n = 30) or influenza (n = 22) were compared. A 3-month follow-up was completed for all patients. Median age of COVID-19 and influenza patients was similar (57 vs. 55 years; p = 0.62). The 28-day mortality rate did not significantly differ between COVID-19 (43.3%) and influenza patients (50%, p = 0.63). There was no significant difference considering the cumulative incidence of ECMO weaning, hospital discharge, and 3-month survival. COVID-19 patients had a lower SAPS II score (58 [37-64] vs. 68 [52-83]; p = 0.039), a higher body mass index (33 [29-38] vs. 30 [26-34] kg/m2; p = 0.05), and were cannulated later (median delay between mechanical support and V-V ECMO 6 vs. 3 days, p = 0.004) compared with influenza patients. No difference in overall adverse events was observed between COVID-19 and influenza patients (70% vs. 95.5% respectively; p = 0.23). Despite differences in clinical presentation before V-V ECMO implantation, 28-day and 3-month mortality rate did not differ between COVID-19 and influenza patients. Considering the lack of specific treatment for COVID-19, V-V ECMO should be considered as a relevant rescue organ support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Influenza, Human/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
17.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 447, 2020 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-656947

ABSTRACT

Five to 10% of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2-infected patients, i.e., with new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), are presenting with an acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring urgent respiratory and hemodynamic support in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, nutrition is an important element of care. The nutritional assessment and the early nutritional care management of COVID-19 patients must be integrated into the overall therapeutic strategy. The international recommendations on nutrition in the ICU should be followed. Some specific issues about the nutrition of the COVID-19 patients in the ICU should be emphasized. We propose a flow chart and ten key issues for optimizing the nutrition management of COVID-19 patients in the ICU.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Intensive Care Units , Nutrition Therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , Humans , Nutrition Assessment , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
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